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Full text of "Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee country, the extensive territories of the Muscogulges or Creek confederacy, and the country of the Chactaws. Containing an account of the soil and natural productions of those regions; together with observations on the manners of the Indians. Embellished with copper-plates"

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C O N' T A I N : N" G 

TIONS OF THOSE regions; 



By WILLIAM B A Ri: R A M^V -^^ 












IThe Author embarks at Philadelphia — amves at Charlefton Page i 

fimh /irks again forGeorgi a and arrive;; at Savanna — proceedsSouthwnrdanJ 
nniveb at Sunbury — obrer\ations on the town, harbour, and ifland of St. Ca- 
tharine, its foil and productions — account of the cftablifhment of St. Jo'iiii's 
diftricSt, and Midway meeting-houfe — defcription of a beautiful fifh — pro- 
ceeds for the river Alatamaha, defcription of a tremendous thunder ftorm 4 

CrofTes the river at Fort Harrington antl arrives at St. lUe — pafTes the fron- 
tier ftttlements and nneets an holtile Indian — crclfes the river St. Maiy ami 
arrives at the tr^ding-houfe, account of the country thereabout, its natural 
produ<5tions, of the lake Ouaquaphenogaw, faid to be the fource of the river 
St. Mary — returns to the Alat.imaha and thence to Sav.inua 16 

C H A P. IV. 

Set off<; from Savanna to Augufta, one hundred fixty-five miles Korth- 
Wefl from the fea coaft — def'cribes tl;e of the coLintrv,th..; river Savanna, 
the catarads and v ihage of Augufla — congrels vv ith the Indians at St. Augufla 
.^[he village of Wrightfborough on L ttle Rivi-r — monuments of an ancient 
Indian town on Little River — Buffaloe Lick — be'> ins the furvey of the New 
Purchafe— high proof of Indian fagacity^returus to Savanna zS 

■ The Author leaves Broughton ifland and afcends the Alatamaha — nighc 
fcene — a tempeft — defcription of the river — ruins of an ancient fortificaiion 
.—Indian monuments at the Oakmulge fields — Creeks, account of their fet- 
tlement in Georgia 47 

Sets off from Savanna to Ealt Florida, i^roceeding by land to the A.I;ita- 
maha— defcends that river to Frederica on tlie ifland of St. Simon's — de- 
fcribes the ifland and the ckv 5^ 

Leaves Frederica for the lower trading-houfe on St. Juan's — paffes through 
and del'cribes the found, &c. 6i 

Leaves Amelia ifland and arrives at the Cowford, on the river St. Juan's 
— proceeds up the river alone in a finall canoe ; futFers by a g;:le or" wind in 
eroding the river, is hofpitably entertained at a gentleman's houfe, where 
he refits and fails again — defcribes .'ort Piolata — various productions, viz. 
Magnolia grandifiora, Tillandfia ufueadfcites, floating fi-.-lds of the Piftia 
ftratiotes, the river and country, touches .at CharlotteviUe — arrives at tlic 
lower trading-houfe 6';$ 

C H A P. IV. 
•Proceeds farth.-r u;-) th? river— )<. ill;: ; by Mount Hope, and qomes to at 
Mount Royal — defcribes the mount, Indian highway, Arc — i)eautiful land- 
fcape of the country and profpe6t of the Ipke — enters Lakvj Geoige — defcrip- 
tion of the Lke — forced by flrefs ofweat"er to put in'o tl e beautiful ifle 
Edelano, defcription of the ifland, ancieni ird ^n town, mour.t and highway 
— croffes over the lake and arrives at the upper tradiu^-huufe 95 

a a C H A P. 

iir (Contents. 

C H A P. V. 

Provides fur contiimin^ his voyage higher up the river, engages an Indiafit 
to allift ill navigating his bark, and fets fail, the Indian becomes tired and 
requeftb to be fet on (hore — encamps at a delightful Orange grove— conti- 
nues again alone up the river; defcriptioa of tlie Palma Elaca : enters the 
Xittle Lake and comes to camp at an Orange grove — fight of alligators ; a 
battle with them ; great embarradraents with them; kills one : vaft airem- 
blage of filh : defer iption of the alligator and its ne{l,&c.— defcribes theCarica 
papaya — ^a very curions bird — in danger of being taken napjiing by a huge 
crocodile — the banks of the river adniirabiy ornamented with fefloons and 
tapellry, the work of nature — fepulchres of the ancients — a kurricane — vifita 
a plantation on the banks of the Long Lake ; defcription of the lake, a large 
fufphureouS fountain — account of the founding and prefent ftate of New 
Smyrna, on the Mufquitoe river — 'returns down the river — Eaft Lake — 
curious birds and a beautiful fifli — leaves Cedar Point, touches at the ifle of 
Palms ; r'-bbed by a wolf — arrives at Six Mile Springs — an account of that 
admirable fountain — defcribes the Gordonia, Zami.i, Caftus opuntia, Ery- 
thrina, Cacalia, &c, — -touches at Rocky Point— arrives again at the lower 
ti'ading-iioufe 112 

C H A P. VL 

Proceeds on a journey to Cufcovvilla— tlefcribes the country and waters— 
Annona incana, Annona pygmea, Kalmia clliata, Empetrum album, Andro- 
meda ferruginea, Rhododendron fpurium, Pica glandaria non criftata, La- 
nlus, Lacerta, Snakes, Chionanthus, Andromeda formofiHima, Cyrilla— 
':ncamps at the Halfway Pond — 'defcribes the pond and meadows, a beau- 
tiful landfcape — pilgrimage of fifh— defcribes various kinds of filb — great 
foft flielled tortoife and great land tortoife— moral reflexions and meditations 
— leaves Half-way Pond and proceeds — fituation, quality, and furniuire o£ 
the earth — arrives at Cufcowilla — reception from the Indian chief: his cha- 
radter — Siminoles prediledlioii for Spaailh cuftoms and civilization — India 
ilaves, their condition — departs for tl;e Alachua favanna ; defcription of 
the favanna — Siminoles on horfeback — returns to Cufcowilla — a council and 
Indian feaft — defcription of the town and Cufcowilla lake — returns to the 
I'avanna — glafs Inake — makes the tour of the favanna — veftiges of the 
^incient Alachua — Orange groves, turkeys, deer, wolve^, favanna crane— • 
arrives at the great hafon or fmk — defcription of the fink — account of the 
alligators, incredible number of fifh ; their fubtei ranean migrations — returns 
. — old Spanifa highway — Ind'an higluvay — arrives again at the trading- 
houfe on St. Juan's — charailier and comjianfoo of the nations of the Uppe'- 
Creeks, and Lower or Siminoles 16? 

C H A P. VII. 

Sets out again on a journey to TrJahafochte — defcription of the Si-pinolu 
horfe— encamps at an enciianting grotto on the banks of a be.>utiful lake- 
rocky ridges and defert wilds — engagement between a hawk and the coach- 
xvhip fnake— ^defcription of the fnake — account of the country, grai:d Pine 
forelt — encamps on the borders of an exieniive favanna — defcription of tlic- 
favanna crane — comes upon the verge of extenfive favanna^:, lying on a beau- 
tiful lake— the expanl'ive fields of Capola, decorated with delightful groves 
«— fquadrons of Siminole hoifes — a troop under the condudl and care iif art 
Indian dog — the fields of Capola a delightful region — ferruginous rocks, rich 
iron ore — arrives at Talahafuchte on the river Little St. Juan's — defcribes 
the town and river— Ir.dian canoes — their voyages and tratlic — Indian voy- 
age to Cuba — a fnliing party and naval race — an excurfion to the Manatee 
I'pring— -defcrijitii>n of incomparable nymphxnin — an account of the 
Alanatee — crolfcs the river to exjilore the country — Spanifii remains — waft 
Cane wild'ernelie': — ancient Sjianilli pl.iii'ations — Apalachean o'll fields- 
returns to town — White King's arrival — a council and fe.dt — charaifter of 
the king — leaves tlie town on rcfearcl'es, and encamps in tiie foiefts — ac- 
count of an extr.iordinary eruption of waters — joins his companions at camp 
% — untci"' 


■— euteitaiiiment by the White King in Talahafuchte — Contce, its prepara- 
tion and ufe — return; f > camp — great defert plains — entertainment with 
a party of young Siminole warriors — various natural wells and finks : con- 
jedures concerning them — account of the Long Pond, r.nd delightful jirof- 
pe(5ls adjacent — returns for the trading-houfe on St. Juan's — cmbarrairments 
occafioned by the wild horfes — encamps at Bird ICand Pond-— vail number 
of wild fowl tending their nerts — engagement with an alligatoi- who fur- 
jirifed the camp by night— obfervations on the great Alachua favanna and 
its environs— arrival at the trading-houfe 213 

The Author mikes an excurfion again v.p St. Juan's to Lake George— 
revifits Six Mi'e Springs and Illicium groves, makes colledions, and re- 
croffes the lake to the F.aftern coaft — that (hore more bold and rocky than 
the oppnfue — coafls round that ihore, ti)uching at old deferted plantations 
.^HeriMinial Cotton— Ir,.!jj— unpardonable devaftation and negledt of the 
white ftctlers, with reipeft to the native Orange groves — returns to the 
trading-houfe 250 

Indian warriors, their frolic — curious conference with the Long Warrior 
—ludicrous Indian farce relative to a r.attle fnake — war farce 253 

C H A P. X. 
Farther account of the rattle fnake — account and defcription of other 
fnakes and animals — catalogue of birds of Ncrtli America; obfervations 
concernin -, cheir migration, or annual paiiages from North to South, and back, 
again z6z 

Vifits an Indian village on the river — water melon fe-fi — defcription of 
the banqueting-houfe — makes .an excurfion acrofsthe river ; g'-eat dangers 
in crolfuig ; lands on the oppofite fliore — difcovers a bee tree, ivhich yielded 
a great quantity of honey — returns to the fhore — embarks for Frederica ia 
Georgia : vifits the plantations down the river ; enters the found and paiTes 
through; arrives at Frederica — embarks again — touches at Sunbury — ar- 
rives at Cha: leflon, South Carolina— meditates a journey to the Cherokee 
country and Creek Nation, in Weft Florida 301 


C H A P. I. 

The Author fets out for the Cherokee territories— pafTes through a fine 
cultivated country— croffes Savanna river and eTirers the flate of Georgia— • 
Dirca paluftris— cowpens — civil entertainment at a jjlaHtation — purines the 
road to Augufla, and recrofl'es the river at Silver Bluff — account of Mr. 
dolphin's villa and trading flore?, Silver Bluff, fort Moore, Auguiia, Sav.anna 
river, mountains of large foflil oyfter fheils 306 

C H A P. IL 

Proceeds for fort Jame?, Dartmouth — curious fpecies of Azalta— crofTes 
Broad River — eflablilhment of Dartmouth — Indian mount, &c. crofTes Sa- 
vanna river — violent gufl of rain — curious fpecies gf .^fculus pavia— town 
of Sinica — fort Prince George, Ke»we — defcribes the country 31S 


Ocone vale — monuments of the ancient town — croffes the mountains— 
their fituaciun, views, and produ(Slion5 — reftson the top of Mount Magnolia 
—defcription of anew and beautiful fjiecies of Magnolia — caft;ades of Fallmg 
Creek — thunder florm — head of Tanafee — vale of Cov.c— Indian graves- 
towns of Echoe, NucalFcjand Whatoga — noblv entertained by the piinceof 
Whatoga — arrives at the town of Cowe — makes an excurfion vvitii a young 
trader on the hills of Cowe— incomparable profpe£ls — horfc ftamp-^lifco- 
vers a company of Cherokee nymphs — a frolic witti them — returns to 
town 331 

C H A P. 

W C O N T E N T S. 


Sets off from Whuoga to the Overhill towns— Jore viliajie— 'Rosiing 
Creek— th':' Author and his guide part — furpri^ed by an Indian — faiute and 
part friendly — mi untainous vegetable produdlions— -arrives on the top of 
Jore mountain— .fviMimc profpedts— Atta-kul-kulla, grand Cherokee chief 
'' — gracioof receptun— returns to Cowe — great council-houfe — curious In* 
dian ilance — reti.rns and flops at Sinica — arrives again at fort James, Dart- 
mouth — lift of Chertikee towns and villages 357 

Sets off f:jm Dartmouth to the Upper Creeks and Chai5taws country— 
Flat Rock— a curious plant — Rocky Comfort — Ocone old Town — migrai 
lion of the Ocones — cro'Ios the river — fordsthe Oakmulge at the Oakmulge 
Selds — Stoney Creek-— Great and Little Tabofachte — new fpecies of Hy- 
drangia — crotfes Flint river—defcribes the country — perfecuted by extraor- 
dinary heats and incre''ible numbers of biting flies — Hippobf)fca and Afikis 
i— extraordinary thunder gufl — croffes ChataUehe river—defcribes the town 
—very larg? a-.d ropuloii-:— jToceeds and arrives at the A.palachucla tov.-n 
-— -viiits the old town — i'-xt\ aordinary remains and monuments of the anci- 
ents — general face of the ct.hntry and vegetable piodutlions— new fpeties 
of^fculus 373 

C H A P. VI. 

Proceeds, and after three days journey arrives at Tallafe, on the Talla- 
f)oofe river^ — Coloomc, a handfome tftwn — great phiins — further account of 
the country — Dog woods — crofles the river Scliamhe — comes to Taenfa on 
the Eafl banks of the Mobile, thirty miles above the city — French inhabi- 
tants— paffes down the river, arrives at the city of Mobile— fhort ac- 
count of the city and fort Condc — returns to Taenfa, and proceeds up the 
river as fai' as the entrance of the Chicafaw branch — fioatin;^ forefts of the 
ISIymphjea Nelumbo — vifits the adjacent lands — returns to Mobile — goes to 
the river Perdido — continues on to Penfaco!.'.— -cordially received by gover- 
nor Chefler — fome account of the town — difcovers a new and beautiful fpe- 
cies of Sarraceiiia — returns to Mobile 394. 
C H A P. VII. 

Leaves Mobile for JVIanchac on the Miflillipi — proceeds by \v?ter to Pearl 
'Ifl:ii\d — kindly entertained by Mr. Rumfey — defcribes the ifland-^large 
crinifon Plum — a delicate fpecies of Mimofa — pafTes Lake Pontchartrain — 
touches at the river Taenfiipaoa — paffes over Lakt; iv-laurepas — proceeds up 
to Iberville — croffes by land to Manchac — goes up the Miffiffipi — fettle- 
ments of New-Richmond-^White Plains — curious mai'cle flrells in the river 
• — croffts over to Point Coujic — Spanifh village and fortrefs — high cliffs op- 
pofue Pcint Coupe — returns to the Amite, thence down through the lanks, 
and founds back again to Mobile 416 


Leaves Mobile on his return — proceeds with a company of traders for the 
Creek nation — his horfe tires — is in great diffrefs — meets a company of tra- 
ders, of whom he purchafes a freih horfe — Illicium groves — meets a cdm-. 
pany of emigrants from Georgia — great embarralfment at a large creek 
fwoUen with late heavy rains — airives at the hanks of the Alabama — croffes 
it and arrives at Mucclaffe — Indian marriage — ferious reflections — perilous 
fituation of the trader r)f Mucclaffe — lets off for Otaffe — defci ibes the coun- 
try contiguous to the Tallapoofe river — plantations and toi\n.: — Coolome- 
Tuckabatche — crofles the river and arrives at Otaffe — rotunda and fquare— 
black drink — fpira! fire — Sabbath or holy day to the Great Spirit — fets off 
with a comjiany of traders for Georgia — Chehaw and Uffcta, Creek tt)wns 
on the Apalachucla river, almolt join each other, yet tlie irbabitants (peak 
two languages radically ditfeieni — arrives at the Oakmulge — croffts the 
river in a portable leather boat — croffes the river Ocone — head branches of 
Great Ogeche — arrives at Augufta — takes leave of Augufta and l:is friends 
there, and proceeds for Savanna — lifl of Mufcogulgc towns and villages— 
conjcdttires concerning the rile of thy Mulcosjulge confederacy 438 




Short 'excurfioii in the South of Georgia — makes co]!e>flions— ^^thers 
feeds of two new anJ very curious fhruhs 46c 

C H A P. X. 

Proceeds for Charlefton — Calls r.t a gentleman's plantation— Adoe — Tan- 
nier — wild pi?^eons— After fruticofu^ — leaves Charlefton, proceeds on hi: 
return liome to Pennfylv.inia— croifes Cooper river, nine miles above the 
pity — Long B ty — reefs of rocks — mcts a gang of Negroes — jiafles the boun->— large '.'.■.'anna — Diona^a mufcipula — old towns — Brunfwick— • 
the Clarendon or Cape Fear rivei- — Korth Weft — Livingfton's creek— Like — Carvr's creek— Afliwoou — various vegetable pioduc- 
tious — cultivated vege'ables — delcribes the of the country on the banks 
pf theN orth Weft and the adjacent landt — ftrata of the e.irth or foil — rocks 
»— petnfadtions — ancient fubmarine productions, &cc. — leaves Afhwood, con- 
tinues up the river — vaift trunks of ti ecs with their roots, and Ihimps of 
limbs with the bark on, turned into very hard ftone— Rock-Filh creek— 
Crofs creeks — the rife, progrefs, and prefenl ftate of Cambe'ton — curious 
fpecies of fcandent Fern— Deep river — croffes Haw river — IVIeherren ri- 
ver m Virginia — Cucurbita lagewaria — curious fpecies of Prinos — Alexan- 
fjiia — George town — fudden fa'l of fnow — extreme cold — crolTes the river 
Sufquehanna upon the ice— river Schuylkill — arrives at his father's houfe, 
Tft jthm three miles of Philadelphia 467 



Perfons, character, and qualifications of the Aborigine- — moft perfedl hxir 
jnan figure — Mufcojulge women— women of the Cherokecs — arrogance of 
the Mufcogulges, yet magnanimous and merciful to a vanquifhed enemy 481 

Government and civil fociety — conllitution fmiply natural— the mico or 
king prefules in the fenate — elective — yet mylterious — the next man ia 
<lignity and power is the great war chief — entirely independent of the niico 
•—his voice in council of the greateft weight concerning military affairs — 
the high prieft a perfon of confequence, and maintains great infinence in 
tlieir conftitution and councils of ftate — thefe Indians not idolaters — they 
adore the Great Spirit, the giver and taker away of the breath of life, with 
the moft profound homage and purity — anecdote 492 


Drefs, feafts, and divertifements — youth of both fexes are fond of decora- 
tions with refpedt to drefs — their ears lacerated — diadem plumes, &c — 
paint tht;ir fkin — drefs of the females different from th;:t of the men — great 
horned owl fltin ftuffed and borne about by the prieft^ — infignia of wifdom 
and divination — fond of mufic, dancing and routs — different clafTes of fongs 
— vanety of fteps in their dani,es — fenfible and powerful effeds — ball play 
— feftival of the Buik A99 

C H A P. IV. 

Concerning property, agriculture, arts and manufa(Slures — private pro- 
perty — produce of their agricultural labours — common plantation — king's 
crib — public treafury — women the moft ingenious and vigilant in mechania 
arts and raanufadtures 500 


Marriages and funeral rites — polygamy — take wives whilft they are yet 
young children — adultery — Mufcop;ulges bury their dead in a fitting pofture 
— ftrange cuftoms of the Chatlaws relativ to duties to the deceafed — bone 
hoiife — dirges — feaft to the dead — methods which the nurfes purfue to flat- 
ten the infant's (kuU and retain its form 5iz 

Language and monuments — Mufcogulgf language fpoken throughout the 
confederacy — agreeable to the ear— Cheiokee language lond — pyiamidal 
artificial hills or mounts, terraces, obeli&s— high ways and artificial Lakes — 
chunk jards— flave pofts ' 517 



JL H E attention of a traveller fhould be particularly 
turned, in the firft place, to the various works of 
Nature, to mark the diftinftions of the climates he 
may explore, and to offer fuch ufeful obfervations 
on the different produftions as may occur. Men 
and manners undoubtedly hold the firft rank — what- 
ever may contribute to our exifcence is alfo of equal 
importance, whether it be found in the animal or 
vegetable kingdom ; neither are the various articles, 
which tend to promote the happinefs and con- 
venience of mankind, to be difregarded. How far 
the writer of the following fheets has fucceeded in 
furnifhing information on thefe fubje6ts, the reader 
will be capable of determining. From the advan- 
tages the journalift enjoyed under his father John 
Bartram, botanift to the king of Great Britain^ 
and fellow of the Royal Society, it is hoped that 
his labours will prefent new as well as ufeful infor- 
mation to the botanift and zoologift\ 

This world, as a glorious apartment of the bound- 
lefs palace of the fovereign Creator, is furnifhed 
with an infinite variety of animated fcenes, inex- 
preffibly beautiful and pleafing, equally free to the 
infpeftion and enjoyment of all his creatures. 

Perhaps there is not any part of creation, within 
the reach of our obfervations, which exhibits a more 
glorious difplay of the Almighty hand, than the 
vegetable world : fuch a variety of pleafing fcenes, 
ever changing throughout the fealbns; arifing from 



various caufes, and afilgned each to the purpofe and 
life determined. 

It IS difficult to pronounce which divifion of the 
earth, between the polar circles, produces the greateft 
variety. The tropical divifion certainly affords 
thofe which principally contribute to the more 
luxurious fcenes of fplendour, as Myrtus communis, 
Myrt, caryophyllata, Myrt. pimsnta, Caryophyllus 
aromacicus, Laurus cinnam. Laurus camphor Lau- 
rus Perfica, Nux mofch. Iliicium, Camellia, Pu- 
nica, Cadlus melo caftus, Cadtus gianditlora, Glo- 
riofa* fuperba, Thcobroma, Adanfonia digitata, 
Ny6lanthes, Pfidium, Mufa paradifica, Mula fa- 
pientum, Garcinia mangodana, Cocos nucifera, Ci- 
trus, Citrus aurantium, Cucurbita citruUus, Hya- 
cinthus, Amaryllis, Narciflus, Poinciana pulcherri- 
ma, Crinum, Ca6lus cochinellifer. 

But the temperate zone (including by far the 
greater portion of the earth, and a climate the mofi: 
favourable to the increafe and fupport of animal 
life, as well as for the exercife and a6livity of the 
human faculties) exhibits fcenes of infinitely greater 
variety, magnificence, and confequence, with refpedt 
to human economy, in regard to the various ufes of 

For inftance; Triticum Cereale, v/hich affords 
us bread, and is termed, by way of eminence, the 
ftaff of life, the moll pleafant and nourifliing food 
to all terreilrial animals. Vitis vinifc^ra, Vv^hofe ex- 
hilaradng juice is faid to cheer the hearts of gods 
and men. Oryza, Zea, Pyrus, Pyrus malus, Pru- 
nus, Pr. cerafus, Ficus, Nedarin, Apricot, Cydo-^ 
nia. Next follow the illuftrious families of foreft- 
trees, as the Magnolia granciiflora and Quercus 
fempervirens, which form the venerated groves and 
folemn fhades, on the Miffiffippi, Alatam.iha and 

b Florida j 


Florida; the magnificent Cuprefiiis difticha of Ca- 
rolina and Florida j the beautiful Water Oak *, 
whofe vail hemifpheric head prefents the likenefs 
of a diftant grove in the fields and favannas of Ca- 
rolina ; the gigantic Black Oak -}-, Platanus occi- 
dentalis, Liquidambar ftyraciflua, Liriodendron tu- 
iipera, Fagus cailanea, Fagus fylvatica, Juglans 
nigra, Juglans cinerea, Jug. pecan, Ulmu?, Acer 
faccharinum, of Virginia and Pennfylvania ; Pinus 
phoenix, Pinus tceda, Magnolia acuminata, NylTa 
aquatica, Populus heterophylla, and the floriferous 
Gordonia lafianthus, of Carolina and Florida^ the 
exalted Pinus ftrobus. Pin. balfamica, Pin. abies. 
Pin. Canadenfis, Pin. larix, Fraxinus excelfior, Ro- 
binia pfeudacacia, Guilandina dioica, ^fculus Vir- 
ginica. Magnolia acuminata, of Virginia, Mary- 
land, Pennfylvania, New Jerfey, New York, New 
England, Ohio, and the regions of Erie and the 
Illinois ; and the aromatic and floriferous Ihrubs, 
as Azalea coccinea. Azalea rofea, Rofa, Rhodo- 
dendron, Kalmia, Syringa, Gardenia, Calycanthus, 
Daphne, Franklinia, Styrax, and odiers equally 

In every order of nature we perceive a variety 
of qualities diftributed amongft individuals, defigned 
for different purpofes and ufes ; yet it appears evi- 
dent, that the great Author has impartially diftri- 
buted his favours to his creatures, fo that the attri- 
butes of each one leem to be of fufhiicnt import- 
ance to manifeft the divine and inimitable work- 
manfliip. The pompous Palms of Florida, and 
glorious Magnolia, ftrike us with the fenfe of dig- 
nity and magnificence; the expanfive umbrageous 
Live Oak J with awful veneration ; the Carica 

• Qaercus Hemifpherica. f Qwrcus tiudtoiia. 

% O'-iercuG feuipervireiK"-'. 

? papaya. 


papava feems fupercilious with all the harmony of 
beauty and gracefulnels ; the Liliuin f-jperbum re- 
prefents pride and vanity ; Kalmia latifoHa and Aza- 
lea coccinea, exhibit a perfe6t fhow of mi:th and- 
gaiety; the Illicium Floridanum, Crinum Florida- 
num, Convallaria nnajalis of the Cherokees. and 
Calycanthus fioridus, charm with their beauty and 
fragrance. Yet they are not to be compared for 
iifefulnefs with the nutritious Triticum, Zea, Oryza, 
Solanum tuberofum, Mufa, Convolvulus Batata, 
Rapa, Orchis, Vitis vinifera, Pyrus, Olea ; for cloth- 
ing with Linum Cannabis, GofTypium, Morus; for 
medicinal virtues with HylTopus, Thynjus, Anthemis 
nobilis, Papaver fomniferum, Quinquina, Rheum 
rhabarbarum, Pifum, &c. Though none of thefe 
moft ufcful tribes are confpicuous for ftatehnefs, 
figure, or fplendour, yet tlieir valuable qualities and 
virtues excite love, gratitude, and adoration to the 
great Creator, who was pleafed to endow them with 
fuch eminent qualities, and reveal them to us for our 
fuRenance, amufement, and delight. 

But there remain of the vegetable world feve- 
ral tribes that are diftinguifhed by very remarkable 
properties, which excite our admiration, fome for 
the elegance, fingularity, and fplendour of their veil- 
ment, as the I'ulipa, Fritillaiia, Colchicum, Pri- 
mula, Lilium fuperbum, Kalmia, &c. : others 
aftonifh us by their figure and dilpofal of their vef- 
ture, as if defigned only to eiTibellifli and pleafe 
the obferver, as the Nepenthes didiliatoria, Ophrys 
infedtoria, Cypripedium calceolus, Hydrangia quer- 
cifolia, Bartramia bracleata, Viburnum Canadenfe, 
Bartfia, &:c. 

Obferve thefe green meadows how they are de- 
corated ; they fcem enamelled with the beds of 
fiowersi The blufhing Chironia and Rhexia, the 

b 1 fpiral 


fpiral Ophr)" with immaculate white flowers, the 
Limodorum, Arcthufa pulcherrima, Sarracenia pur- 
purea, Sarracenia galeata, Sarracenia lacunofa, 
Sarracenia flava. Shall we analyze thefe beautiful 
plants, lince they feem cheerfully to invite us ? How 
greatly the flowers of the yellow Sarracenia repre- 
fent a filkcn canopy ? the yellow pendant petals are 
the curtains, and the hollow leaves are not unHke 
the cornucopia or Amakhea's horn ; what a quan- 
tity of water a leaf is capable of containing, about 
a pint! tafte of it— how cool and animating — lim- 
pid as the morning dew : nature feems to have fur- 
nifhed them with this cordated appendage or lid, 
which turns over, to prevent a too fudden and 
copious fupply of water from heavy fhowers of rain, 
which would bend down the leaves, never to rife 
again; becaufe their ftraight parallel nerves, which 
extend and fupport them, are fo rigid and fragile, 
the leaf would inevitably break when bent down to 
a right angle; therefore I fuppofe the waters which 
contribute to their fupply, are the rebounding 
drops or horizontal fl:reams v/afted by the winds, 
which advemitioufly find their way into them, when 
a blaft of wind fhifts the lid: fee thefe fliort ftiff 
hairs, they all point downwards, which dire6t the con- 
denfed vapours down into the funiculum; thefe iliff 
hairs alfo prevent the varieties of infecSts, which are 
caught, from returning, being invited down to fip the 
mellifluous exudation, from the interior fui face of the 
tube, where they inevitably perilh ; what quantities 
there are of them! Thefe latent waters undoubtedly 
contribute to the fupport and refrcfhment of the 
plant: perhaps defigned as a refervoir in cafe of long 
continued droughts, or other cafualtics, fince thefe 
plants naturally dwell in low favannas liable to 
overflows, from rain water: for although I am not 



of the opinion that vegetables receive their nouriili- 
ment only through the afcending part of the plant, 
as the ftem, branches, leaves, &c.; and that their 
defcending parts, as the roots and fibres, only icrve 
to hold and retain them in their places; yet I be- 
lieve they imbibe rain and dews through their 
leaves. Hems, and branches, by extremely minute 
pores, which open on both furfaces of the leaves 
and on the branches, which may communicate to 
little auxiliary du6ls or veflels; or, perhaps the 
cool dews and Hiowers, by conftriding thefe pores, 
and thereby preventing a too free ptrrfpiration, may 
recover and again invigorate the languid nerves cl 
thofe which feem to fuffer for want of water, in 
great heats and droughts; but whether the infefts 
caught in their leaves, and which diflolve and mix 
with the fluid, ferve for aliment or fupport to 
thefe kind of plants, is doubtful. Ail the Sarra- 
cenias are infeft catchers, and f^ is the Droflba 

But admirable are the properties of the extraor- 
dinary Dionea mufcipula ! A great extent on each 
fide of that ferpentine rivulet is occupied by thofc 
fportive vegetables — let us advance to the fpot in 
which nature has feated them. Aftonifliing pro- 
dudlion ! fee the incarnate lobes expanding, how 
gay and fportive they appear ! ready on the fpring 
to intrap incautious deluded infefts 1 what artifice ! 
there behold one of the leaves juft clofed upon a 
ftruggling fly; another has gotten a worm ; its hold 
is fure, its prey can never elcape — carnivorous vege- 
table ! Can we after viewing this objeft, hefitatc a 
moment to confefs, that vegetable beings are en~ 
dued with fome fcnfible faculties or attributes, 
C.milar to thofe that dignify animal nature; they are 
b 3 organical. 


organica], living, a,nd feif-moving bodies, for we 
fee here, in this plant, motion and volition. 

What power or faculty is it, that directs the cirri 
of the Ciicurbita, Momordica, Vitis, and other 
climbers, towards the twigs of fhrubs, tree?, and 
other friendly fiipport ? we fee them invariably lean- 
ing, extending, and like the fingers of the human 
hand, reaching to catch hold of what is nearefl:, 
juft as if they had eyes to fee with ; and when their 
hold is fixed, to coil the tendril in a fpiral form, 
by which artifice it becomes m.ore elaftic and effec- 
tual, than if it had remained in a dirvft line, for 
every revolution of the coil adds a portion of 
llrength ; and thus colkfted, they are enabled to 
dilate and contradl as occafion or necefiity requires, 
and thus by yielding to, and humouring the motion 
of the limbs and twigs, or other fupport on which 
they depend, are not fo liable to be torn off by 
fudden blafts of wind or other affaults : is it fenfe or that influences their a(5lions? it muft be 
fome impulle j or does the hand of the Almighty 
adl and perform this work in our fight ? 

The vital principle or efficient caufe of motion 
and aclion, in the animal and vegetable* fyftem, 
perhaps may be more fmiilar than v/e generally ap- 
prehend. Where is the effential difference between 
the feed of peas, peaches, and other tribes of 
plants and trees, and the eggs of oviparous ani- 
mals, as of birds, fnakes, or butterflies, fpawn of 
fiih, &c. ? Let us begin at the fource of terreftrial 
exiftence. Are not the feeds of vegetables, and the 
eggs of oviparous animals fecundated, or influenced 
with the vivific principle of life, through the approxi- 
rnation and intimacy of the fex€s ? and immediately 
after the eggs and feeds are hatched, does not the 

* Yn], Sponfalia pliuitriium^ Aman. Acad. 1. n. 12. Linn. 



young larva and infant plant, by heat and moifture, 
rife into exiftcnce, increafe, and in due time an ive 
to a ftate of perfeft maturity ? The phyfiologifts 
agree in opinion, that the work of generation in 
viviparous animals, is exa6lly fimilar, only more 
fecret and enveloped. The mode of operation that 
nature purfues in the produ<51:ion of vegetables, and 
oviparous animals, is infinitely more uniform and 
manifeft* than that which is or can be difcovered to 
take place in viviparous animals. 

The moft apparent difference between animals 
and vegetables is, that animaL-> have the powers of 
found, and are locomotive, whereas vegetables are 
not able to fhift themfelves from the places where 
nature has planted them: yet vegetables have the 
power of moving and exercifing their members, and 
have the means of tranfplanting and colonifing their 
tribes almofb over the furface of the whole earth ; 
fomq feeds, for inftance, grapes, nuts, fmilax, peas, 
and others, whofe pulp or kernel is food for ani- 
mals, will remain feveral days without being in- 
jured in ftomachs of pigeons and other birds of 
pafTage j by this means fuch f )rts are diflributed 
from place to place, even acrofs feas ; indeed fane 
feeds require this preparation by the digeftive heat 
of the flomach of animals, to diflblve and detach 
the oily, vifcid pulp, or to foften the hard fhells. 
Small feeds are fometimes furnifhed with rays of 
hair or down j and others with thin light membranes 
attached to them, which fcrve the purpofe of wings, 
on which they mount upward, leaving the earth, 
float in the air, and are carried away by the fwift 
winds to very remote regions before they fettle on 
the earth ; fome are furnifhed with hooks, which 
catch hold of the wool and hair of animals paffing 
by them, and are by that means fpread abroad i 

b 4 other 


Other feeds ripen in pericarpes, whicli open with 
elaftic force, and fhooc their feed to a very great 
diftance round about ; feme other feeds, as of the 
Moffes and Fungi, are fo very minute as to be in- 
vifible, light as atoms, and thefe mixing with the 
air, are v/afted all over the world. 

The animal creation alfo excites our admiration, 
and equally manifefLS the almighty power, wildom, 
and beneficence of the Supreme Creator and Sove- 
reign Lord of the univerfe; fome in their vaft fize 
and itrcinath, as the mammoth, the elephant, the 
v/haiv.% die lion, and alligator j others in agility ; 
others in dieir beauty and elegance of colour, 
plumage, and rapidity of flight, having the faculty 
of moving and living m thj air; others for their 
immediate and indifpenfable ufe and corvenience 
to man, in furnifhiig means Lr our clothing and 
fuftenance, and ad niniftering to our help in the 
toils and labours of life : how wonderful is the me- 
chanifm of thefe finely formed fclf-moving beings, 
how complicated their fyftem, yet what unerring 
uniformity prevails through every tribe and parti- 
cular fpecies ! the effeft we fee and contemplate, 
the caufe is invifible, incomprehenfible ; how can 
it be othcrwife ? when vve cannot fee the end or 
origin of a nerve or vein, while the divifibility of 
matter or fluid, is infinite. We admire the me- 
chanifm of a watch, and the fabric of a piece of 
brocade, as being the production of art j thei'e merit 
our admiration, and mud excite our efleem lor the 
ingenious artitl or modifier; but nature is the work 
of God omnijiotent ; and an elephant, nay even this 
workl, is comparatively but a very minute part of 
his works. If then the vifible, the mechanical part 
of the animal creation, the mere material part, is 
\q (idniirably beautiful, harmonious, and incompre- 


henfible, what muft be the intelleftiial fyflem ? that 
inexprefTibly more eflential principle, which fecretly 
operates within? that which animates the inimitable 
machines, which gives them motion, impowers 
them to aft, (peak, and perform, this muit be 
divine and immortal? 

I am fenfible that the general opinion of philo- 
fophers has diftingiiifhed the moral fyftem of the 
brute creature from that of mankind, by an epithet 
which implies a mere mechanical impulfe, v/hich 
leads and impels them to neceflary anions, without 
any pr( meditated defign or contrivance ^ this wc 
term inftinft, which faculty we fuppofe to be inferior 
to reafon in man. 

The parental and filial affeftions feem to be as 
ardent, their fenfibiHty and attachment as aftive 
and fiithful, as thofe obferved in human nature. 

When travelling on the eaft coaft of the ifthmus 
of Florida, afc^^nding the fouth Mufquito river, in 
a canoe, we obferved numbers of deer and bears, 
near the banks, and on the iflands of the river : 
the bears were feeding on the fruit of the dwarf 
creeping Chamserops; (tiiis fruit is of the form and 
fize of dates, and is delicious and nourifhing food:) 
we faw eleven bears in the courfe of the day, they 
feemed no way furprifed or affrighted at the fight 
of us. In the evening, my hunter, who was an 
excellent markfman, faid that he would ilioot one 
of them for the fake of the fkin and oil, for we 
had plenty and variety of provifions in our bark. 
We accordingly, on fight of two of them, planned 
our approaches as artfully as poflible, by croffing 
over to the oppofite fhore, in order to get under 
cover of a fmall ifland ; this we cautioufly coafted 
round, to a point, which we apprehended would 
take U3 within fiiot of the bears ; but here finding 



ciirfejyes at too great a diftance from theni;, and 
clilcovering that we miifl: cpenly fliow ourfclves, wc 
had no odier alternative to eifecl our purpofe, but 
naaking oblique approaches. We gained gradually 
on our prey by this artifice, without their noticing 
Vus ; finding ourfelves near enough, the hunter fired, 
snd laid the largeft dead on the fp'jt whei-e fhe 
ilood ; when presently the other, not feeming the 
leaft moved at the report of our piece, approached 
the dead body, fmelled, and pawed it, and ap- 
pearing in agony, fell to weeping and looking up- 
ward?, then towards us, and cried out like a child. 
"VVhilfl: our boat approached very near, the hunter 
was loading his rifle in order to fhoot the furvivor, 
which was a young cub, and the flair, fuppofed to 
be the dam. The continual cries ot this affii6ted 
child, bereft of its parent, afFeded me very fenfibly ; 
1 was moved with compafiion, and charging myfelf 
as if accelTary to what now appeared to be a cruel 
murder, endeavoured to prevail on the hunter tor 
iiive its life, but to no effeft! for by habit he had 
become infennble to compalfion towards the brute 
creation: being now within a few yards of the 
harmlefb devoted vi6lim, he fired, and laid it dead 
upon the body of die dam. 

If we bellow but very litde attention to the 
economy of the animal creation, v;e fhall find ma- 
nifeft examples of premiCditation, perfeverance, re- 
folution, and confummate artifice, in order to effeft 
their purpofes. The next morning, after the Uaughter 
of the bears, whilfl my companions were ftriking 
our tent, and preparing to re-embark, I refolved to 
make a little botanical excurfion alone: crofllng 
over a narrow ii'thmus of fand hills, v/hich feparated 
the river from the ocean, I paded over a pretty 
high hill, its fumiriii; crefted with a few palm trecsj 



furrounded with an Orange grove: this hill, whofe 
bale was waflied on one fide by the floods of the 
Mufquitoe river, and on the other fide by the bil- 
lows of the ocean, was about one hundred yards 
diameter, and feemed to be an entire heap of fea 
fhells. I continued along the beach a quarter of 
a mile, and came up to a foreil of the Agave vivi- 
para (though compofed of- herbaceous plants, I 
term it a foreft, becaufe their fcapes or flower- 
fcems arofe ere61: near 30 feet high) : their tops re- 
gularly branching in the form of a pyramidal tree, 
and thefe plants growing near to each other, occu- 
pied a fpace of ground of feveral acres: when their 
feeds are ripe they vegetate, and grow on the 
branches, until the fcape dries, when the young 
plants fall to the ground, take root, and fix them- 
ielves in the fand : the plant grows to a prodigious 
fize before the fcape flioots up from its centre. 
Having contemplated this admirable grove, I pro- 
ceeded towards the fhrubberics on the banks of the 
river, and though it was now late in December, 
the aromadc groves appeared in full bloom. The 
broad-leaved fweet Myrtus, Erythrina coralloden- 
drum, Caftus cochinellifer, Cacalia fuffruticofa, and 
particularly, Rhizophora conjugata, which flood 
clofe to and in the fait water of the river, were in. 
full bloom, with beautiful white fweet fcented flowers, 
which attrafted to them two or three fpecies of very 
beautiful butterflies, one of which was black, the 
upper pair of its wings very long and narrow, 
marked with tranfverfe llripes of pale yellow, with 
fome fpots of a crimfon colour near the body. Ano- 
ther fpecies remarkable for fplendour, was of a larger 
fizej the wings were undulated and obtufely cre- 
-nated round their ends, the nether pair terminating 
near the body, with a long narrow forked tail -, the 



ground light yellow, ftripeJ obliqiie-tranA^erfe]}', 
•with ffripes of pale cekllial blue, the ends of them 
adorned with lictle eyes encircled with the fineft 
biliie and crimion, which reprefented a very brilliant 
Fofary. But thole which were tlie moft numerous 
were as v/hite as Inovv, their Vv^ings large, their ends 
lightly crcnated and ciliated, forming a fringed bor- 
cfer, faintly marked with little black crefcents, their 
points downward, with a clufter of little brilliant 
orbs of blue and crimfoHj on the nether wings near 
the body : the numbers were incredible, and there 
leemcd to be fcarcely a flower ror each fiy, multi- 
tudinous as they were, befides clouds of thern hover- 
iog over the mellifluous groves. Befidcs thefe pa- 
pUes, a variety of other infefts come in for a fhare, 
particularly feveral fpecies of bees. 

As I v;as gathering fpecimens of flowers from the 
flirubs, I was greatly furprifed at the fudden ap- 
pearance of a remarkably large fpider on a leaf^ 
of the genus Araneus fallens: at fight of m.e he 
boldly faced about, and railed himfelf up, as if ready 
to fpring upon mej his body was about the fize of 
2 pigeon's egg, of a bufi^ colour, which, with his 
legs, were covered with fhort filky hair; on the top 
of the abdomen was a round red fpot or ocelle en- 
circled with black. After I had recovered from the 
furprile, obferving that the wary hunter had retired 
imdcr cover, I drew near again, and prcfcntly dif- 
covered that I had furprifed him on predatory at- 
tempts againft the inie6l tribes. I was therefore 
detcrniiincd to v/atch his proceedings. 1 foon no- 
ticed that tlie object of his wiihcs was a large fat 
tomble bee (apis bombylicus), that was vifiting the 
flowers, and piercing their neclariferous tubes : this 
cunning intrepid hunter conducted his fubtil ap- 
proaches with die circumfpedtion and perfeveranc^^ 



C'fa Siminole when hunting a deer, advancing mtii 
ilow fteps obliquely, or under cover of denfc fol'i^. 
age, and behind the limbs, and when the bee was 
engaged in probing a flower, he would leap nearer, 
and then inllantly retire out of fight, under a leaf or 
behind a branch, at the fame time keeping a fharp 
eye upon me. \Vhen he had now gotten v/ith.'ij two 
feet of his prey, and the bee was intent on ijuping- 
the delicious nedar from a flower, with his back 
next the fpider, he inftantiy fprang upon him, and 
graiped him over the back and flioiikicr, when for 
lome moments they both difappeared. I expecbed 
the bee had carried off his enemy, but to my fur- 
prife, they both together rebounded back again, 
fufpended at the extremiiy of a ftrong elaflic thread 
or web, which the fpider had artfully let fall, or 
fixed on the twig, the inftant he leaped from it: the 
rapidity of the bte's wings, endeavouring to extricate 
himfelf, made them both together appear as amov- 
ing vapour, until the bee became fatigued by wlnrl- 
ing round, flrft one way and then back again : at 
length, in about a quarter of an hour, the bee quite 
exhaufted by his ftruggles, and the repeated wounds 
of the butcher, became motionlefs, and quickly ex- 
pired in the arms of the devouring fpider, who, 
afcending the rope with his game, retired to feafr on 
it under cover of the leaves ; and perhaps before 
night, became himfelf the delicious evening repafc 
of a bird or lizard. 

Birds are in general focial and benevolent crea- 
tures ; intelligent, ingenioiis, volatile, active br- 
ings; and this order of animal creation confiiis of 
various nations, bands, or tribes, as may be ob- 
lerved from their different ftrufture, manners, and 
ianguag . or voice; each nation, though fubdi- 
vided into many different tribes, retaining its ge- 



neral form or ftruftiire, a fimilarity of cufl.oms, and 
a fort of dialedt or language, particular to that na- 
tion or genus from which thofe tribes feem to have 
defcended or feparated. What I mean by a language 
in birds, is the common notes or fpeech, that they 
ufe when employed in feeding themfelves and their 
young, calling on one another, as well as their me- 
naces againft their enemy ; for their fongs feem to 
be mufical compofitions, performed only by the 
males, about the time of incubation, in part to di- 
vert and amiufe the female, entertaining her with 
melody, &c. This harmony, with the tender fo- 
licitude of the male, alleviates the toils, cares, and 
diftreffes of the female, confoles her in folitary re- 
tirement whilft fitting, and animates her with affec- 
tion and attachment to himfelf in preference to any 
other. The volatility of their fpecies, and opera- 
tion of their pafTions and affeftions, are particularly 
confpicuous in the different tribes of the thrufh, fa- 
mous for fbng. On a fweet May morning we fee 
the red thrufhes (turdus rufus) perched on an ele- 
vated fprig of the fnowy Hawthorn, fweet flower- 
ing Crab, or other hedge fhrub, exerting their ac-* 
complifnments in fong, Itriving by varying and ele- 
vating their voices to excel each other ; we obferve 
a very agreeable variation, not only in tone but in 
modulation ; the voice of one is flirill, of another 
lively and elevated, of others fonorous and quiver- 
ing. The mock-bird (tardus polyglotcos) who ex- 
cels, dillinguifnes himfelf in a variety of adlion as 
well as air; from a turret he bounds aloft with the 
celeriiy of an arrow, as it were to recover or recal 
his very foul, expired in the lall elevated ftrain. 
The high forefts are filled with the fymphony of the 
fong or wood thrulh (turdus minor). 

Both fexes of fome tribes of birds fing equally 
5 finely j 


finely ; and it is remarkable, tliat thefe reciprocally 
aflift in their domeftic cares, as building their nefts 
and fitting on their eggs, feeding and defending 
their young brood, &c. The oriolus (idcrtu:. 
Cat.) is an inftance of this cafe; and the female oi 
the ifterus minor is a bird of more iplendid and gay 
drefs than the male bird. Some tribes of birds 
will relieve and rear up the young and helplefs, of 
their own and other tribes, when abandoned. Ani- 
mal fubftance feems to be the firft food of all birds, 
even the granivorous tribes.. 

fiaving paffed through fome remarks, which ap- 
peared of fufticient confequence to be offered to the 
public, and v;hich were molt fuitable to have a 
place in the introduftion, I fiiall now offer fuch ob- 
fervations as muui necefiarily occur, from a careful 
attention to, and inveft:igation of, the manners of 
the Indian nations ; being induced, while travel- 
ing among them, to alfociate v/lth diem, that I 
might judge for myfe'f, whether they were deferving 
of the fcvere cenfure which prevailed againft them 
among the white people, that they were incapable 
of civilization. 

In the confideration of this important fubjedl it 
will be necefiary to inquire, whether they were in- 
clined to adopt the European modes of civil ibcie- 
ty ? Whether fuch a reformation could be obtained, 
without ufing coercive or violent means ? And laftly, 
whether llich a refoiucion would be productive of 
real benefit to them, and confequently beneficial to 
d:ie public ? I was fatisfied in difcovering that they 
were defirous of becoming united with us, in civil 
and religious fociety. 

It may, therefore, not be foreign to the fubjed, 
to point out the propriety of fending men of abi- 
lity and virtue, under die authority of gove:nment, 



as friendly vilitors into their towns : let thefe men 
be inftrufted to learn perfe6lly their languages, and 
by a liberal and friendly intimacy become acquaint- 
ed with their cuftoms and ufages, religious and ci- 
vil j their fyftem of legiflation and police, as well 
as their moft ancient and prefent traditions and hif- 
tory. Thefe men thus enlightened and inflrudled 
would be qualified to judge equitably, and when re- 
turned to us, to make true and juil reports, which 
might afTift the legiflature of the United States to 
form, and oiTn- to them, a judicious plan for their 
civihzation and union with us. 

But I prefume not to dictate in thefe high con- 
cerns of government, and I am fully convinced that 
fuch important matters are tar above my ability j 
the duty and refpe6t we owe to religion and re6bi- 
tude, the moil acceptable incenfe we offer to the 
Almighty, as an atonement for our negligence in 
the care of the prefent and future welibeing of our 
Indian brethren, induce me to m^ention this matter, 
though perhaps of greater concernment than we ge- 
nerally are aware. 



as friendly vifitors into their towns : let thefe men 
be inftrufted to learn perfedly their languages, and 
by a liberal and friendly intimacy become acquaint- 
ed with their cuftoms and ufages, religious and ci- 
vil j their fyftem of legiflation and police, as well 
as their moft ancient and prefent traditions and hif- 
tory. Thefe men thus enlightened and inllrudled 
would be qualified to judge equitably, and when re- 
turned to us, to make true and juft reports, which, 
might afTift the legiflature of the United States to 
form, and offer to diem, a judicious plan for their 
CLvihzation and union with us. 

But I prefume not to dictate in thefe high con- 
cerns of government, and I am fully convinced that 
fuch important matters are far above my ability i 
the duty and refpeft we owe to religion and refbi- 
tude, the moft acceptable incenfe we offer to the 
Almighty, as an atonement for our neghgence in 
the care of the prefent and future wellbeing of our 
Indian brethren, induce me to m.ention this matter, 
though perhaps of greater concernment than we ge- 
nerally are aware. 


UlM-A Ton-a- 




.t ^ 

1 ^' r 






I N 




At the requeft cf Dr. Fothergill, of London, to 
fearch the FJoridas, and the weftern parts of Ca- 
rohna and Georgia, for the difcovery of rare and 
life ul produdlions of nature, chiefly in the vege- 
table bngdom 3 in April. 1773, I ennbarked for 
Lharlefton South CaroHna, on board the bri^an- 
tine Charlefton packet, captain Wright, the brig 
- - - -, captain Mafon, being in company with 
iJs, and bound to the fame port. We had a plea- 
^nt run down the Delaware, 150 miles to cape 
Henlopen, the two veffels entering the Atlant-'c to- 
gether. For the firfl twenty-four hours we had a 
profperous gale, and were chearful and happy in 
the profpeft of a quick and pleafant voyage ; but 
alas ! how vain and uncertain are human ^expeda- 
tions ! how quickly is the flattering fcene chang- 
.€d ! 1 he powerful winds, now rufliing forth from 

^ their 


their fccrct abodes, fuddenly fpread terror and dc* 
vaftation j and the wide ocean, which, a few mo- 
ments paft, was gentle and placid, is now thrown 
into diforder, and heaped into mountains, whofc 
white curling crefls feem to fweep the fkies ! 

This furious gale continued near two days and 
nights, and not a little damaged our fails, cabin 
furniture, and flate-rooms, befides retarding our 
paflage. The florm having abated, a lively gale 
trom N, W. continued four or five days, when 
fhifting to N. and laftly to N. E. on the tenth of 
our departure from cape Henlopen, early in the 
morning, we dcfcried a fail aftern, and in a fliort 
time difcovered it to be capt. Mafon, who foon 
came up with us. We hailed each other, being 
joyful to meet again, after fo many dangers. He 
futfcred greatly by the gale, but providentially 
made a good harbour within cape Hatteras. As he 
ran by us, he threw on board ten or a dozen bafs, 
a large and delicious filb, having caught a great 
number of them whiift he was detained in harbour. 
He got into Charlefton that evening, and we the 
next morning, about eleven o'clock. 

There are few objects out at fea to attra(5t the 
notice of the traveller, but what are fublime, aw- 
ful, and m.ajeitic : the feas themfelves, in a tem- 
peft, exhibit a tremendous fcene, where the winds 
aflert their power, and, in furious conflidl, feem to 
fet the ocean on fire. On the other hand, nothing 
can be more fublime than the view of the encir- 
cling horizon, after the turbulent winds have taken 
their flight, and the lately agitated bofom of the 
deep has again become calm and pacific ; the gen- 
tie moon rifing in dignity from the eaft, attended 
ty thoufands of glictering orbs i the luminous ap-» 



appearance of the feas at night, when all the waters 
feem tranfmiited into liquid filver , the prodigious 
bands of porpoifes foreboding tempeft, that appear 
to cover the ocean, the mighty whale, fovereic^n 
of the watery realms, who cleaves the feas in his 
cour e; the fudden appearance of land from the 
mnV if ^''''^''^S each way, beyond the ut- 
moft reach of %ht, the alternate appearance and 
recefs of the coall, whilft th.e far diftant blue hills 
flowiy retreat and difappear ; or, as we approach 
the coaft, the capes and promontories firfl ftrike 
our fight emerging from the watery expanfe, and, 
, Ike miguty giants, elevating their crefts towards 
the Ikies, the water fuddenly alive with its fcaly in- 
habitants ; fquadrons of fea-fowl fweeping through 
the air, impregnated with the breath of fragrant 
aromatic trees and flowers; the amplitude%nd 
magnificence of thefe fcenes are great indeed, and 
niay prefent to the imagination, an idea of the firil 
appearance of the earth to man at the creation. 
On my arrival at Charlefton, I waited on doftor 

Tnd r Kl- ' S'^^^"^^" of eminence in his profeffion 
and public employments, to whom I was recom- 
mended by my worthy patron, and to whom I was 
to apply for counfei and affiftance, for carrving into 

metirTVT.^^'^r''''^"^^- ^^^' dodor recdved 
me vvith perfedl pohtenels, and, on every occafion, 
treated me with friendfl.ip ; and by mea'ns of the 
eftel ""-'k ""^'u \' ^'^' "^^^' ^"d ^he marks of 
cu nTed" r'"'^ ^' ^r^^''^ "^'^ ^ became ac 
onfv of r7^ ""'7^°^ '^' ''^''^y ^^'^^i^i^^> not 

^ 2 CHAP. 



Arriving In Carolina very early in the I'pring, 
vegetation was not fufficiently advanced to invite 
me into the weftern parts of this ilate; from which 
circumftance, I concluded to make an excurfion 
into Georgia ; accordingly, I embarked on board a 
coafting vefTel, and in twenty-four hours arrived in 
Savanna, the capital, where, acquainting the go- 
vernor, Sir J. Wright, with my bufinefs, his ex- 
cellency recei/ed me with great politenefs, fliewed 
me every mark of efteem and regard, and furnifli- 
cd me with lettcs to the principal inhabitants of 
the ftatc, which were of great fervice to me. An- 
other circumftance very opportunely occurred on 
my arrival : the affembly was then fitting in Sa- 
vanna, and feveral members lodging in the fame 
houfe where I took up my quarters, I became ac- 
quainted with feveral worthy characters, who in- 
vited me to call at their feats occafionally, as I 
pafled through the country ; particularly the hon. 
B. Andrews, efq. a diftinguiflied, patriotic, and li- 
beral character. This gentleman's feat, and well- 
cultivated plantations, are fituated near the fouth 
high road, which I often travelled j and I feldom 
pafied his houfc without calling to fee him, for it 
was the feat of virtue, where hofpitality, piety, 
and philofophy, formed the happy family i where 
the weary traveller and ftranger found a heariy 
welcome, and from whence ic mull be his own 
fault if he departed without being greatly be- 



After refting, and a little recreation for a few 
davs in Savanna, and having in the mean time 
piiichafed a good horfe, and equipped myfclf for a 
journey fouthward, I fat off early in the morning 
for Siinbuiy, a fea-port town, beautifully fituated 
on the main, between Medway and Newport ri- 
vers, about fifteen miles foutfi of great Ogeeche 
river. The tov/n and haroour are defended from 
the fury of the feas by th^ north and fouth points 
of St. Helena and South Catharine's iflands ; be- 
tween which is the bar and entrance into the found : 
the harbour is capacious and fafe, and has water 
enough for fhips of great burthen. I arrived here 
in the evening, in company with a gentleman, one 
of the inhabitants, who politely introduced me to 
one of the principal families, where I fupped and 
fpent the evening in a circle of genteel and polite 
ladies and gentlemen. Next day, being defnous of 
vifiting the idands, I forded a narrow fhoal, part 
of the found, and landed on one of them, which 
employed me the whole day to explore. The fur- 
face and vegetable mould here is generally a loofe 
fand, not very fertile, except fome fpots bordering 
on the found and inlets, where are found heaps or 
mounds of fea-fhell, either formerly brought there 
by the Indians, who inhabited the illand, or which 
-were perhaps thrown up in ridges, by the beating 
furface of the lea : poffibly both thefe circumftances 
may have contributed to their formation. Thefe 
fea-fhells, through lengdi of time, and the fubde 
penetrating efleCls of the air, which diffolve them 
to earth, render thefe ridges very fertile ; and, 
•when clear of their trees, and cultivated, they 
become profufely produftive of almoft every kind 
>Qf vegcraljlc. Here are alfo large plantations of 
' B 3 indigo. 


indigo, corn, and potatoes*, with many other forts 
of efculent plants. I obferved, amongft the ihells 
of the conical mounds, fragments of earthen vef- 
fels, and of other utenfils, the manufadlure of the 
ancients : about the centre of one of them, the rim 
of an earthen pot appeared amongft the fliells and 
earth, which I carefully removed, and drew it our, 
almoft whole : this pot was cunoufly wrought all 
x)ver the outfide, reprefenting bafket work, and was 
undoubtedly eftcemed a very ingenious "perform- 
ance, by the people, at the age of its conftru6lion. 
The natural produce of thefe teftaceous ridges, be- 
fides many of lefs note, are, the great Laurel Tree, 
(Magnolia grandiflora) Pinus tasda, Laurus Bor- 
bonia, Quercus fcmpervirens, or Live Oak, Prunus 
Lauro-cerafus, Ilex aquifolium, Corypha palma, 
Juniperus Americana. The general furface of the 
ifland being low, and generally level, produces a 
very great variety of trees, ilirubs and herbaceous 
plants ; particularly the great long-leaved Pitch- 
Pine, or Broom-Pine, Pinus paluftris, Pinus fqua- 
mofa, Pinus lutea, Gordonia Lafianthus, Liquid 
ambar (Styraciflua) Acer rubrum, Fraxinus excel- 
cior; Fraxinus aquatica, Quercus aquatica, Quercus 
phillos, Quercus dentata, Quercus humila varietas, 
Vaccinium varietas, Andromeda varietas, Prinos va- 
rietas, Ilex varietas, Viburnum prunifolium, V. den- 
tatum, Cornus florida, C. alba, C. fanguinea, Car- 
pinus betula, C. oilrya, Itea Clethra alnifolia, Hale- 
/ia tetraptera, H. diptera, Iva, Rhamnus frangula, 
Callicarpa, Morus rubra, Sapindus, Caffine, and of 
fuch as grow near water- courfcs, round about 
ponds and favannas, Fothergilla gardini, Myrica 
cerifcra, Olea Americana, Cyrilia racemiflora, 


* Convolvulus batata. 



Magnolia gkiica, Magnolia pyramidata, Cercis, 
Kalmia anguftifolia, Kalmia ciliata, Chionanthiis, 
Cephalanthos, TEfculus parva ; and the interme-. 
diace fpaces, furrounding and lying between the^ 
ridges and favannas, are interie(5ted with plains of 
the dwarf prickly fan-leaved Palmetto, and lawns 
o{ grafs variegated with ftarely trees of the great 
Broom-Pine, and the fpreading ever-green Water-. 
Oak, either difpofed in clumps, or fcatteringly 
planted by nature. The upper furface, or vegeta- 
tive foil of the iiland, lies on a foundation, or ftra- 
tum, of tenacious cinereous-coloured clay, which 
perhaps is the principal fupportofthe vaft growth 
of timber that arifes from the furface, which is 
little more than a mixture of tine white fand and 
diflblved vegetables, ferving as a nurferybed to 
hatch or bring into exiftence the infant plant, 
and to fupply it with aliment and food, fuitable to 
its delicacy and tender frame, until the roots, ac- 
quiring fufficient extent and folidicy to lay hold of 
the clay, foon attain a magnitude and (lability fuf- 
ficient to maintain its ftation. Probably if this clay 
were dug our, and caft upon the furface, a'rer be- 
ing meliorated by the faline or nitrous qu.ilities of 
the air, it would kindly incorporate wirh the loofe 
fand, and become a produftive and lading manure. 

The roebuck, or deer, are numerous on this 
ifland ; the tyger, wolf, and bear, hold yet fome 
pofleffion j as alfo raccoons, foxes, hares, fquirreis, 
rats, and mice, but I think no moles. There is 
a large ground rat, more than twice the uze of the 
common Norway rat. In the night time it throws 
out the earth, forming little mounds, or hillocks, 
Opollums are here in abundance, as alfo pole- 
cats, wild-cats, rattle fnakes, glafs-fnake^ coach- 
whip-fnake, and a variety of other ferpents. 

B 4 Here 


Here are alfo a great variety of birds, through- 
out the feafons, inhabiting both fea and land. Firft 
I fhall name the eagle, of which there are three 
fpecies. The great grey eagle is the largeft, of 
great ftrength and high flight ; he chiefly preys on 
fawns and other young quadrupeds. 

The bald eagle is likewife a large, ftrong, and 
very adive bird, but an execrable tyrant: he fup- 
porrs his aiTumed dignity and grandeur by rapine 
and violence, extorting unrealbnable tribute and 
fubfidy from all the feathered nations. 

The iafl: of this race I fliall mention is the falco- 
pifcatorius, or fxHiing-hawk : this is a large bird, 
of high and rapid flight ; his wings are very long 
and pointed, and he fpreads a vaft fail, in propor- 
tion to the volume of his body. This princely bird 
fubfifts entirely on fifli which he takes himfelf, 
fcorning to live and grow fat on the dear-earned 
labours of another ; he alfo contributes liberally to 
the fupport of the bald eagle. 

Water-fowl, and the various fpecies of land-" 
birds, alfo abound, moft of which are mentioned 
by Catelby, in his Hift. of Carohna, particularly his 
painted finch (Emberiza Ceris Linn.) exceeded by 
none of the feathered tribes, either in variety and 
Jplendour of drcfs, or melody of fong. 

Catefby's ground doves are alfo here in abun- 
dance : they are remarkably beautiful, about the 
fize of a fparrow, and their loft and plaintive cooing 
perfeftly enchanting. 

How challe the dove ! " never known to vioLite tlie conjugal 

She flees the feats of envy and llrifc, and fceks the retired paths 

of peace. 



The fight of this delightful and produftlve 
idand, phced in front of the riling city or Sun- 
bury, quickly induced me t.- explore it; which I 
apprehended, from fornner vifits to this coaft, 
would exhibit a comprehenfive epitome of the 
hiftory of all the fca-coaft Iflands of Carolina and 
Geor2:ia, as likewife in eeneral of the coall of the 
main. And though I confidered this excurfion along 
the coafi: of Gc^O'gia and norcnern border of Flo- 
rida, a deviciLicn from the high road of my intended 
travels, yet I perfurm.ed it in order to employ to 
the moll advantage the time on my hands, before 
the treaty of Augulla came on, where I wa:> to at- 
tend, about May or June, by defire of the Super- 
intendant, J. Stewart, efq. who, wht-n I was in 
Charlefton, propofed, in order to facilitate my tra- 
vels in the Indian territoriesj tha", if I would be 
prefent at the Congrels, he would introduce my 
bufinefs to the chiefs of the Cherokees, Creeks, and 
other nations, and recommend me to their friend- 
ll;iip and protecftion ; which promife he fully per- 
formed, and it proved of great fervice to m.e. 

Obedient to the admonitions of my attendant 
fpirit, curiofity, as well as to gratify the expedla- 
tions of my worthy patron, I again fat off on my 
fouthern excurfion, and leit Sunbury, in company 
with feveral of its polite inhabitants, who were go- 
ine to Medway meeting, a very large and well-con- 
ftrudled ••lace or worfhip, in St. John's parifh, 
where I afibciated with them in religious exercife, 
and heard a very excellent fermon, delivered by 
their pious and truly venerable paftor, the Rev. 

Ofgood. This refpeftable congregation is 

independent, and confift chiefly of families, and 



profelytes to a flock, which this pious man led 
about forty years ago, from South Carolina, and 
fettled in this fruitful diftrid. It is about nine 
miles from Sunbury to Medway meeting- houfe, 
which ftancls on the high road oppofite the Sun- 
bury road. As foon as the congregation broke up, 
I re-aflumed my travels, proceeding down the high 
road towards Fort Barrington, on the Alatamaha, 
pafling through a level country, well watered by 
large ftreams, branches of Medway and Newport 
rivers, courfing from extenfive fwamps and marfhes, 
their fources : thefe fwamps are daily clearing 
and improving into large fruitful rice plantations, 
agsrandizins; the well inhabited and rich diftri6l of 
St. John's parilh. The road is ftraight, fpacious, 
and kept in excellent repair by the induilrious in- 
habitants i and is generally bordered on each fide 
with a light grove, confifting of the following trees 
and fl:irub3 : Myrica Cerifera, Calycanthus, Halefia 
tetraptera, I tea ftewartia, Andromeda nidda, Cy^ 
rella racemi flora, entwined with bands and gar- 
lands of BigRonia fempcrvirens, B. crucigera, Lo- 
nicera fempervircns and Glycene frutefcens ; thefe 
were overlhadowed by tall and fpreading trees, as 
the Magnolia grandiftora. Liquid ambar, Lirio- 
dendron, Catalpa, Quercus fempcrvirens, Quercus 
dentata, Q^ Phillos ; and on the verges of the 
canals, where the road was caufwayed, fbcod 
the Cuprefilis difticha, Gordonia Lacianthus, and 
Magnolia glauca, all planted by nature, and left 
ftanding by the virtuous inhabitants, to fhade the 
road, and perRnne the fultry air. The exten- 
five plantations of rice and corn, now in early ver- 
dure, decorated here and there with groves of flo- 
ritcrous and fragrant trees and Ihrubs, under the 



cover and protection of pyramidal laurels and 
plumed palms, which now and then break through 
upon the fight from both fides of the way as we pais 
along ; the eye at intervals ftealing a view at the 
humble, but elegant and neat habitation, of the 
happy proprietor, amidll harbours and groves, all 
day, and moon-light nights, filled with the melody 
of the cheerful inockbird, warbhng nonpareil, and 
plaintive turtle-dove, altogether prefent a view of 
magnificence and joy, inexpreflibly charming and 

In the evenins; I arrived at the feat of the lion. 
B. Andrews, efq. who received and entertained mc 
in every refpeft, as a worthy gentleman could a 
ftranger, that is, v/ith hearty welcome, plain but 
plentiful board, free converfation and liberality of 
fentiment. I fpent the evening very agreeably, and 
the day following (for I was not permitted to de- 
part fooner) : I viewed with pleafure this gentleman's 
exemplary improvements in agriculture ; particu- 
larly in the growth of rice, and in his machines for 
flielling that valuable grain, which {lands in the 
water almoO: from the time it is fown, until within 
a few days before it is reaped, when they draw off 
the water by fluices, which ripens it all at once, and 
when the heads or panicles are dry ripe, it is reap- 
ed and left Handing in the field, in fmall ricks, un- 
til all the ftraw is quite dry, when it is hauled, and 
ftacked in the barn- yard. The machines for clean- 
ing the rice are worked by the force of water. 
They Hand on the great refervoir which contains 
the waters that flood the rice-fields below. 

Towards the evening we made a little party at 
fifliing. We chofe a (haded retreat, in a beautiful 
grove of magnolias, myrtles, and Iweet bay-trees^ 



which' were left Handing on the bank of a fine 
creek, that, from this place, took a flow ferpen- 
tine courfe through the plantation. We prefently 
took foaie fifh, one kind of which is very beau- 
tiful; they call it the red- belly. It is as large as a 
man's hand, nearly oval and thin, being comprefTed 
on each fide ; the tail is beautifully formed ; the 
top of the head and back of an olive-green, be- 
fprinklcd with rufiet fpecks ; the fides of a fea- 
green, inclining to azure, infenfibly blended with 
the olive above, and beneath lightens to a filvery 
white, or pearl colour, elegantly powdered with 
fpecks of the fineft green, rufiet and gold ; the 
beliy is of a bright fcarlet-red, or vermillion, dart- 
ing up rays or fiery ftreaks into the pearl on each 
fide ; the ultimate angle of the branchioftega ex- 
tends backwards with a long fpatula, ending with 
a round or oval particoloured fpot, reprefenting 
the eye in the long feathers of a peacock's train, 
verged round with a thin flame- coloured mem- 
brane, and appears like a brilliant ruby fixed on 
the fide oftlie fifh ; the eyes are large, encircled 
with a fiery iris ; they are a voracious fi(h, and are 
tafily caught with a fuitable bait. 

The next morning I took leave of this worthy 
family, and fat off for the fettlements on the Ala- 
tamaha, ft ill purfuing the high road for P'ort Bar- 
rington, till towards noon, when I turned off to 
the left, following the road to Darian, a fettlement 
on the river, twenty miles lower down, and near 
the coaft-. The fore part of this day's journey was 
pleafanc, die plantations frequent, and the roads in 
tolerable good repair ; but the country being now 
lefs cultivated, the roads became bad. 1 piirfued my 
journey almoft continually through fwamps and 
creeks, v/aters of Newport and Sapcllo, till nijiht, 



v/hen I loll fny way: but coming up to a fence, I 
faw a glimmering light, which conduced me to a 
hoLife, where I itayed all night, and met with very 
civil entertainment. Early next morning I fat off 
again, in company with the overfeer of the farm, 
who piloted me through a large and difficult fwamp, 
when we parted ; he in chafe of deer, and I to- 
wards Darian. I rode feveral miles through a 
high foreft of pines, thinly growing on a level plain, 
which admitted an ample view, and a free circula- 
tion of air, to another fwamp : and crofTing a con- 
fiderable branch of Sapello river, I then came to a 
fmall plantation by the fide of another fwamp : the 
people were remarkably civil and hofpitable. The 
man's name was M*Intofh, a family of the firft co- 
lony eftabliflied in Georgia, under the conduct of 
general Oglethorpe. Was there ever fuch a fcene 
of primitive fimplicity, as wa3 here exhibited, fince 
the days of the good king Tammany ! The vene- 
rable grey-headed Caledonian fmilingly meets me 
coming up to his houfe. " Welcome, ftranger ; 
come in, and reft ; the air is now very fukry ; it 
is a very hot day." I was there treated with fome 
excellent venifon, and here found friendly and fecure 
fhelter from a tremendous thunder ftorm, which 
came up from the N. W. and foon after my arri- 
val began to difcharge its fury all around. Step- 
ping to the door to ooferve the progrefs and di- 
rection of the tempelt, the fulgour and rapidity of 
the ftreams of lightning, palTing from cloud to cloud, 
and from the clouds to tlie earth, exhibited a very 
awful fcene ; when inftantly the lightning, as it 
were, opening a fiery chafm in the black cloud, 
darted with inconceivable rapidity on the trunk of a 
large pine-tree, that fi:ood thirty or forty yards from 
me, and fet it in a blnze. The flame inftantly 

3 afcended 


afcehded upwards of ten or twelve feet, and conti- 
iiiied flaming about fifteen minutes, wlien it was gra- 
dually extlnguiflied by the deluges of fain that fell 
upon it. 

I faw ^ere a remarkably large turkey of the na- 
tive wild breed -, his head was above three feet 
from the ground when he flood ereft ; he was a 
llately beautiful bird, of a very dark dufky brown 
colour, the tips of the feathers of his neck, bread, 
back, and fhoulders, edged with a copper colour, 
which in a certain cxpofure looked like burnifhed 
gold, and he feemed not infenfible of the Iplendid 
appearance he made. He was reared from an egg, 
found in the foreil, and hatched by a hen of the 
common domeftic fowl. 

Our turkey of America is a very different fpe- 
cics from the meleagris of Afia and Europe ; they 
are nearly thrice their fize and weight. I have i'ecn 
feveral that have weighed between twenty and 
thirty pounds, and fome have been killed that 
weighed near forty. They are taller, and have a 
much longer neck proportionally, and likewife 
longer legs, and Hand more eredl j they are alio 
very different in colour. Ours are all, male and 
female, of a dark brown colour, not having a black 
feather on them ; but the male exceedingly fplen- 
did, with changeable colours. In other particulars 
they diiFer not. 

The temped being over, I waited till the floods 
of rain had run off tne ground, then took leave of 
my friends, and departed. The air was now cool 
and falubrious, and riding {even or eight miles, 
through a pine foreft, I came to Sapello bridge, 
to which the fait tide flows. I here fl:opped, at 
4 Mr, 


Mr. Bailey's, to deliver a letter from the governor. 
This c-entleman received me very civilly, inviting 
me to ftay with him ; but upon my urging the ne- 
cefllty of my accelerating my journey, he permitted 
me to proceed to Mr. L. M'lntoJfh's, near the river, 
to vvhofe friendihip I was recommended by Mr. B. 

Perhaps, to a grateful mind, there is no intel- 
leftual enjoyment, which regards human concerns, 
of a more excellent nature, than the remembrance 
of real a6i:s of friendihip. The heart expands at 
the pleafing recolledlion. When I came up to his 
door, the friendly man, fmiling, and with a grace 
and dignity peculiar to himfelf, took m.e by the 
hand, and accofted me thus : ** Friend Bartram, 
" come under my roof, and I delire you to make my 
" houfe your home, as long as convenient to your- 
" felf J remember, from this moment, that you are 
t* a part of my family, and, on my part, I fhall en- 
" deavour to make it agreeable, " which Was veri- 
fied during my continuance in, and about, the 
fouthern territories of Georgia and Florida ; for I 
found here fincerity in union with all the virtues, un- 
der the influence of religion. I fhall yet mention 
a remarkable inftance of Mr. M'Intofh's friendihip 
and refpe<5t for me ; which was, recommending his 
eldeft fon, Mr. John M'Incolh, as a companion in 
my travels. He was a fenfible virtuous youth, and 
a very agreeable companion through a long and toUr 
fome journey of near a thoufand miles. 

Having been gready refrefhed, by continuing a 
few days with this kind and agreeable family, I pre- 
pared to profecute my journey foutherly. 


1 6 TRAVELS m 


I SAT off early in the morning for the Indian 
trading-houfe, in the river St. Mary^ and took the 
road up the N. E. fide of the Alatamaha to Fort- 
Barringtcn. I paffed through a well-inhabited dif- 
trict, nr»<*flly rice plantations, on the waters of Cat- 
head creek, a branch of the Alatamaha.. On draw- 
ing near the fort, I was greatly delighted at the 
appearance of two new beautiful fhrubs, in all their 
blooming grac s. One cf them appeared to be a 
fpecies of Gordonia*, but the flowers are larger, 
and more fragrant than thole of the Gordonia Laf- 
canthus, and are fefiile ; the feed vefiel is alio very 
different. The other was equally uifti ■: iiihed for 
beauty and fihguiarity ; it grows twelve or fifteen 
feet high, the branches r.fcendant and oppofite, and 
terminate with large panicles of pale blue tubular 
flowers, fpecked on the infide with crlmfon ; but 
■what h lingular, thefc yar'.cles are ornamented 
with a number of ovate large bra61:e«, as white, and 
like fine paper, thtir tops and verges ftained with 
a rofe-red, which, at a little dillance, has the ap- 
pearance of clufters of rofes, at the extremities of 
the limbs : the flowers are of the CI. Pentandria 
monogynia ; the leaves are nearly ovate, pointed 
and petioled, fl:anding oppofite to one another on 
the branches. 

After fifteen miles riding, I arrived at the ferry, 
which is near the fite of the fort. Here is a confi- 
derable height and bluff on the river, and evident 

• Fianklinia AIataliam£. 



veftlges of an ancient Indian town may be feen, 
fiich as old cxtenfivc fields, and conical mounds, 
or artificial heaps of earth. I here crofled the ri- 
ver, which is about five hundred yards over, in a 
good large boat, rowed by a Creek Indian, who 
was married to a white woman ; he feemed an ac- 
tive, civil, and fenfible man. I faw large, tall trees 
of the NyiTa coccinea, fi. Ogeeche, growing on the 
banks of the river. They grow in the water, neai* 
the Ihore. There is no tree that exhibits a more 
defirable appearance than this, in the autumn, 
when the fruit is ripe, and the tree diverted of its 
leaves; for then they look as red as fcarlet, with 
their fruit, which is of that colour alfo. It is of 
the fliape, but larger than the olive, containing an 
agreeable acid juice. The leaves are oblong, lan- 
ceolate and entire, fomicwhat hoary underneath} 
their upper furface of a full green, and fhining; 
the petioles Oiort, pedunculis mukifloris. The moft 
northern fettlement of this tree, yet known, is on 
Great Ogeeche, where they are called Ogeeche 
limes, from their acid fruit being about the fize of 
limes, and their being fometimes ufed in their 

Being fafely landed on the oppofite bank, I 
mounted my horfe, and followed the high road to 
the ferry on St. Ille, about fixty miles fouth of the 
.Alatamaha, paffing through an uninhabited wilder- 
iiefs. The fudden tranfition from rich cultivated 
fettiements, to high pine forefts, dark and graffy 
favannas, forms in my opinion no difagreeable con- 
tratls ; and the new objefts of obfervation in the 
works of nature foon reconcile the furprifed ima- 
gination to the change. As foon as I had loft fight 
of the river, afcending fome fand-hillsj I obferved 

C a new 


a new and moft beautiful fpecies of Annona, FiaT- 
ing clufters of large white fragrant flowers ; and a 
diminutive but elegant Kalmia. The ftems are 
very fmall, feeble, and for the moft part undivided, 
furnifhed with little ovate pointed leaves, and ter- 
minate with a fi mple racemi, or fpike of flowers, 
falver formed, and of a deep rofe red. The whole 
plant is ciliated. It grows in abundance all over 
the moift favannas, but more efpecially near ponds 
and bay-Iwamps. In flmilar f]tuations, and com- 
monly a near neighbour to this new Kalmia, is {etn 
a very curious fpecies of Annona. It is very dwarf^ 
the fliems feldom extending from the earth more 
than a foot or eighteen inches, and are weak and 
almofl: decumbent. The leaves are long, extremely 
narrow, aimofl: lineal. However, fmall as they are, 
they retain the figure common to the fpecies, that 
is, lanceolate^ broadeft at the upper end, and atte- 
nuating down to the petiole, vi^hich is very fhort -, 
their leaves ftand alternately, nearly ered;, forming 
two feries, or wings, on the arcuated ftems. The 
flowers, both in fize and colour, refemble thofe of 
the Antrilobe, and are fingle from the axilla of 
the leaves on incurved pedunculi, nodding down- 
wards. I never faw the fruit. The dens, or ca- 
verns, dug in the find-hills, by the great land-tor- 
toife, called here Gopher *, prefent a very Angular 
appearance : thefe vaft caves are their caftles and 
diurnal retreats, from- v/hence they ifliie forth in 
the nighr, in fearch of prey. The little mounds, 
or hillocks of frefli earth, thrown up in great num- 
bers in the night, have alfo a curious appearance. 

In the evening I arrived at a cow-pen, wheic 

• Teftudo Polypliemws, 







( ' '//////'//// ///-// //^w/vv/ 

there was a habitation, and the people received mc 
very civilly. I ftaid here all night, and had for 
fupper plenty of milk, butter, and very good checfe 
of their own make, which is a novelty in the mari- 
time parts of Carolina and Georgia} the inhabitants 
being chiefly fiipplied with it from Europe and the 
northern ftates. The next day's progrefs, in ge- 
neral, prefented fcenes fimilar to the preceding, 
though the land is lower, more level and humldy 
and the produce more varied : high open forefts of 
(lately pines, flowery plains, and extenfive green 
favannas, chequered with the incarnate Chironia 
pulcherrima, and Afclepias fragrans, perfumed the 
air whillt they pleafed the eye. I met with fome 
troublefome cane fwamps, faw herds of horned 
catde, horfes and deer, and took notice of a pro- 
cumbent fpecies of Hibifcus, the leaves palmated, 
the flowers large and expanded, pale yellow and 
white, having a deep crimfon eye ; the whole plant, 
except the corolla, armed with flifi^ hair. I alfo 
faw a beautiful fpecies of Lupin, having pale 
green villous Ungulate* leaves; die flowers are 
difpofed in long ere6t fpikes ; fome pla ts produce 
flowers of the fineft celeftial blue, others incarnate, 
and fome milk white, and though they all three 
feem to be varieties of one fpecies, yet they afl"oci- 
ate in feparate Communities, approach- 
ing near each other's border, or in fight at a dif- 
tance. Their difl:ri6ls are ficuated on dry fandy 
heights, "in open pine forefts, which are naturally 
thin of undergrowth, and appear to great ad van- 
tagCj generally, where they are found, they occu- 
py many acres of furface. The vegetative mould 
IS compofed of fine v;hite fand, mixed, and colour- 
ed, with diflblved and calcined vegetable fubltances j 

* Lupinus breuQij, foFii-. integerimU eblongis villofis. 

C 2 buc 


but this (Iratum is not very deep, and covers one of 
a tenacious cinereous coloured clay, as we may ob- 
ferve by the earth adhering to the roots of trees, 
torn up by ftorms, &c. and by the Httle chimnies> 
or air holes of cray-fifii, which perforate the favan- 
nas. Turkeys, quails, and fmall birds, are here to 
be feen ; but birds are not numerous in defert fo- 
refts J they draw near to the h..bitations of men, as 
I have conllantly obferved in all my travels. 

I arrived at St. I lie's in the evening, where I 
lodged, and next mornings having crofTcd over in a 
ferry beat, fat forward for St. Mary's. The fitua- 
tion of the territory, its foil and productions, be- 
tween thefe two laft rivers, are nearly fimilar to 
thofe which I had palled over, except that the fa- 
vannas are more frequent and extenfive. 

It may be proper to obferve, that I had now 
paffed the utmoft frontier of the white fettiements 
on that border. It. was drawing on towards the 
clofe of day, the lines ferene and calm, the air tem- 
perately cool, and gentle zephyrs breathing through 
the fragrant pines j the profpecl around enchant- 
ingly varied and beautiful ; endlefs green favannas, 
chequered with coppices of fragrant flirubs, filled 
the air with the richeft perfume. The gaily at- 
tired plants which enamelled the green had begun 
to imbibe the pearly due of eveaing ; nature feem- 
ed fiienr, and nothing appeared to ruffle the happy 
moments of evening contemplation ; when, on a 
ludden, an Indian appeared croffing the path, at a 
confiderable diftance before in..\ On perceiving 
that he was armed with a rifle, the firfl fight of him 
ftartled me, and I endeavoured to elude his fight, 
by Hopping my pace, and keeping large trees be- 
tween usi but he efpicd me, and turning fhort 



aboiir, fat fpnrs to his horfe, and came up on full 
gallop. I never before this was afraid at the fight 
of an Indian, but at this time, I mull ^^wn that my 
fpirits were very much agitated : I fa-w at once, 
that, being unarmed, I was in his power -, and hav- 
ing now but a few moments to prepare, I refigned 
myfelf entirely to the will of the Almighty, truft- 
ing to his mercies for my prefervation : my mind 
then became tranquil, and I refolved to meet the 
dreaded foe with and chearful confi- 
dence. The intrepid Siminole (topped f.iddenly, 
three or four yai-ds before me, and filencly viewed 
me, his countenance angry and fierce, fhifting his 
rifle from fhoulder to flioulder, and looking about 
inflantly on all fides. I advanced towards him, and 
with an air of confidence ofi-ered him my hand, 
hailing him, brothc^r j at this he haftily jerked 
back his arm, with a look of malice, rage, and dif- 
dain, feeming every way difcontented ; when again 
looking at me more attentively, he intlancly Ipurred 
up to me, and with dignity in his look and action, 
gave me his hand. Pollibly the filent language of 
his foul, during the moment of fufpenfe (for I be- 
lieve his defign was to kill m.e when he firfi: came 
up) was after this manner : " White man, thou 
" art my enemy, and thou and thy brethren may 
" have killed mine ; yet it may not be fo, and even 
" were that the cafe, thou art now alone, and in 
" my power. Live ; the Great Spirit forbids me 
" to touch thy life; go to thy brethren, tell them 
" thou faweft an Indian in the forefts, who knew 
" how to be humane and compalfionate." In fine, 
we lliook hands,' and parted in a friendly manner, 
in the midft of a dreary wildernefs ; and he inform- 
ed me of the courfe and diftance to the trading- 
houfe, where I found he had been extremely lil- 
treated the day before. 

C 3 I now 


I now fat forward again, and after eight or ten 
miles riding-, arrived at the banks of St. Mary's, 
oppofue the ftores, and got fafe over before dark. 
The river is here about one hundred yards acrofs, 
has ten feet water, and, following its courfe, about 
ilxty miles to the fea, though but about twenty 
miles by land. The trading company here received 
and treated me with great civility. On relating 
my adventures on the road, particularly the laft 
wi:h the Indian, the chief replied, with a counte- 
nance that at once befpoke furprife and pleafure, 
*' My friend, confidtr yourfelf a fortunate man: 
*^ that fellow," faid he, " is one of the greateft v'lU 
*' lains on earth, a noted murderer, and outlawed 
'^ by his countrymen. Laft evening he was here, 
" we took his gun from him, broke it in pieces, 
-'* and gave him a fevere drubbing : he, however, 
*' made his efcape, carrying off a new rifle gun, 
*' with which, he faid, going off, he would kill 
** the firft white man he met." 

On ferioufly contemplating the behaviour of this 
Indian towards me, fo foon after his ill treatment, 
the following train of fentiments infenfibly crowded 
in upv^n my mind. 

Can it be denied, but that the moral principle, 
which dire6ls the favages to, virtuous and praife- 
worthy adlions, is naiural or innate ? It is certain 
they have not the affiftance of letters, or thofe 
means ot education in the fchools of philolbphy, 
where the virtuous ftntiments and actions of the 
moft jUuftrious charadcrs are recorded, and care- 
fully laid before the youth of civilized nations : 
therefore this moral principle muft be innate, or 
they mull be under the immediate influence and 
guidance of a more divine and powerful preceptor, 



Vho, on thefe occafions, inftantly infpires them, 
and as with a ray of divine light, points out to them 
at once the dignity, propriety, and beauty of vir- 

The land on, and adjacent to, this river, not- 
withftanding its arenacec:-: (iirface, appears natu- 
rally fertile. The peacli trees are large, hcaltny, 
and fruitful ; and Indian corn, rice, cotton, and 
indigo, thrive exceedingly. This faady furface, 
one would fuppofe, from its loofe texture, would 
poflefs a percolating quality, and fufFer the rain- 
waters quickly to drain off; but it is quite the con- 
trary, at leaft in thefe low maritime fandy coun- 
tries of Carolina and Florida, beneath the moun- 
tains ; for in the fands, even the heights, where the 
arenaceous ftratum is perhaps five, eight, and ten 
feet above the clay, the earth, even in the longeft 
droughts, is moift an inch or two under the furface ; 
whereas, in the rich tenacious low lands, at luch 
times, the ground is dry, and, as it were, baked 
many inches, and fometimes fome feet deep, and the 
crops, as well as almoft all vegetation, fuffer in 
fuch foils and fituations. The reafon of this may 
be, that this kind of earth admits more freely of a 
tranfpiration of vapours, arifing from inteftine wa- 
tery canals to the furface; and probably thefe va- 
pours are impregnated with faline or nitrous prin- 
ciples, friendly and nutritive to vegetables; how- 
ever, of thefe caufes and fecret operations of nature 
I am ignorant, and refume again nxy proper em- 
ployment, that of difcovering and colle<5ling data 
for the exercife of more able phyfiologifts. 

The favannas about St. Mary's, at this feafon, 
idifplay a very charming appearance of flowers and 
verdure; their more elevated borders are varied 

C 4 with 


with beds of violets, lupins, Amaryllis atamafco, 
and plants of a new and very beautiful fpecies of 
Mimofa fenfitiya, which I think as admirable and 
more charming than the celebrated Humble plant, 
equally chafte and fearful of the hafty touch of the 
furpriffrd admirer. The flov;er is larger, of a bright 
damafic rofe colour, and exceedingly fragrant : the 
whole plant is deftitute of prickles, but hairy : it is 
procumbent, reclining itfelf upon the green turf, 
and from thefe trailing branches proceeds an upright 
peluncle, fix or eight inches high, fupporting an 
oblong head of flowerets, which altogether, at a 
fmall diflance, have the appearance of an exuber- 
ant field of clover j and, what is fingular, and 
richly varies the fcene, there are interfperfed 
patches of the fame fpecies of plants, having flowers 
of the finefi: golden yellow, and others fnow white ; 
but the incarnate is moil prevalent. Magnolia 
glauca, Itea Clethra, Chionanthus, Gordonia lafi- 
anthus, Ilex anguftifolium, Olea Americana, Ho- 
pea tindoria, i^c. are feated in detached groves 
or clumps, round about the ponds or little lakes, 
at the lower end of the favannas. I obferved, 
growing on the banks of this fequefl:ered river, the 
follo'.ving trees and fhrubs : Quercus fempervirens, 
Q^aquatica, Q^Phillos, Q^dentata, Nyfla aquati- 
ca, N. fylvanca, N. Ogeeche, fi. coccinea, Cupref- 
fus diliicha, Fraxinus aquatica, Rhamnus frangula, 
Piunus laurocerafa, Cyrilla racemiflora, Myrica 
rerifera, Andromeda fcrruginia, Andr. nitida, and 
the great evergreen Andromeda of Florida, called 
Pipe-flem Wood, to vhich I gave the name of An- 
dromeda formofilfima, as it far exceeds in beauty 
every one ot diis family. 

The river St. Mary has its fource from a vaft 
lake, or marlh, called Ouaquaphenogawj which lies 



between Flint and Oakmulge river-, and occupies 
a fpace of near three hundred miles in circuit. 
This vafl accumulation of waters, in the wet feafon, 
appears as a lake, and contains fome large iflands 
or knolls, of rich high land -, one of which the pre- 
fent generation of the Creeks reprelent to be a moft 
blifsfui fpot of the earth : thf^y lay it is inhabited 
by a peculiar race of Indians, whofe women are in- 
comparably beauiiifuli they alfo tell you that this 
terreftiial paradife has been facn by lome of their 
enterprifing hunters, when in purfuit of game, who 
being loft in inextricable fwamps and bogs, and on 
the point of perifhing, were unexpe:ledly relieved 
by a company of beautiful women, wiiom they call 
daughters of the fun, who kin.ily gave them .fuch 
provifions as they had with them, which were 
chiefly fruit, oranges, date.s, &c. and fome corn 
cakes, and then enjoined them to fly for fifety to 
their own country; for that their hufbinds were 
fierce men, and cruel to ibangcrs : they further 
fay, that thefe hunters had a view of their Icttle- 
ments, fituatcd on the elevated banks of an ifland, 
or promontory, in a beautiful lake ; but that in 
their endeavours to approach it, they were in- 
volved in perpetual labyrinths, and, like enchanted 
knd, ftiil as they imagined they had juft gained it, 
it feemed to fly before them, alternately appearing 
and dilappearing. They refolved, at length, to 
leave the delufu^e purfuit, and to return; which, 
after a number of inexprelTible difficulties, they ef- 
fected. When they reported their adventures to 
their countrymen, their young warriors were en- 
flamed with an irrefiftible defire to invade, and 
make a conqueft of, lb charming a country; but 
all their attempts hitherto have proved abortive, 
never having been able again to find that en- 

26 TRAVELS i:f 

chanting fpor, nor even any road or pathway/ to it ; 
yet they fay tiiat they frequently meet with certain 
figns of its being inhabited, as the building of ca- 
noes, footfteps of men, &c. They tell another 
ftory concerning the inhabitants of this fequefccred 
country, which feems probable enough, which is, 
that they ar^K the pollerity of a fogitive remnant of 
the ancient Yamafes, v/ho eicaped mafiacre after a 
bloody and decifive conBicl between them and the 
Creek nation (who, it is certain, conqviered, and 
nearly exterminated, that once powerful people), 
and here found an afykirn, remote and fecure from 
the fury of their proud conquerors. It is, however, 
certain that there is a vaft lake, or drowned fwamp, 
well known, and often vifited both by white and In- 
dian hunters, and on its environs the moft valuable 
hunting grounds in Florida, well worth contending 
for, by tholb powers whofe territories border upon 
it. From this great fource of rivers *, St. Mary 
ariles, and nieanders through a vait plain and pine 
foreft, near an hundred and fifty miles to the ocean, 
with which it communicates, between the points of 
Amelia and Talbert iQands ; the waters flow deep 
and gently dov^rn from its fource to the fea. 

Having made my obfervations on the vegetable 
produdions of this part of the country, and ob- 
tained Ipecimens and feeds of fome curious trees 
and fhrubs (which were the principal objedt of this 
excurfion) I returned by the fame road to die Ala- 
tamaha, and arrived fafe again at the ieat of my 
good friend, L. M'lntofh, Efq. where I tarried a 
few days to reft and refrelh myfelfj and to wait for 

* Source of rivers. It is faid, that St. llle, St. Mary, and the beautiful 
river, Little St. Junn, which difcharj^es its ivaters into the bay of Apalachi, 
al St. M.irk's, take their rife from tiiis fwarop- 



xny young companion and fellow pilgrim, Mr. John 
M'lntofh, who, being fond of the enterprife, had 
been fo aftive during my ablence, in the neceffary 
preparations, that we had nothing to wait for now 
but Mrs. M'lntofh's final confent to give up her 
fon to the perils and hardfliips of fo long a journey; 
which difficult point being fettled, we fet off with 
the prayers and benevolent wifhes of my com- 
panion's worthy parents. 




Early in the morning, we mounted our horfes, 
and in tv/o days arrived in Savanna ; here we learned 
that the fuperintendant of Indian affairs had left 
the capital, and was on his way to Auguila. I re- 
, mained but one day in Savanna, which was em- 
ployed in making up and forwarding the coUeftions 
for Charleiton. 

The day following we fet off for Augufla, which 
is on Savanna river, at leaft an hundred and fifty 
miles by land from the capital, and about three hun- 
dred by water. We foliov/ed the courfe of the 
river, and arrived there after having had a prof- 
perous journey, though a little incommoded by the 
heats of the feafon. 

As nothing very material occurred on the road, 
I iliall proceed to give a fummary account of the 
obfej vations I made concerning the foil, fituation, 
and natural produ6lions of the country. 

In' our progrefs from the fea coaft, we rife gra- 
dually, by feveral fteps or afcents, in the following 
manner : Firft, from the fea coaft, fifty miles back, 
is a level plain, generally of a loofe fandy foil, 
producing fpacious high forefts, of Pinus tasda, P. 
lutea, P. Iquarrola, P. echinata, i. Quercus femper- 
virens, 2. Quercus aquadca, j. Q^phillos, 4- Q^ 
tinftoria^ 5. Q^dentata, 6. Q^prinos, 7. Q^ alba, 
8. Q^ finuata, 9. Q^ rubra, Liriodendron tuli- 

I. Live 0;ik. z. Delln-lenvcd Warer Onk. 7. Wlllow-leaveJ Osk. 4. Great 
Bl.ick 0;il<. 5. Nairow-lcnved Wiiitcr-rJen O.ik. 6. Swump white Oak. 
7. White Oak. i. Spaiiifh Oak. 9. ReJ O.ik. 



pifera, Liquidambar ftyraciflua, Morus rubra, 
Cercis tilia, Populiis heterophylla, P-Jatanus occi- 
dentalis, Laurus faflafras, Laurus Borbonia, Ho- 
pea tinftoria, Fraxinus cxcelfior, Nyfl;i, Ulmus, 
Juglans exaltata, Halcfa, Stcwartia. Nearly one- 
third of this vaft plain is what the inhabitants call 
fwamps, which are the fources of numerous fmall 
rivers and their branches : thefe they call fait ri- 
vers, becaiife the tides flow near to their fources, 
and generally carry a good depth and breadth of 
water for fmall craft, twenty or thirty miles up- 
wards from the fea, when they branch and Ipread 
abroad like an open hand, interlocking with each 
other, and forming a chain of fwamps acrofs the 
Carolinas and Georgia, feveral hundred miles pa- 
rallel with the fea coaft. Tliefe fwamps are ftrd 
and repleniihed conilantly by an infinite number of 
rivulets and rills, which fpring out of the firft bank 
or afcent : their native trees and llirubs are, befides 
moft of thofe already enumerated above, as follow: 
Acer rubrum, Nylla aquatica, Chionantlius, Celtis, 
Fagus fylvatica, Sambricus ; and the higher knolls 
afford beautiful clumps of Azalea nuda and Azalea 
vifcofa, Corypha palma, Corypha pumila, and Mag- 
nolia grandiflora j befides, the whole furface of die 
ground between the trees and flirubs appear to be 
occupied with canes (Arundo gigantea) entangled 
with feftoons of the floriferous Glycine frucelCens, 
Bignonia fempervirens, Glycine apios, Smilax, va- 
rious fpecies, Bignonia crucigera, Bign., 
Lonicera fempervirens, and a multitude of ochcr' 
trees, fhrubs, and plants lefs confpicuous ; and, in 
very wet places, Cuprefllis diilicha. The upper 
foil of thefe fwamps is a perfeflly black, foapy, 
rich earth, or ftifF mud, two or three (cQl deep, 
on a foundation or flrarum of calcareous fofTiJ, 
5 which 


which tfie inhabitants call white marie j aiicl this f« 
the heart or ftrength of thefe fwamps : they never 
wear out or become poor, but, on the contrary, 
are more fertile by tillage -, for when they turn up 
this white marie, the air and winter frofts caufing it 
to fall like quicklime, it manures the furface : but 
it has one difad vantage, that is, in great droughts, 
when they cannot have water fufficient in their re- 
fervoirs to lay the furface of the ground under wa- 
ter, it binds, and (o tough as to burn 
and kill the crops, efpecially the old cleared lands ; 
as, while it w as frefh and new, the grc at quantity 
of rotten wood, roots, leaves, &c kept the fur- 
face loofe and open. Severe droughts feldom hap- 
pen near the fea coaft. 

We now rife a bank of confiderable height, which 
runs nearly parallel to the coafl", through Carolina 
and Georgia : the afcent is gradual by feveral 
flights or fteps for eight or ten miles, the perpen- 
dicular height whereof, above the level of the 
ocean, may be two or three hundred fret (and thefc 
are called the fand-hills), when we find ourfelves on 
the entrance of a vafl plain, generally level, which 
extends weft fixty or feventy miles, rifing gently a$^ 
the former, but more perceptibly. This plain is moft- 
ly a foreft of the great long-leaved pine (P. pakiftris 
Linn.) the earth covered with grafs, interfpcrfed 
with an infinite variety of herbaceous plants, and 
embellifl:ied with extenfive favannas, always green, 
Iparklmg with ponds of water, and ornamented 
with Clumps of evergreen, and other trees and 
ftiriibs, as Magnolia grandiflora. Magnolia glauca, 
Gordonia, Illex aquifolium, Quercub, various fpe- 
cies, Lauruo Borbonia, Chionanthus, Hopea tindo- 
ria, Cyrilla> Kalm.ia apguftifolia, Andromeda, va^ 


rieties, Viburnum, Azalea, Rhus vernix, Prinos, 
varieties, Fothergilla, and a new fnrub of great 
beauty and fingularity ; it grows ere<5l, feven or 
eight feet high; a multitude of eredl ftems arife 
from its roocj thefe divide themfelves into afcend- 
nnt branches, which are garnifhed with abundance 
of narrow lanceolate obtule pointed leaves, of a 
light green, fmooth and fiilning. Thefe branches, 
with their many fubdivifions, terminate in fimple 
racemes of pale incarnate flowers, which make a 
fine appearance among die leaves ; the Bowers are 
fuccecded by deficcated triquetrous pericarpi, each 
containing a fingle- kernel. 

The loweft fides of thefe favannas are generally 
joined by a great cane fwamp, varied with coppices 
and hommocks of the various trees and ilirubs al- 
ready mentioned. In thefe fwamps feverai rivulets 
take their rife, which drain them and the adjoining 
favannas, and thence meandering to the rivers 
through the forefts, with their banks decorated 
with fhrubs and trees. The earth under this level 
plain may be defcribed after the following manner : 
the upper furface, or vegetative mould, is a light 
fandy loam, generally nine inches or a foot deep, 
on a (Iratum of cinereous coloured clay, except the 
fand-hills, where the loofe fandy furface is much 
deeper upon the clay , ftone of any fort, or gravel, 
is feldom feen. ■ 

The next afcent, or flight, is of much greater 
and more abrupt elevation, and continues rifing by 
broken ridges and narrow levels, or vales, for ten 
or fifteen miles, when we reft again on another 
cxtenfive nearly level plain of pine forells, mixed 
with various other forell trees, which continue^ 
weft forty or fifty miles farther, and exhibits muck 



the fame appearance with the great forefl laft men- 
tioned ; its vegetable produftions nearly the fame^ 
excepting that the broken ridges by which we af- 
cend to the plain are of a better foil ; the vegeta- 
tive mould is mixed with particles of clay and fmall 
gravel, and the foil of a dufl^y brown colour, lying 
on a ftratum of reddifh brown tough clay. The 
trees and fhrubs are, Pinus tasda, great black Oak, 
Quercus tin6loria, Q^ rubra, Laurus, Saffafras, Mag- 
nolia grandiflora, Cornus Florida, Cercis, Halefia, 
Juglans acuminata, Juglms exaltata, Andromeda 
aiborea : and, by the fides of rivulets (which wind 
about and between thefe hills and fwamps, in the 
vales) Styrax latifolia, Ptelea trirbliata, Stewartia, 
Calycanthus, Chionanthus, Magnolia tripetala, A- 
zalea and others. 

Thus have I endeavoured to give the reader a' 
Ihort and natural defcription of the vaft plain lying 
between the region of Augufta and the fea coaft ; 
for from Augufta the mountainous country begins 
(when compared to the level fandy plain already 
pafied), although it is at leaft an hundred and fifty 
miles weft, thence to the Cherokee or Apalachean 
iTiountains ; and this fpace m.ay with propriety be 
called the hilly country, every where fertile and de- 
lightful, continually replenifned by innumerable ri- 
vulets, either courfing about the fragrant hills, or 
fpringing from the rocky precipices, and forming 
many cafcadesj the coolnefs and purity of which 
■waters invigorate the air of this other wife hot and 
fultry climate. 

The villap;e of Augufta is fituated on a rich and 
fertile plain, on the Savanna river ; the buildings 
are near its banks, and extend nearly two miles up 
to the catarafts, or falls, which are formed by the 



firft chain of rocky hills, through which this fa- 
mous river forces itfelf, as if impatient to repofe 
on the extenfive plain before it invades the ocean. 
When the river is low, which is during the fummer 
months, the catarafts are four or five feet in height 
acrofs the river, and the waters continue rapid and 
broken, rufliing over rocks five miles higher up : 
this river is near five hundred yards broad at 

A few days after our arrival at Augufta, the 
chiefs and warriors of the Creeks and Cherokees 
being arrived, the Congrefs and the bufinefs of the 
treaty came on, and the negociations continued un- 
determined many days ; the merchants of Georgia 
demanding at leaft two millions of acres of land, 
from the Indians, as a difcharge of their debts, 
due, and of long Handing : the Creeks, on the 
other hand, being a powerful and proud Ipirited 
people, their young warriors were unwilling to fub- 
mit to fo large a demiand, and their condu6l evi- 
dently betrayed a difpoficion to difpute the ground 
by force of arms, and they could not at firil be 
brought to liften to reafon and amicable terms ; 
however, at length, the cool and deliberate coun- 
fels of the ancient venerable chiefs, enforced by 
liberal prefents of fuitable goods, were too power- 
ful inducements for them any longer to re- 
fill, and finally prevailed. The treaty conclud- 
ed in unanimity, peace, and good order; and 
the honourable fuperintendant, not forgetting his 
promife to me, at the conclufion, mentioned my 
bufinefs, and recommended me to the protc6lion of 
the Indian chiefs and warriors. The prefents being 
diflributed among the Indians, they departed, re- 
turning home to their towns. A company of fur- 
D veyors 

^4 tRAVELS r^f 

veyors were appointed by the governor and coun- 
cil, to afcertain the boundaries of the nev/ pur- 
chafe; they were to be attended by chiefs of the 
Indians, feleded and delegated by their country- 
men, to afiift, and be wicneffes that the articles of 
the treaty were fulfilled, as agreed to by both par- 
ties in Congreis. 

Col, Barnet, who was chofen to conduct this 
bufinefs on the part of the Georgians, a gentleman 
every v/ay qualified for that important truft, in a 
very friendly and obliging manner, gave me an in- 
vitation to accompany him on this tour. 

It was now about the middle of the month of 
May; vegetation, in perfe6lion, appeared with all 
her aftraftive charms, breathing fragrance every 
where ; the atmofphere was now animated with the 
efficient principle of vegetative life; the arbuftive 
hills, gay lawns, and green meadows, which on 
every fide inveft the villa of Augufta, had already 
received my frequent vifits ; and although here 
much delighted with the new beauties in the vege- 
table kingdom, and many eminent ones have their 
fequeftered refidence near this place, yet, as I was 
never long fatisfied with prefent pofieffion, however 
endowed with every poffible charm to attraft the 
fight, or intrinfic value to engage and fix the 
eiteem, I was reftlefs to be fearching for more, 
my curiofity being infatiablc. 

Thus it is with regard to our afFetflions and at- 
tachments, in the more important and interefting 
concerns of human life. 

Upon the rich rocky hills at the catara<fcs of Au- 
gufta, I firft obferved the perfumed rhododendron 



ferrugineiim, white-robed philadelphus inodoriis, 
and cerulean malva ; but nothing in vegetable na- 
ture was more pleafing than the odoriferous pancra- 
tium fluitans, which alnnoft alone pofiTefTes the little 
rocky iflets which juft appear above the water. 

The preparatory bufinefs of the furveyors being 
now accompliflied, Mr. J. M-'Intofh, yet anxious 
for travelling, and delirons to accompany me on this 
tour, joined with me the caravan, confifling of fur- 
veyors, aftronomers, artifans, chain-carriers, mark- 
ers, guides, and hunters, befides a very refpeftable 
number of gentlemen, who joined us, in order to 
fpeculate in the lands, together with ten or twelve 
Indians, altogether to the number of eighty or 
ninety men, all or moft of us well mounted on 
horfeback, befides twenty or thirty pack-horfes, 
loaded with provifions, tents, and camp equipage. 

The fummer feafon now rapidly advancing, the 
air at mid-day, about this region, was infufferably 
hot and fultry. We fat off from Augufta, early in 
the morning, for the Great Buffalo Lick, on the 
Great Ridge, which feparates the waters of the Sa- 
vanna and Alatamaha, about eighty miles diftant 
from Augufta. At this Lick the furveyors were to 
feparate themfelves, and form three companies, 
to proceed on different routes. On the evening of 
the fecond day's journey, we arrived at a fmall vil- 
lage on Little River, a branch of the Savanna : this 
village called Wrightfborough, was founded by 
Jof. Mattock, efq. of the left called quakers. This 
public fpirited man having obtained for himfelf 
and his followers a diftricl, comprehending up- 
wards of forty thoufand acres of land, gave the new 
town this name, in honour of fir James Wright, 
then governor of Georgia, who greatly promoted 

D 2 the 


the eftabllfhment of the fettlement. Mr. Mattock, 
who is now about feventy years of age, healthy and 
a6tive, and prefides as chief magiftrate of the fet- 
tlement, received us with great hofpitahty. The 
diftance from Augufta to this place is about thirty 
miles; the face of the country is chiefly a plain of 
high forefts, favannas, and cane fwamps, undl we 
approach Little River, when the landfcape varies, 
prefenting to view high hills and rich vales. The 
foil is a deep, rich, dark mould, on a deep flratum 
of reddifh brown tenacious clay, and that on a foun- 
dation of rocks which often break through both 
ftrata, lifting their backs above the furface. The 
foreft trees are chiefly of the deciduous order, as, 
quercus tindloria, q. liciniata, q. alba, q. rubra, 
q. prinus, with many other fpecies ; celtus, fagus 
fylvatica, and, on the rocky hills, fagus cafl:anea, 
fag. pumila, quercus caftanea .; in the rich vales, 
juglans nigra, jug. cinerca, gleditfia triacanthos, 
magnolia acuminata, liriodendron, platanus, fraxi- 
nus excelfior, cercea, juglans, exaltata, carpinus, 
morus rubra, calycanthus, halefia, asfculus pavia, 
aefc. arborea. 

Leaving the pleafant town of Wrlghtfborough, 
we continued eight or nine miles through a fertile 
plain and high forefl:, to the north branch of Little 
River, being the largeft of the two, croiTing which, 
we entered an extenflve fertile plain, bordering on 
the river, and fliaded by trees of vaft growth, which 
at once fpoke its fertility. Continuing fome time 
through thefe fhady groves, the fcene opens, and 
difclofes to view the mofl magnificent foreft I had 
ever feen. We rofe gradually a Hoping bank of 
twenty or thirty feet elevation, and immediately 
entered this fublime foreft. The ground is perfe6tly 

a level 


a level green plain, thinly planted by nature w'tli 
the moll ftately foreil trees, fuch as the gigar:ic 
black * oak (q. tin6loria), liriodendron, juglans 
nigra, plitanus, juglans exaltata, fagus fylvatica, 
ulmus fylvaiica, liquidambar ftyraciflua, whofe 
mighty trunks, feemingly of an equal height, ap- 
peared like fuperb columns. To keep within the 
bounds of truth and reality, in defcribing the mag- 
nitude and grandeur of thefe trees, would, I fear, 
fail of credibility; yet, I think I can aflert, that 
many of the black oaks meafured eight, nine, ten, 
and eleven feet diameter five feel above the ground, 
as we meafured feveral that were above thir^v feet 
girt, and from hence they afcend perfe6lly iiraight, 
with a gradual taper, forty or ftfty ftet to the 
limbs; but below five or fix feet, thefe trunks 
would meafure a third more in circumference, on 
account of the projedting jambs, or fupports, which 
are more or lefs, according to the number of hori- 
zontal roots that they arife from : the tulip tree, 
liquidambar, and beech, were equally ftately. 

Not far diftant from the terrace or eminence, 
overlooking the low grounds of the river, many very- 
magnificent monuments of the power and induftry of 
the ancient inhabitants of thefe lands are vifible. I 
obferved a ftupendous conical pyramid, or artificial 
mount of earth, vaft tetragon terraces, and a large 
funken area, of a cubical form, encompalTed with 
banks of earth; and certain traces of a larger Indian 
town, the work of a powerful nation, whofe period 
of grandeur perhaps long preceded the difcovciy of 
this continent. 

"^ Gigantic black oak. Qiierc. tiiidloria ; the bark of this fpccies of oak: 
is found to afford a valuable yellow dye. This tree is knowu by ihe name 
of black oak in Pennfylvania, Ncw-Jerfey, New-Yoik, and New-Eng- 

D .1 After 


After about feven miles progrefs through this 
foreft of gigantic black oaks, we enter on terri- 
tories which exhibit more varied fcenes : the land 
rifes almoft infenfibly by gentle afcents, exhibiting 
defart plains, high forefts, gravelly and ftony 
ridges, ever in fight of rapid rivulets ; the foil, as 
already defcribed. We then pafled over large rich 
favannas or natural meadows, wide fpreading cane 
fwamps, and frequently old Indian fettlements, 
now deferted and overgrown with forefts. Thefe 
are always on or near the banks of rivers, or great 
fwamps, the artificial mounts and terraces elevat- 
ing them above the furrounding groves. I ob- 
ferved, in the ancient cultivated fields, i. diofpy- 
ros, 2. gleditfia triacanthos, 3. prunus chicafaw, 
4. callicarpa, 5. morus rubra, 6. juglans exaltata, 
7. juglans nigra, which inform us, that thefe trees 
were cultivated by the ancients, on account of their 
fruit, as being wholefome and nourifliing food. 
Though thefe are natives of the foreft*, yet they 
thrive better, and are more fruitful, in cultivated 
plantations, and the fruit is in great eftimation with 
the prefent generation of Indians, particularly juglans 
exaltata, commonly called fliell-barked hiccory. 
The Creeks ftore up the laft in their towns. I have 
feen above an hundred bufhels of thefe nuts belong- 
ing to one family. They pound them to pieces, 
and then caft them into boiling water, which, after 
pafling through fine ftrainers, preferves the moll 
oi!y part of the hquid : this tliey call by a name 
which fignifies hiccory milkj itjs as fweer and rich 
as frcfli cream, and is an ingredient in moft of their 
cookery, efpeciaily homony and corn cakes. 

* The Chicafaw plun 1 think mud be excepted, for though certainly a 
native .If imerici, yet I .lev r law it wild in the forelh, but always in old 
d'.fertfu 111 Jian p. 'n;at'."Ti : 1 fu^p: le it to have been brought from theS.W. 
t><-'iOad the Mifliiij-iii, by the Chicafaws. 

'■ '■ ■ ■' ■ • ■• • ■ , After 


After four davs moderate and pleafant travel- 
ling. \ve ai lived in the evening at the Buffalo Lick. 
This extraordinarv place occupies ffveral acres of 
grcu^J, at the foot of the S. E. prMTiontory of the 
Great Ridge, which, as before obferved, divides 
the rivers Savanna and Alatamaha. A large cane 
fwamp and meadows, forming an iminenfe plain, 
lie S. E. from k; in this fwamp I believe the head 
branches of the o-reat Ogeeche river take their rife. 
The place called the Lick contains three or four 
acres, is nearly level, and lies between the head of 
the cane fv/amp and the afcent of the Ridge. The 
earth, from the fuperficies to an unknown depth, 
is an almoll white or cinereous coloured tenacious 
fattiih clay, which all kinds of cattle lick into great 
caves, purfuing the delicious vein. It is the com- 
mon opinion cf the inhabitants, that this clay is im- 
pregnated with faline vapours, arifing from fofTile 
falts deep in the earth ; but 1 could difcover nothing 
fahne in its talle, but I imagined an infipid fweet- 
nefs. Horned cattle, horfes, and deer, are immo- 
derately fond of it, infomuch, that their excrement, 
which almoft totally covers the earth to fome dif- 
tance round this place, appears to be perfeft clay ; 
which, when dried by the fun and air, is almoft as 
hard as brick 

We were detained at this place one day, in ad- 
jufting and planning the feveral branches of the 
lurvey. A circumftance occurred during this time, 
which was a remarkable inftance of Indian faga- 
city, and had nearly difconcerted all our plans, and 
put an end to the bufinefs. The furveyor having fixed 
jiis compafs on the ftaff, and being about to afcer- 
tain the courfe from our place of departure, which 
was to ftrike Savanna river at the confluence of a 
certain river, about ieventv miles diftance from us ; 

D 4 jull 


jiift as he had determined upon the point, the In- 
dian chief came up, and obferving the courfe he had 
fixed upon, fpoke, and faid it was not right; but 
that the courfe to the place was fo and fo, holding 
up his hand, and pointing. The furveyor replied, 
that he himfelf was certainly right, adding, that 
that little inftrument (pointing to the compafs) told 
him fo, which, he faid, could not err. The Indian 
anfwered, he knew better, and that the little 
wicked inftrument was a liar ; and he would not ac- 
quiefce in its deciiions, fince it would wrong the 
Indians out of their land. This miftake (the fur- 
veyor proving to be in the wrong) difpleafed the 
Indians; the difpute arofe to that height, that the 
chief and his party had determined to break up the 
bufinefs, and return the fhorteft way home, and 
forbad the furveyors to proceed any farther : how- 
ever, after fome delay, the complaifance and pru- 
dent conduct of the colonel made them change their 
refolution : the chief became reconciled upon con- 
dition that the compafs fliould be difcarded, and 
rendered incapable of ferving on this bufmefs ; that 
the chief himfelf fhould lead the furvey; and, 
moreover, receive an order for a very confiderable 
quantity of goods. 

Matters being now amicably fettled, under this 
new regulation, the colonel having detached two 
companies on feparate routes, Mr. M'Intofh and 
myfelf attaching ourfelves to the colonel's party, 
whofe excurfion was likely to be the moll extenfive 
and varied, we fat off from the Buffalo Lick, and 
the Indian chief, heading the party, condLi6ted us 
on a flraight line, as appeared by collateral obfer- 
vation, to the defired place. We purfueci nearly 
a north courfe up the Great Ridge, until we came 
near the branches of Broad River, when we turned 



off to the right hand, and encamped on a confi- 
derable branch of it. At this place we continued 
almoft a whole day, conftituting furveyors and 
aftronomersj who were to take the courfe, diftance, 
and obfervations on Broad River, and from thence 
down to its confluence with the Savanna. 

The Great Rido-e confifts of a continued hioh. 
forefl, the foil fertile, and broken into moderately 
elevated hills, by the many rivulets which have 
their fources in it. The heights and precipices 
abound in rock and ftone. The foreft trees and 
other vegetable produ6lions are the fame as already 
mentioned about Little River: I obferved hale- 
fia, ftyrax, sefculus pavia, sefc. fylvatica, robinia 
hifpida, magnolia acuminata, mag. tripetala, and 
fome very curious new fhrubs and plants, particu- 
larly the phyfic-nut, or Indian olive. The ftems 
arife many from a root, two or three feet high; 
the leaves fit oppofite, on very fhort petioles ; they 
are broad, lanceolate, entire and undulated, hav- 
ing fmooth furfaces of a deep green colour. From 
the bofom of each leaf is produced a fingle oval 
drupe, {landing ere6l, on Lng flender ftems ; it 
has a large kernei, and thin pulp. The fruit is 
yellow when ripe, and about the fize of an olive. 
The Indians, when they go in purfuit of deer, carry 
this fruit with them, fuppofing that it has the 
power of charming or drawing that creature to 
them i from whence, with the traders, it has ob- 
tained the name of the phyfic-nut, which meanSj 
with them, charming, conjuring, or fafcinating. 
Malva fcandens, filix fcandens, perhaps a fpecies 
of tiichoinanes } the leaves are palmated, or ra- 
diated i it climbs and roves about, on fhrubs, in mpifl 
ground. A very fingular and elegant plant, of an 



unknown family, called Indian lettuce, made its firft 
appearance in thefe rich vales; it is a biennial; the 
primary or radical leaves are fomewhat fpatuled, 
or broad, lanceolate, and obtufe pointed, of a pale 
yellowifh green, fmooth furface, and of a delicate 
frame, or texture ; thefe leaves fpread equally on 
every fide, almofl reclining on the ground ; from 
their centre arifes a firaight upright flem, five, fix, 
or feven feet high, fmooth and polifhed ; the ground 
of a dark purple colour, Vv'hich is elegantly pow- 
dered with greenifh yellow fpecks ; the ftem, three- 
fourths of its length, is embellifhed with narrow 
leaves, nearly of the fame form with the radical ones, 
placed at regular diftances, in verticilate order. The 
Superior one-fourth divifion of this ftem is formed 
in a pyramidal fpike of flowers, rather diffufe ; 
thefe flowers are of the hexandria, large, and ex- 
panded ; of a dark purple colour, delicately pow- 
dered with green, yellow and red, and divided 
into fix parts, or petals ; thefe are fucceeded by tri- 
quetrous dry pericarpi, when ripe. 

This great ridge is a vaft extended projedion of 
the Cherokee or Alegany mountains, gradually in- 
creafing in height and extent, from its extremity 
at the Lick, to its union with the high ridge of 
mountains anciently called the Apalachian moun- 
tains J it every where approaches much nearer the 
•waters of the Alatamaha than thofe of the Savanna. 
At one particular place, where we encamped, on 
the Great Ridge, during our repofe there part of 
a day, our hunters going out, underfl:anding that 
their route was to the low lands on the Ocone, 
I accompanied them : we had not rode above 
three miles before we came to the banks of that 
beautiful river. The cane fwamps, of immenfe 
extent, and the oak forefts, on the level lands, 



are incredibly fertile ; which appears from the tall 
reeds of the one, and the heavy timber of the other. 

Before we left the waters of Broad River, having 
encamped in the evening on one of its confiderablc 
branches, and left my companions, to retire, as ufual, 
on botanical refearches, on afcending a fteep rocky 
hill, I accidentally difcovered a new fpecies of ca- 
ryophyllata (geum odoratilfimum) ; on reaching to 
a fhrub my foot flipped, and, in recovering myfelf^ 
I tore up fome of the plants, whofe roots filled the 
air with animating fcents of cloves and fpicy perfumes. 

On my return towards camp, I met my philo- 
fophic companion, Mr. M'Intofh, who was feated 
on the bank of a rivulet, and whom I found highly 
entertained by a very novel and curious natural ex- 
hibition, in which I participated with high relifli. 
The waters at this place were ftill and fhoal, and 
flowed over a bed of gravel jufl: beneath a rocky 
rapid : in this eddy flioal were a number of little 
gravelly pyramidal hills, whofe fummits rofe almoll 
to the furface of the water, very artfully confl:ru6t- 
ed by a fpecies of fmall cray-fifli (cancer macrou- 
rus) which inhabited them : here feemed to be their 
citadel, or place of retreat for their young againfl: 
the attacks and ravage^ of their enemy, the gold- 
fifli : thefe, in numerous bands, continually infefl:ed 
them, except at fhort intervals, when fmall detach- 
ments of veteran cray-filh fallied out upon them, 
from their cells within the gravelly pyramids, at 
which time a brilliant fight prefented; the little gold- 
nfli inliiantly fled from every fide, darting through 
the tranfparent waters like fl:reams of lightning i 
fome even fprang above the furface, into the air, 
but all quickly returned to the charge, furround- 
jng the pyramids as before, on the retreat of the 



cray-fiili; in this manner the war feemed to be 


The gold-fifh is about the fize of the anchovy, 
nearly four inches long, of a neat Oender form j the 
head is covered with a falade of an ultramarine blue, 
the back of a reddifh brown, the fides and belly of 
aflame, or of the colour of a fine red lead ; a nar- 
row dufky line runs along each fide, from the gills 
to the tail J the eyes are large, with the iris like 
burnifhed gold. This branch of Broad River is 
about twelve yards wide, and has two, three, and 
four feet depth of water, and winds through a fer- 
tile vale, almoft overfliadowed on one fide by a 
ridge of high hills, well timbered with oak, hic- 
cory, liriodendron, magnolia acuminata, pavia fyl- 
vatica, and on their rocky fummits, fagus cafta- 
nea rhododendron ferrugineumi, kalmia latifolia, 
cornus Florida, &c. 

One of our Indian young men, this evening, 
caught a very large falmon trout, weighing about 
fifteen pounds, which he prefented to the colonel, 
who ordered it to be ferved up for fupper. The In- 
dian ftruck this filh, with a reed harpoon, pointed 
very fharp, barbed, and hardened by the fire. The 
fifli lay clofe under the fteep bank, which the Indian 
difcovercd and ftruck with his reed ; inftantly the fifh 
darted off' with it, whilft the Indian purfued, with- 
out cxtrafting the harpoon,, and with repeated 
thrufts drowned it, and then dragged it to fhore. 

After leaving Broad River, the land rifes very 
fenfibly, and the country being mountainous, our 
progref-. became daily more difficult and flow ; yet 
the varied fcenes of pyramidal hills, high forefts, 
rich vales, fcrpentine rivers, and cataracts, fully 



compenfated for our difficulties and delays. I ob- 
ferved the great aconitum napellus, delpliinium 
peregrinum, the carminative angelica lucida*, and 
cerulean malva. 

We at length happily acccompliHied our line, ar- 
riving at the little river, where our hunters bring- 
ing in plenty of venifon aud turkeys, we had a plen- 
tiful feaft at fupper. Next morning we marked the 
corner tree, at the confluence of Little River and the 
Savanna J and, foon after, the Indians amicably 
took leave of us, returning home to their towns. 

The rocks and folTils, which conflitute the hills 
of this middle region, are of various fpecies, 
as, quartfum, ferrum, cos, filex, glarea, arena, 
ochra, ftalaftites, fhxum, mica, &c. I faw no 
figns of marble, plafter, or lime-ftonej yet there 
are, near Augufta, in the forefts, great piles of a 
porous friable white rock, in large and nearly hori- 
zontal mafles, which feems to be an heterogeneous 
concrete, confiding of pulverized fea-fhells, with 
a fmall proportion of fand ; it is foft, and eafily 
wrought into any form, yet of lufHcient confidence 
for conIlru(51:ing any building. 

As for the animal productions, they are the fame 
which originally inhabited this part of ^^ orth Ame- 
rica, except fuch as have been affrighted away fmce 
the invafion of the Europeans. The buffalo (urus) 
once fo very numerous, is not at this day to be fcen. 
in this part of the country; there are but fev/ elks, and 
thofc only in the Apalachian mountains. The dreaded 
and formidable rattle-fnake is yet too com.nion, and 
a variety of other ferpents abound, particularly that 
admirable creature, the glafs-fnake : I faw a very 

"^ Called ncnda in Virginia ; by the Creek anl Cherok-e tra.'ers, white 



large and beautiful one, a little diftancc from otH' 
camp. Tlie alligamr, a fpecies of crocodile, abounds 
in the river and fwamps, near the fea coaft, but is 
not to be feen above Augufta. Bears, tygers*, 
wolves, and wild cats (felis cauda truncata) are 
numerous enough : and there is a very great variety* 
of papilio and phalena, many of which are admir- 
ably beautiful, as well as other infedts of infinite 

The furveyors having completed their obferva- 
tions, we fat off next day on our return to Augufta, 
taking our route generally through the low lands 
on the banks of the Savanna. We crolTed Broad 
River, at a newly fettled plantation near its conflu- 
ence with the Savanna. (3n my arrival at Augufta, 
finding myfelf a little fatigued, I ftaid there a day 
or two, and then fat ofi^ again for Savanna,' the ca- 
pital, where we arrived in good health. 

Having, in this journey, met with extraordinary 
fuccefs, not only in the enjoyment of an uninter- 
rupted ftate of good health, and efcaping ill acci- 
dents, incider.t to fuch excurfions, through unin- 
habited wildernefTes, and an Inrian frontier, but alfo 
in making a very extenfive collection of new dif- 
coveries of natural produftions ^ on the recolledlion 
of fo many and great favours and bieffings, I now, 
with a high fenfe of gratitude, prefume to offer up 
my fincere thanks to the Almighty, the Creator and 

* This creature is called, in Pennfylvania and the northern States, panther ; 
but in Carolina and the fouthiern States, is called tygef ; it is very ftrong, 
much larger than any doj:, ot" a ycUowifh brown, or clay colour, having a 
■very long tail : it is a mifchievous animal, and preys on calves, young 

Cultt, SiQ, 




Having completed my Hortiis Siccus, and made 
up my colle6lions of feeds and growing roots, the 
fruits of my late weftern tour, and fent them to 
Charlefton, to be forwarded to Europe, I fpent the 
remaining part ot this feafon in botanical excurfions 
to the low countries, between Carolina and Eaft 
Florida, and colle6led feeds, roots and fpecimens, 
making drawings of fuch curious fubjefts as could 
not be preferved in their native ftate of excellence. 

During this recefs from the high road of my tra- 
vels, having obtained the ufe of a ne>:c light cyprefs 
canoe, at Broughton Ifland, a plantation, the pro- 
perty of the Hon. Plenry Laurens, efq. I ftored 
myfelf wirh necefiaries for the voyage, and refolved 
upon a trip up the Alatamaha. 

I afcended this beautiful river, on v/hofe fruit- 
ful banks the generous and true fons of liberty fe^ 
curely dwell, fifty miles above die white fettle-^ 

How gently flow thy peaceful floods, O Alata- 
maha ! How fublimely rife to viev/, on thy elevated 
fhores, yon magnolian groves, from w^hofe tops 
the furrounding expanfe is perfumed, by clouds of 
incenfe, blended with the exhaling balm of the li- 
quidambar, and odours continually arifing from 
circumambient aromatic groves of illicium, myrica, 
laurus and bignonia. 

When wearied with working my canoe, againfl: 
the impetuous current (which becomes ftronger by 

J reafon 

4^ Travels m 

reafon of the mighty floods of the river, with <toU 
lefted force, prelfing through the firft hilly afcents, 
where the fhores on each fide prefent to view rocky 
cliffs rifing above the furface of the water, in nearly 
flat horizontal naaffes, wafhed fmooth by the de- 
fcending floods, and which appear to be a connpo- 
lition, or concrete, of fandy lime-ftone) I refigned 
my bark to the friendly current, referving to my- 
felf the controul of the helm. My progrefs was 
rendered delightful by the fylvan elegance of the 
groves, cheerful meadows, and high diftant foreft:s, 
which in grand order prefented themfelves to view. 
The winding banks of the river, and the high pro- 
jedling promontories, unfolded frefli fcenes of gran- 
deur and fublimity. The deep forefts and diftant 
hills re-echoed the cheering fociai lowi-igs of do- 
meflic herds. The air was filled with the loud 
and iTirill hooping of the wary fliarp-fighted crane. 
Behold, on yon decayed, defoliated cyprefs tree, 
the folitarv wood pelican, dejeftedly perched upon 
its utmofi: elevated fpire; he there, like an ancient 
venerable fage, fets himfelf up as a mark of deri- 
fion, for the fafety of his kindred tribes. The 
crying-bird, another faithful guardian, fcreaming 
in the gloomy thickets, warns the feathered tribes 
of approaching peril; and the plumage of the fwifc 
failing fquadrons of Spanifli curlews (white as the 
immaculate robe of innocence) gleams in the ceru- 
lean fls:ies. 

Thus fecure and tranquil, and meditating on the 
marvellous fcenes of primitive nature, as yet un- 
modified by the hand of man, I gently defcended 
the peaceful fl:ream, on whofe poliflied furface were 
depitled the mutable Ihadows from its penfile banks; 
whilil: myriads of finny inhabitants fported in its pel- 


JiOR'TH America. 49 

The glorious fovereign of day, clothed in light 
refulgent, rolling on his gilded chariot, haftened to 
revifit the weftern realms. Grey penfive eve now 
adinonirncd us of gloomy night's hafty approach : 1 
\vas roufed by care to feek a place of fecure repofe, 
ere darknefs came on^ 

Drawino; near the hWh fhores, I afcended the 
ileep banks, where flood a venerable oak. An an- 
cient Indian field, verdured over with fucculent 
grafs, and chequered with coppices of fragrant 
Ihrubs, offered to my view the Myrica cerifera, 
Magnolia glauca, Laurus benzoin, Laur. Boibonia, 
Rhamnus frangula, Pruniis Chicafaw, Prun. lau- 
rocerafus, and others. It was nearly encirckd with 
an open forefl of flately pines (Pinus paluflris) 
through which appeared the extenfive favanna, the 
fecure range of the fwift roebuck. In front of my 
landing, and due caft, I had a fine profpeft of the 
river and low lands on each fide, which gradually 
"ividened to the fea-coaft, and gave me an uncon- 
fined profped:, whilft the far diftant fea-coaft iflandsj 
like a coronet, limited the hoary horizon. 

My barque being fecurely moored, and having 
reconnoitred the furrounding groves, and colle6led 
fire-wood> I fpread my (kins and blanket by my 
cheerful fire, under the protedling fhade of the hof- 
pitable Live Oak, and reclined my head on my hard 
but healthy couch. I liftened, undiflurbed, to the 
divine hymns of the feathered fongfters of the 
groves, whilfl the foftly whifpering breezes faintly 
died away. 

The fun now below the weflern horizon, tlie 
moon majeftically rifing in the eafl; again the tune- 
ful birds became infpircd : how melodious is the 
foeial mock-bird ! the groves refound the unceafing 

E cries 

5<? tRAVELs ri^r 

Cries of the whip-poor-will; the moon about aif 
hour above the horizon ; lo ! a dark eclipfe * of her' 
glorious brightnefs came flowly on ; at length, a- 
lilver thread alone encircled her temples: at this 
boding change, an univerfal filence prevailed. 

Nature now weary, I refigned myfelf to reft; 
the night paffed over ; the cool dews of the morn- 
ing awoke me; my fire burnt low ; the blue fmoke 
fcarce role above the moiftened embers ; all was 
gloomy : the late ftarry fkies, now overcaft by thick 
clouds, warned me to rife and be going. The 
livid purple clouds thickened on the frowning brows 
of the morning ; the tumultuous winds from the 
eaft, now exerted their power. O peaceful Alatama- 
ha ! gentle by nature ! how thou wert ruffled ! thy 
^avy furface disfigured every objeft, prefenting 
them obfcureiy to the fight, and they at length to- 
tally difappeared, whilft the furious winds and fweep- 
ing rains bent the lofty groves, and proftrated the 
cjuaking grafs, driving the affrighted creatures to 
their dens and caverns. 

The tempeft now relaxed, its impetus being fpent, 
and a calm ferenity gradually took place ; by noon the 
clouds broke away, the blue fky appeared, the fulgid 
fun-beams fpread abroad their animating lights and 
the fteady weftern wind refumed his peaceful reign. 
The waters were purified, the waves fubfided, and the 
beautiful river regained its native calmnefs. So it is 
with the varied and mutable feenes>of kumanevcats 
on the ftream of life. The higher powers and af- 
fections of the foul are ih blended and connected 
with the inferior paflions, that the moft painful feel- 
ings are excited in the mind when the latter are 
croJfed : thus in the moral fyftem, which we have 

* The air at this time being ferene, and not a cloud to be fccn, I faw this 
annual almoft total autumnal eclipfe iu Us hij^hcft degree of perfection. 



planned for our ccndu61:, as a ladder whereby to 
mount to the fummit of tenedriai f-dory and hnp- 
pinefs, and from whence we perhaps meditated our 
fiight to heaven itfelf at t^ .e very moment when we 
vainly imagine ourfelves to have attained its pointy 
fome unforefeen accident intervenes, and furprifes 
usi the chain is violently fhaken, we quit our hold 
and fail : the well-contrived fyitem at once becomes 
a chaos; every idea of happinefs recedes; the fplen- 
dour of glory darkens, and at length totally diiap- 
pears ; every pleafing objeft is defaced, all is de- 
ranged, and the flattering fcene paiTes quite away ; 
a gloomy cloud pervades the underllanding, and 
when we fee our progrcfs retarded, and our beft 
intentions fruftrated, we are apt to deviate from the 
admonitions and convidtions of virtue, to fhut our 
eyes upon our guide and protestor, doubt of his 
power, and defpair of his alTiftance. But let us wait 
and rely on our God, who in due time will fliine 
forth in brightnefs, dilTipate the envious cloud, and 
reveal to us how finite and circumfcribed is humaii 
power, whenaHliming to itfelf independent wifdom. 

But, before I leave the river Alatamiahaj we 
will proceed to give a farther and more particular 
account of it. It has its fource in the Cherokee 
mountains near the head of Tugilo, the great 
weft branch of Savanna, andj before it leaves 
them, is joined and augmented by innumerable 
rivulets j thence it defcends through the hilly 
country, with all its collateral branches, and winds 
rapidly amongft the hills two hundred and fifty 
miles, and then enters the flat plain country, by 
the name of the Oakmulge ; thence meandering an 
hundred and fifty miles, it is joined on the caft fide 
by the Ocone, which likewife heads in the lower 
ridges of ihe mountains. After this confluence, 

E a having 


liaving now gained a vafb acqiiifitlon of wafers, it 
afTumes the name of Akcainaha, v/hen it becomes 
a large majefiic river, fiowing with gentle v/ind- 
ings through a vaft plain foreft, near an hundred 
miles, and enters the Atlantic by feverai mouths. 
The north channel, or entrance, glides bj the 
heights of Darisn, on the call bank, about ten miles 
i(bo\'e the bar, and running from thence with fe- 
verai turnings, enters the ocean between Sapello 
and Wolf iflands. The fouth channel, which is 
Cileemed the largefl and deepefl:, after its fepara- 
ticn from the north, defcends gently, winding by 
M'Intofii's and Broughton iflands; and laftly, by 
the weft coafb of St. Simeon's ifland, enters the 
ocean, through St. Simon^s found, between the 
fouth end of the ifland of that name and the north 
end of Jekyl ifland. On the weft banks of the 
fouth channel, ten or twelve miles above its mouthy 
and nearly oppofite Darien, are to be feen the re- 
mains of an ancient fort, or fortification j it is now 
a. regular tetragon terrace, about four feet high, 
with baftions at each angle ; the area may con- 
tain about an acre of ground, but the fofie which 
furrounded it is nearly filled up. There are large 
Live Oak, Pines, and other treeSy growing upon 
it, and in the old fields adjoining. It is fuppofed 
to have been the work of the French or Spaniards. 
A large fwamp lies betwixt it and the river, and a 
confidcrable creek runs clofe by the works, and en-- 
ters the river through the fwamp, a fmail diftance 
p.bove Broughton ifland. About feventy or eighty, 
miles above the confluence of the Oakmulge and 
Ocone, the trading path, from. Augufta to the Creek 
nation, crofles thefe fine rivers, which are there 
forty miles apart. On the eaft banks of the Oak- 
mulge, this tradiiig road runs nearly two miles 



through ancient Indian fields, which are called the 
Oakmulge fields : they are the rich low lands of the 
river. On the heights of thefe low grounds are yet 
vifible monuments, or traces, of an ancient town, 
fuch as artificial mounts or terraces, fquares and 
banks, encircling confiderable areas. Their old 
fields and planting land extend up and down the 
river, fifteen or twenty miles from this fite. 

If we are to s;ive credit to the account the 
Creeks give of themfelves, this place is remarkable 
for being the firfl: tov/n or fettlement, when they fat 
down (as they term it) or ePcabliihed themfelves, 
after their emigration from the v/eft, beyond the 
MifTifippi, their original native country. On this 
long journey they fufi^ered great and innumerable 
difficulties, encountering and vanquilhing numerous 
and valiant tribes of Indians, who oppofed and re- 
tarded their march. Having crofled the river, flill 
pufliing eaftward, they were obliged to make a 
ftand, and fortify themfelves in this place, as their 
only remaining hope, being to the lad degree per- 
fecuted and v/eakened by their furrounding toes. 
Having formed for themfelves this retreat, and 
driven off" the inhabitants by degrees, they recover- 
ed their fpirits, and agaia faced their enemies, 
when they came ofFvi6lorious in a memorable and 
decifive battle. They afterwards gradually fubdued 
their furrounding enemies, fiirengthening themfelyes 
by taking into confederacy the vanquiflied tribes. 

And they fay, alfo, that about this period the 
Englifli were eilabliihing the colony of Carolina; 
and the Creeks, underllanding that they were a 
powerful, warlike people, fent depudes to Charlef- 
'ton, their capital, offering them their friendfliip and 
alliance, which was accepted, and, in confequence 

E J thereof^ 


thereof, a treaty took place between them, which 
has remained inviolable to this day. They never 
ceafed war againft the numerous and potent bands 
of Indians, who then flirrounded and cramped the 
• Englilh plantations, as the Savannas, Ogeeches, 
Wapoos, Santees, Yamafees, Utinas, Icofans, Pa- 
ficas, and others, nntil they had extirpated them. 
T he Yamafees and their adherents Ihieltering them- 
felves under the power and protection of the Spa- 
niards of Ead Florida, they purfued them to the 
very gates of St. Auguftine j and the Spaniards re- 
fufing to deliver them up, thefe faithful intrepid al- 
lies had the courage to declare war againft them, 
and inceifantly perfecuted them, until they entirely 
broke up and ruined their fettlements, driving them 
before them, till at length they were oblii.ed to re- 
tire within the walls of St. Auguftine and a few in- 
ferior fortified pofts on the fea coaft. 

After a few days I returned to Broughton ifland. 
The Cherokees and their confederates being yet dif- 
contented, and on bad terms with the white people, 
it was unfafe to purfue my travels in the north wef- 
tern regions of Carohna. And recollefting many 
fubjefls of natural hiftory, which I had obferved in 
the fouth of the ifthmus of Florida, when on a jour- 
ney fome years ago with my father, John Bartram, 
that were interefting, and not taken notice of by 
any traveller; and as it was then in the autumn and 
winter, having reafon to think that very many cu- 
rious fubjefts had efcaped our refcarches ; 1 now 
formed the rcfolution of travelling into Eaft Florida; 
accordingly, I immediately wrote to dodlor Fo- 
the-gill, in order that he might know where to di- 
rcd to me. 





We are, all of us, fubjeft to croflcs and difap- 
^ointments, but more efpecially the traveller j and 
when they furprife us, we fr^^quently become reft- 
leCi and impatient under diem : but let us rely on 
Providence, and by ftudying and contemplating the 
works and power of the Creator, learn wifdom and 
iinderftanding in the economy of nature, and be 
ferioufly attentive to the divine monitor within. Let 
us be obedient to the ruling powers in fuch things 
as regard human affairs, our duties to each other, 
and all creatures and concerns that are fubmitted to 
our care and controul. 

In the month of March, 1774, I fat off from Sa- 
vanna, for Florida, proceeding by land to the Ala- 
tamaha, where I diverted my time agreeably in 
Ihort excurfions, picking up curiofities, until the 
arrival of a fmall velTel at Frederica, from Savanna, 
which was deftined to an Indian trading houfe high 
up St. John's, in Eaft Florida. Upon information 
of this veflel's arrival, I immediately took boat rnd 
defcended the Alatamaha, calling by the way o;' 
Broughton ifland, where I was kindly received by 
Mr. James Bailey, Mr. Laurens's agent. Leaving 
Broughton ifland in the evening, 1 continued de- 
fcending the fouth channel nine or ten miles, when, 
after crofling the found, I arrived at Frederica, on 
the ifland of St. Simon, where I was well received 
^nd entertained by James Spalding, efq. This gen- 

E 4 tleman 


tleman carrying on a very confiderable trade, and 
having extenfive connexions with the Indian tribes 
of Eaft Florida, gave me letters to his agents read- 
ing at his trading houfes, ordering them to furnifh 
me with horfesj guides, and every other convenient 

Before the vefiel was ready to fail again for St. 
John's, I had time to explore the ifland. In the 
cool of the morning early, I rode out of the town, 
diiecfting my courfe to the fouth end of the ifland. 
After penetraring a thick grove of oaks, which al- 
moft furrounded the town on the land-fide, fudden- 
ly a very extenfive and beaudful green favann^ 
opened to view, in length nearly two miles, and in 
breadth near a mile, well flocked with horned cat- 
tle, horfes, fht^ep, and deer. Following an old 
highway, now out of repair, acrofs the Savanna, 
I afcen led the floping green bank, and entered a 
noble foreft of lofty pines, and then a venerable 
grove of Live Oaks, under whofe fhady fpreading 
boughs opened a fpacious avenue, leading to the 
former feat of general Oglethorpe, but now the 
property of capr. Raimcnd Demere. After leav- 
ing this town, I was led into a high pine forefl ^ 
the trees were tall, and generally of the fpecies 
called Broom-pine (P. palullris Linn.) the furface 
of the ground covered with grafs, herbage, and 
fome flirubbery : I continued through this foreft 
nearly in a direft line towards the fea coafl, five or 
fix miles, when the land became uneven, witli^ 
ridges of land-hills, mixed with fea-fhells, and co- 
vered by almoft imipenetrable thickets, confilling 
of Live Oaks, Sweet-bay (L. Borbonia), Myrica, 
Ilex aquifolium, Rhamnus frangula, CaiTine, Sider- 
oxylon, Ptelca, Halefia, Callicarpa, Carpinus, en- 
tangled with Smilax pfeudo-china, and other 



fpecies, Bignonia fempervirens, B. crucigeni, Kham- 
nus volubilis, &e. This dark labyrinth is fucceedeci 
by a great extent of fait plains, beyond which the 
boundlefs ocean is feen. Betwixt the dark foreft 
and the fait plains, I crofTed a rivulet of frefj-i wa- 
ter, where I fat down a while to reft myfelf, under 
the ihadow of fA^eet Bays and Oaks ; the lively 
breezes were perfumed by the fragrant breath of 
the fuperb Crinum, called by the inhabirants, White 
Lily. This admirable beauty of the fea-coail- 
iflands dv/eljs in the humid fliady groves, where the 
foil is made fertile and mellov/ by the admixture of 
fea (hells. The delicate ftru6lure of its fpadix, its 
green broad leaves, and the texture and whitenei^ 
of its flowers, at once charmed me. The Euphor- 
bia pi6la. Salvia coccinea, and Ipomea ere6la, 
were alfo feated in front of my refting place, as 
well as the Lycium falfum (perhaps L. Afrum Linn.) 
^ very beautiful ever-green flirub, its cerulean 
flowers, and coral red berries, always on its 
branches, forming not the leaft of its beauties. 

Time now admonilliing me to rife and be going, 
I, with reluftance, broke away from this afTembly 
pf maritime beauties. 

Continuing on, fouthward, the fait plains on my 
left hand infenfibly became narrower, and I a« 
length reached the ftrand, which was level, firm, 
and paved with fiiells, and afforded me a grand 
view of the boundlefs ocean. 

thou Creator fupreme, almighty I how infinite 
and incomprchenfible thy works ! moft perfed:, and 
every way aftonifliing ! 

1 continued nearly a mile along this firm fandy 
J)each, the waves of the fea fometimes wafliing my 

^ horfc's 


horfe's feet. I obferved a great variety of rhelU 
fifh, as Hchinitis, Corallinus, Patella, Medufa, 
Buccina, Concha venerea, Auris marina, Cancer^ 
Squilla, &c. fome alive, and others dead, having 
been cafi upon the beach by the feas, in tinnes of 
tempeft, where they became a prey to fea-fowl, 
and other maritime animals, or periflied by the heat 
of the fun';and burning lands. At length I doubled 
the utmoft Ibuth point of St, Simon's, which forms 
the north cape of the fouth channel of the great 
liver Alatamaha. The found, juft within this cape, 
forms an excellent bay, or cove, on the fouth end 
<jf the ifiand, on the oppofite fide of which I be- 
held a houfe and farm, where I foon arrived. This 
delightful habitation was lituated in the midft of a 
Ipacious grove of Live Oaks and Palms, near the 
ilrand of the bay, commanding a view of the inlet. 
A cool area furrcunded the low but convenient 
buildings, from whence, through the groves, was 
^ fpacious avenue into the ifland, terminated by a 
larofe favanna : each fide of the avenue was lined 
with bee-hives, to the number of fifty or fixty 5 
they feemed to be well peopled, and exhibited 9, 
lively image of a colony that has attained to a ftate 
of power and affluence, by the pra<5tice of virtue 
and induftry. 

* When I approached the houfe, the good man, 
who was reclining on a bear-flcin, fpread under the 
fliade of a Live Oak, fmoking his pipe, rofe and 
faluted me : " Welcome, ftranger ; I am indulg- 
ing the rational did:ates of nature, taking a litde 
rell, having juft come in from the chace and fifli- 
ing. " After fome converfation and reft, his fer-r 
vant brought a bowl of honey and water, a very 
refrefliing and agreeable liquor, of which I drank. 
On rifing to take my departure, he objefted, and 



requefled me to ftay and dine widi him ; and on 
my pleading, for excufe, the neceflicy of my being 
at Frederica, " Yet, I pray you, ftay a little, I will 
loon have Tome refrcfhment for you. " Prefendy 
was laid before us a plentiful repaft of venifon, &:c. j 
our drink being honey and water, (Irengthened by 
the addition of brandy. Our rural table was fpread 
under the Ihadow of Oaks, Palms, and Sweet Bays, 
fanned by the lively falubrious breezes wafted from 
the fpicy groves. Our mufic was the refponfive 
love-lays of the painted nonpareil, and the alert 
and gay mock-bird j whilft the brilliant humming- 
bird darted through the flowery groves, fufpended 
in air, and drank ne6lar from the flowers of the 
yellow Jafmine, Lonicera, Andromeda, and fweet 

But yet, how awfully great and fublime is the 
majefl:ic fcene eafliward ! the folemn found of the 
bearing furf fl:rikes our ears ; the dafliing of yon 
liquid mountains, like mighty giants, in vain afTail 
the fkies ; they are beaten back, and fall proflii-at^ 
upon the Ihores of the trembling ifland. 

Taking leave of my fylvan friend, I fat off on 
my return to the town, where I arrived before 
night, having obferved, on the way, many curious 
vegetable productions, particularly Corypha Palma 
(or great Cabbage Palm) Corypha pumila, Corypha 
repens, frondibus expanfis, flabelliformibus, plica- 
tis, fl:ipit. fpinofis (Dwarf Saw Palmetto) Corypha 
obliqua, caucjice arboreo adfcendente, frondibus 
expanfis, flabelliformibus, plicads, ftipit. ferratis, 
fCyrilla, Tillandfia monoftachya. Till, lingulata, or 
Wild Pine; both thefe curious vegetables are pa- 
rafites, living on the fubflance of others, particu- 
larly on the limbs of the Live Oak j the latter fpe- 



cies is a very large flourifliing plant, greatly re- 
fembiing, at fome diftance, a well grown plant of 
the Bromeiia Ananas : the large deep green leaves 
are placed in an imbricated order, and afcendant ; 
but their extremities are reflex, their bafes gibbous 
jind hollowed, like «i ladle, and capable of con- 
taining near a pint of water: heavy tempefls of 
"wind and rain tear thefe plants from the trees ; yet 
they live and flourifli on the earth, under the fha- 
dow of thefe great Live Oaks. A very large part 
of this ifiand had formerly been cleared and planted 
by the Englifh, as appeared evidently to me, by 
veftlges of plantations, ruins of coftiy buildings, 
highways, &c. but it is now overgrown with fore lis. 
Frederica was the firft town built by the Englifh in 
Georgia, and was founded by general Oglethorpe, 
who began and eftablifhed the colony. The for- 
trefs was regular and beautiful, conftrufted chiefly 
with brick, and was the largeft, mofl: regular, and 
perhaps moft coftiy, of any in North America, of 
Britifh conftruftion : it is now in ruins, yet oc- 
cupied by a fmall garrifon ; the ruins alfo of the 
town only remain; peach trees, figs, pomegra- 
nates, and other Ihrubs, grow- out of the ruinous 
walls of former fpacious and expenfive buildings, 
not only in the town, but at a diftance in various 
parts £>f the illand ; yet there are a few neat houfes 
in good repair, and inhabited : it feems now reco- 
vering again, owing to the public and liberal fpirit 
and exertions of J. Spalding, efq. who is prefident 
of the ifland, and engaged in very extenfive mer- 
pantile concerns. 

C H A P, 



■ The vefTel in which I was to embark for Ead 
Florida, being now ready to pirrfue her voyage, wc 
fat iliil with a fair wind and tide. Our courfe was 
foiith, through the found, betwixt a chain of fea- 
coafl-iflands, and the main. In the evening we 
came to, at the fouth end of St. Simon's, having 
been hindered by the flood tide making againft us. 
The captain and myfelf, with one of our crew, went- 
on fliore, with a view of getting fom^e venifon and 
fea fov/1. We liad not the good fortune to fee any 
deer, yet we were not akogether unfuccefsful, hav- 
ing taken three young racoons (Urfus cauda elon- 
gata) vv^hich are excelknt meat : we had them for 
ilipper, ferved up in a pillo. Next morning early, 
we again got undci- way, running by Jekyl and 
Cumberland Iflands, large, beautiful, and fertile, yec 
thinly inhabited, and confequently excellent haunts 
for deer, bears, and other game. 

As we ran by Cumberland IQe, keeping the chan- 
nel through the found, we faw a fail a head coming 
lip towards us. Our captain knew it to be the 
trading fchooner from the ftores on St. John's, and 
immediately predicted bad news, as flie was not to 
fail until our arrival there. As fhe approached us, 
his apprchenfions were more aiid more confirmed, 
from the appearance of a number of paffengers on 
deck. We laid to, until flie came up, when we 
hailed her, " What nev/s ? " " Bad j the Indiana 
have plundered the upper ilore, and the traders have 
efcaped only with their lives. " Upon this both 
TefTels ca-me to anchor very near each other, wheti, 




learning the particulars, it appeared, that a large 
party of Indians had furprifed and plundered two 
trading houfes, in the ifthmus, beyond the river St-. 
John's; and a third being timely apprifed of their hof- 
tile intendonsj by a faithful runner, had time to carry 
off part of the effeds, which they fecreted in a fwamp. 
at fome diflance from it, covering them with fkins. 
The upper ftore had faved their goods in like man- 
ner; and the lower ftore, to which we were bound, 
had removed the chief of theirs, and depofited them 
On a fmall ifland, in the river, about five miles be- 
low the ftore. With thcfe effefts was my che'ft, which 
I had forwarded in this veffel, from Savanna, not 
being at that time determined whether to make 
this journey by land or water. The captain of our 
Veflel refolved to put about and return to Frede- 
rica, for frefti inftrudlions how to proceed ; but for 
my part, I was determined to proceed for the ifland 
lip St. John*s, where my cheft was lodged, there be- 
ing fome valuable books and papers in it, which I 
could not do well without. I accordingly defired 
our caotain to put me on ftiore, on I>ittle St Si- 
mon's, which was not far diftant, intending to walk 
a few miles ro a fort, at the fouth end of that ifland,- 
where fome finiernien refided, who, as I expededj 
would fet me over on Amelia Ifland, where 
^as a large plantation, the property of 1 ord Eg- 
mont, a Britifli Nobleman, whole agent, while I 
■^vas at Frederica, gave me an invitation to call on 
him, as I pafiTed toward Eaft Florida ; and here I 
had expedatloiis of getting a boat to carry me to 
St. John's. Agreeably to my defire, the captain 
put me on fliore, with a young man, a paflenger, 
for Faft Florida, who promifed to continue with me, 
and fliare my adventures. We landed fafelyj the cap- 
t:un wifliing us a profperous journey, returned on 




board his vefTel_, and we proceeded for the fort, en- 
countering fome harfh treatment from tliorny tliick- 
ets, and prickly vines. However we reached the 
fort in the evening. The commander was oOt in the 
foreft, hunting. My companion being tired, or in- 
dolent, betook himlelf to reft, while I made a tour 
round the , Ibuth point of the iiland, walking die 
flielly paved fea beach, and picking, up neveltiesv I 
had not gone above a mile, before I came up to a 
roebuck, lying ilain on the fands ; and hearing the 
report of a gun, not far off, and liippofing it to be 
from the captain of the fort, whom I expelled foor> 
to return to take up his game, I retired to a little 
diftance, mounted the fand hills, and £at down, en- 
joying a 5ne profpedl of the rolling billows and 
foaming breakers, beating on the bar, and north, 
promontory of Amelia Ifle, oppofite to me. The 
captain of the fort foon came up, with a Ilain buck, 
on his fhoulders. We hailed each other, and re- 
turned together to the fort, where we were well 
treated, and next morning, at my requeft, the 
captain obligingly fat us over, landing us fafely on 
Amelia. After walking through a fpacious forefb 
of Live Oaks and Palms, and crofTing a creek that 
ran through a narrow fait marfn, I and my fellow 
traveller arrived fafe at the plantation, where the 
agent, Mr. Egan, received us very politely and hof- 
pitably. This gentleman is a very intelligent and 
able planter, having already greatly improved the 
eftate, particularly in the cultivation of indio-o. 
Great part of this ifland confiils of excellent horn- 
mocky land, which is the foil this plant delights 
in, as well as cotton, corn, batatas, and almoft 
every other efculent vegetable. Mr. Egan politely 
rode with me over great part of the idand. On 


^4- TRAVELS m 

Egmont eftate are feveral very large Indian tit- 
muli, which are called Ogeeche mounts, fo named 
from that nation of Indians, who took fhelter here> 
after being driven from their native fettlcments orl 
the main near Ogeeche river. Here they were con- 
ftantly harafied by the Carolinians and Creeks, and 
at length flain by their conquerors, and their bones 
entombed in thefe heaps of earth and fhells. I ob- 
ferved here the ravages of the common grey cater- 
pillar (Phalena periodica), fo dellruftive to forefl 
and fruit trees, in Pennfylvania, and through the 
northern Hates, by ftripping them of their leaves, in 
the fpring, while young and tender. 

Mr. Egan having bufinefs of importance to tranf- 
a6l in St. Auguftine, prefTed me to continue with 
him a few days, when he would accompany me to 
that place, and, if I chofe, I fhould have a palfage, 
as far as the Cow- ford, on St. John's, where he would 
procure me a boat to profecute my voyage. 

It may be fubjefl: worthy of fome inquiry, why 
thofe fine " ndis, on the coaft of Georgia, are {o 
thinly inhal ited ; though perhaps Amelia may in 
fome degree plead an exemption, as it is a very fer- 
tile ifland, on the north border of Eaft Florida, and 
at the capes of St. Mary, the fineft harbour in this 
new colony. If I fliould give my opinion, the fol- 
lowing feem to be tiie moft probable reafons : the; 
greateft part of thefe are as yet the property of a 
few wealthy planters, who having their refidence" 
on the continent, where lands on the large rivers^ 
as Savanna, Ogeeche, Alatamaha, St. Ille, and others, 
are of a nature and quality adapted to the growth 
of rice, which the planters chiefly rely upon for' 
obtaining ready cafli, and purchasing family arti- 
cles i they fettle a few poor families on their in- 



ililar eflates, who rear Hocks of horned cattle, 
horfes, fwine, and poultry, and proted: the game for 
their proprietors. The inhabitants of thefe iflands 
alfo lie open to the invafion and ravages of pirates, 
and, in cafe of a war, to inciirfions from their ene- 
mies armed veffels j in which cafe they mud either 
remove with their families and effedls to the main, 
or be ftripped of all their moveables, and their 
houfcs laid in rilins. 

The foil of thefe iflands appears to be particu- 
larly favourable to the culture of indigo and cotton, 
and there are on them fome few large plantations 
for the cultivation and manufadure of thofe valu- 
able articles. The cotton is planted only by the 
poorer clafs of people, juft enough for their family 
confumption ; they plant two fpecies of it, the an- 
nual and Weft Indian ; the former is low, and 
planted every year ; the balls of this are very 
large, and the phlox long, ftrong, and perfedly 
white ; the Weil Indian, is a tall perennial plant, 
the ftalk fomewhat fhrubby, feveral of which rife 
up from the root for feveral years fuccefiively, the 
ftems of the former year being killed by the winter 
frofts. The balls of this latter fpecies are not quite 
fo large as thofe of the herbaceous cotton ; but the 
phlox, or wool, is long, extremely fine, filky, and 
white. A plantation of this kind will laft feveral 
years, with moderate labour and care, whereas the 
annual fort is planted every year* 

The coafts, founds, and inlets, environing thefe 
iflands, abound with a variety of excellent fifh, 
particularly Rock, Bafs, Drum, Mullet, Sheeps- 
head. Whiting, Grooper, Flounder, Sea Trour, 
[this laft feems to be a fpecies of Cod] Skate, Skip- 
jack, Stingray. The Shark, and great black Scing- 

F lay 


ray, are infatiable cannibals, and very troublefbmc 
to the fifliermen. The bays and lagoons are ftored 
with oyfiersj ajid a variety of other fhell-fifh, crabs,, 
ihrimp, &c. The clam?, irr particular, are large, 
their meat white, tender and delicate- 
There is a large fpace betwixt this chain of fea- 
eoaft-iflands and the main land,., perhaps generally 
near three leagues in breadth; but all this fpace is. 
not covered with water : 1 eftimate nearly two- 
thirds of it to confift of low fait plains^ which pro- 
duce Barilla, Sedge, Rufhes,. &c. and which border 
on the main land, and the weftern Goalts of the iflands.. 
The eatt fides of thefe iflands are> for the mofb part,, 
clean, hard, fandy beaches, expofed to the wafli of 
the ocean. Between thefe iflands are the mouths 
or entrance of fome rivers, which run down from 
the continent winding about through thefe low fait 
marflies, and delivering their waters into the founds, 
which are very extenfive capacious harbours, from 
three to five and fix to eight miles over, and com- 
municate with each other by parallel fait rivers, or 
pafies, that flow into the found : they afibrd an ex- 
tenfive and fecure inland navigation for mofl: craft, 
fuch as large fchooners, floops, pettiaugers, boats, 
and canoes ; and this inland communication of wa- 
ters txicnds along the fea coaft with but few and 
ihort interruptions, from the bay of Chefapeak, in 
Virginia, to the Mifllfippi, and how much farther I 
Jcnow nor, perhaps as far as Vera Cruz. Whether 
this chain oi fea-coait-iflands is a fiep, or advance,, 
which this pare of our continent is now making on 
tlie Atlantic ocean, we muft leave to future ages ta 
determine. But ii feems evident, even to demon- 
ilration, that thofe fait madhes adjoining the coaft 
of tile main, and the reedy and grafly iflands and 



marfhes in the rivers, which are now overflowed at 
every tide, were formerly high fwamps of firm land, 
affording forefts of Cyprefs, Tupilo, Magnolia gran- 
diflora. Oak, Afh, Sweet Bay, and other timber 
trees, the fame as are now growing on the river 
fwamps, whofe fiirface is two feet or more above 
the fpring tides that flow at this day; and it is 
plainly to be feen by every planter along the coaft 
of Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, to the Miffifippi, 
when they bank in thefe graffy tide marllies for 
cultivation, that they cannot fink their drains above 
three or four feet below the furface, before they 
tome to ftrata of Cyprefs flumps and other trees, as 
tlofe together as they now grow in the fwamps. 


6S tRivELS IN 


Being now in readinefs to profecute our voyage 
to St. John's, we fat fail in a handfonne pleafure- 
boat, manned with four flout negro flaves, to row 
in cafe of neceflity. After paffing Amelia Nar- 
rows we had a pleafant run acrofs fort George^s 
found, where, obfcrving the pelicans fifhing, Mr. 
Egan fliot one of them, which he took into the 
boat. T was greatly furprifed on obferving the 
pouch or fack, which hangs under the bill : it is 
capable of being expanded to a prodigious fize. 
One of the people on board, faid, that he had iccn 
more than half a bufhel of bran crammed into one 
of their pouches. The body is larger than that of 
a tame goofe, the legs extremely fnort, the feet 
webbed, the bill of a great length, bent inwards 
like a fcythe, the wings extend near feven feet from 
tip to tip, the tail is very fliort, the head, neck, and, 
bread, nearly whi:e, the body of a light bluifli grey, 
except the quill feathers of the wings, which are 
black. They feem to be of the gull kind, both in 
form and ftrudlure, as well as manner of fifiiing. 
The evening following we landed on the main. 
It was a promontory of high landj covered with 
orange-trees, and projefting into the found, formiing 
a convenient port. VVe pitched our tent under the 
fhelter of a foreil of Live Oak^, Palms, and Sweet 
E:■:y^ ; and having, i:i the C(Aiile of the day, procured 
])If nty of iea lov. 1, luch as curlews, wilkts, fnipes, 
lind birds, a i.1 odicrs, we had them drelled for 
flipper, una feafoned with excellent cyflers, whicii 
lay in he-pG in the vvai^r, Ciofc to our Janding-place. 



The fhrub Capficum growing here in abundance, af- 
forded us a very good pepper : we drank of a well 
of frefh water juft at hand, anildft a grove of Myr- 
tles (Myrica cerifera.) Our repofe however was 
incomplete, from the ftings of mufquetoes, the roar- 
ing of crocodiles, and the continual noife and reft- 
leflhefs of tlie fea fowl, thoufands of them having 
their rooiling places very near us, particularly loons 
of various fpecies, herons, pelicans, Spanifh curlews, 
&c. all promifcuoufly lodging together, and in fuch 
incredible numbers, that the trees were entirely co- 
vered. They rooft in inacceffible iflets in the fait 
marfhes, furrounded by lagoons, and fliallow water. 
Juft without the trees, betwixt them, the water and 
marlhes, is a barricade of Palmetto royal (Yucca 
gloriofa) or Adam's needle, which grows fo thick 
together, that a rat or bird can fcarcely pafs through 
-them ; and the ftiff leaves of this fword plant, ftand- 
ing nearly horizontally, are as impenetrable to man, 
•or any other animal, as if they were a regiment of 
grenadiers with their bayonets pointed at you. T'^e 
Palmetto royal is, however, a very fingular and beau- 
tiful produ(51:ion. It may be termed a tree, from 
its durabihty and magnitude, as likewife from the 
ligneous quality of its ftem, or trunk, when old ; 
yet from its form and texture, I fhould be inclined 
. to rank it amongft the herbaceous plants, for even 
xhe glorious Palm, although it rifes to the altitude 
of a tree, and even tranfcends moft of them, yet 
it bears the chara6ters of the herbaceous ones: and 
this, like the Palm tree, riles with a ftraight, ere(5t 
ftem, about ten or twelve feet high, crowned with 
a beautiful chaplet of fword or dagger-like leaves, 
of a perfect green colour, each terminated with a 
flifF, fharp fpur, and their edges finely crenated. 
This thorny crown is crefted with a pyramid of fil- 
F 3 ver 


ver white flowers, each refembling a tulip or lily, 
Thefe flowers are fucceeded by a large fruit, nearly 
of the form and fize of a flender cucumber, which, 
when ripe, is of a deep purple colour, the fkin 
fmooth and fhining, its pulp fofc, very juicy, and 
of an agreeable aromatic flavour, but rather bitter 
to the tafte ; it is, however, frequently eaten, but 
if eaten to cxcefs, proves violently purgative. The 
feeds are numerous, flat, and lunated. 

The plant, or tree, when grown old, fometlmes 
divides .into two or three fl:ems, which feem of 
equal height and thicknefs, and indeed nearly of the 
fame thicknefs with the main fliem ; but generally, 
when they arrive to this age and magnitude, their 
own weit-hc brings them to the ground, where they 
foon decay, the heart or pith firfl:, leaving a hol- 
low fibrous reticulated trunk or fl^eve, which like- 
Vv'iie foon after decays, and, in fine, all is again re- 
duced to its original earth, and replaces the vege- 
tative mould. But the deceafed are foon replaced 
by others, as there are younger ones of all ages and 
ftature, ready to fucceed their predeceffors, and 
flourifn for a time, with the fame regal pomp and 
fplendor. Thefr plants are lb multitudinous, where- 
ever they get a footing, that the earth is completely 
occupied by them, and fcarccly any other vege- 
table is to be feen, where they are ; yet they are 
fometimes fcattered amongft other trees and vege- 

In three days after leaving Amelia, we arrived 
at the Cow-ford, a public ferry, over St. John's, 
about thirry miics above the bar or capes, the river 
here being above a mile wide. 

Mr. Egan, after procuring a neat little fail-boat 



far me, at a large indigo plantation near the fcny, 
and for which I paid three guineas, departed for St. 
Auguiline, which is on the fca-coaft, about forty- 
>five miles over land. 

It was now about the middle of April. Vegeta- 
tion appearing every where in high progrefs, I was 
anxious to be advancing fouthcriy ; and having at 
tliis plantation ftored myfelf with necefTaries for 
my voyage^ I failed in the morning with a fair 
Avind. I was now again alone^ for the young man, 
my fellow traveller, though ftou.ter and heartier 
chan myfelf, haying repented oi his promife to ac- 
.company me to the Indian trading hcufes, I fjp- 
pofe not relilLing the hardihips and dangers, which 
might perhaps befal us, chofe rather to Hay behind, 
amongft the fettlements. His leaving me, however, 
I did not greatly regret, as I could not confider it 
:a difappointment much to niy difadvantage at the 
moment. Our views were probably totally oppo- 
fite ; hej a young mechanic on his adventures, Teemed 
to be actuated by no other motives, than either to 
.eftablifh himfelf in fome w^ll-inhabited part of the 
:C0untry, where, by following his occupation^ he 
might be enabled to procure, without much toil and 
.^danger, the necefTaries and conveniences of life ^ 
or by iaduftry and frugality, perhaps eftablilli his 
fortune. Whilil I, continually impelled by a reft- 
lefs fpirit of euriofity, in purfuit of new produc- 
tions of nature, my chief happinefs confiiled in trac- 
ing and admiring the infinite power, majefty, and 
perfcdion of the great Almighty Creator, and in 
,the contemplation, that through divine aid and per- 
^niffion^ I might be inilrumental in difcovering, and 
introducing into my native country, fome original 
produdions of nature, which might become ufeful 

F 4 to 


to foclety. Each of our purfuits was perhaps equally 
laudable j and, upon this fuppofition, I was quite 
willing to part with him upon amicable terms. 

My little veflel being furnifhed with a good fail, 
and having filliing tackle, a neat light fufee, pow- 
der and ball, I found myfelf well equipped for my 
voyage, about one hundred miles to the trading 

I crofled the river to a high promontory of 
wood-land, on the weft fhore, and being ftruck with 
the magnificence of a venerable grove of Live Oak, 
Palms, and Laurel (Magnolia grandiflora) I ftepped 
on fhore to take a view of the place. Orange trees 
were in full bloom, and filled the air with fra- 

It was now paft noon, and this place being about 
eight miles above the Cow-ford, and the river near 
three miles in breadth, I wanted to reach a planta- 
tion in fight on the oppofite fhore, in order to get 
fbme repairs, my vellel having fuftained fome da- 
mage from the violence of the wind, in crofTing 
over. I arrived late in the evening, and finding a 
convenient landing-place and harbour, I concluded 
to remain here till morning, and then coaft it clofe 
along fliore to the plantation. 

It beginning to thunder, I was fufliciently warn- 
ed to prepare againft a wet night; and obferving 
a very large Oak tree, which had been thrown 
down by a hurricane, and offered me a convenient 
Jlieltcr, as its enormous limbs bore up the trunk 
a fufficient height from the earth to admit me to 
fit or lie down under it, 1 fpread my fail, flanting 
from tlie trunk of the tree to the ground, on the 



windward fide; and having collected a quantity of 
wood, fufficient to keep up a fire during the night, 
I ftruck one up in front, and fpreading fkins on 
the sround, and upon thefe placing a blanket, one 
half I lay down upon, turning the other over m? 
for a covering. 

The ftorm came up, with a furious wind and 
tremendous thunder and lightning, from the oppo- 
fite N. W. coaft, but luckily for me, little rain 
fell, and I refted very well. But as the wind next 
morning blew very frefli, right in upon the fhore, 
there was no poflibility of moving, with fafety, 
from my prefent fituation. I however arofe to 
reconnoitre the ground round about my habita- 
tion, being roufed by the report of a mu{l<:et not 
far off. I had not left fight of my encampment, 
following a winding path through a grove of Live 
Oak, Laurel (Magn. grandiflora) and Sapindus, 
before an Indian Hepped out of a thicket, and 
crofTed the path juft before me, having a large 
turkey cock flung acrofs his fliouiders : he fav/ 
me, and ftepping up and fmiling, fpoke to me in 
Englifh, bidding me good morning. I faluted him 
with '^ It's well, brother," led him to my camp, 
and treated him with a dram. This friendly In- 
dian informed me that he lived at the next planta- 
tion, employed as a hunter. I afked him how far 
it was to the houfe, he anfwered about half a mile 
by land, and invited me to go there, telling me 
that his mafter was a very gcod, kind man, and 
would be glad to fee me. I replied, that I would, 
if my boat and effeds in the mean time could be 
fafe. He faid that he would immediately return 
to the houfe, and acquaint his mafter with it, who 
would fend trufty negroes to bring my veflel round 
I the 

74 \ TRAVELS rrvr 

the pcint, to the landing. I thanked hinn for his 
civHity, and not willing to be troublefome, I told 
^im I would leave my boat, and follow after him ; 
fo taking my fufee on my flioulder, after dragging 
my bark as high up on fiiore as I could, I followed 
the Indian, and foon reached the houfe. 

The gentleman received me in the mofl polite 
manner J arrd, after hearing my fituation, he re- 
quefted me to make my abod-e with him a few days, 
to reil and refrefh myfelf. I thanked him, and 
told him I v,/ouid ftay a day. He immediately fent 
flaves who brought my boat round j and having 
carpenters ar work on a new building, he fat them 
about repairing my veifel, which by night was com- 
pletely refitted. 

I fpent the day in the mod agreeable manner, 
m the fociety of this man of fingular worth. He 
led me over his extenfive improvements, and we 
returned in company with feveral of his neighbours. 
In the afternoon, the moft fultry tiaie of the day, 
wc retired to the fragrant (hades of an orange 
grove. The houfe was fituated on an eminence, 
about one hundred and fifty yards from the river. 
On the right hand was the orangery, confifting of 
many hundred trees, natives of the place, and left 
ftanding, when the ground about it was cleared. 
Thefe trees were large, flour illiing, and in perfe6t 
bloom, and loaded widi their ripe golden fruit. 
On the other fide was a fpacious garden, occupy- 
ing a regular flope of ground down to the water j 
^nd a pleafant lawn lay between. Here were 
l<:rge plantations of the Indigo plant, which ap- 
peared in a very thrivino- condition : it was then 
.'bout hve or fix inches high, growing in flrait 
pir.;llel row?, about eighteen inches apart. The 



Corn (Zea) and Potatoes (Convolv. Bat.ita) we-e 
greatly advanced in growth, and promifcd a plen- 
tiful crop. The Indigo made in Ead Florida is 
efteemed almoft equal lo the beft Spaniih, efpeci- 
ally that fort which they call Flora. Mr. Mar- 
fhall prefented me with a Ipccirnen of his own ma- 
nufacture, at this plantation : it was very little, if 
any, inferior to die beft PruPfian blue. 

In the morning following, intimating my inten- 
tions of proceeding on my voyage, Mr. Marfliall 
again importuned me ro ftayi but I obtained his 
confent to depart, on my promifmg to vifit him 
at my return to Georgia. After breakfaft I there- 
fore took my leave, attended to the fhore by 
feveral flaves, loaded Vv'ith ammunition and pro- 
vilions, which my friend had provided for me. 
On my exprefllng fome difficulty in receiving fo 
large a fhare of his bounty, he civilly replied, 
that it was too little to mention, and that, if I had 
continued with him a day or two longer, he Ihould 
have had time to have ferved me in a much better 

Taking my leave of Mr. MarlTiall, I again cm- 
barked alone on board m.y little veiTel, and, bleilcd 
with a favourable fceady gale, I fet fail. The 
day was extremely plcalant ; the late thunder ftorm 
had purified the air, by difuniting and diilipadng 
the noxious vapours. The falling of heavy Ihcw- 
ers, with thunder, and brifk winds, from the cool 
regions of the N. W. contributes greatly towards 
reftoring the falubrity of the air, and purity of 
tlie waters, by precipitating the putrefcent fcum, 
that rifes from the bottom, and floats upon the 
furface, near the fliores of the rivers, in thtfc 
Iquchern climates, during the hoc feafons. The 
8 lliorcs 

*^6 TRAVELS m 

fliores of this great river St. Juan are very lev<4 
and fhoal, extending in fome places, a mile or two 
into the river, betwixt the high land and the clear 
waters of the river, which is i'o level, as to be co- 
vered not above a foot or two deep with water, and 
at a little diftance appears as a green meadow, hav- 
ing water-grafs and other amphibious vegetables 
growing in the oozy bottom, and floating upon the 

Having a lively leading breeze, I kept as near 
the Eafl fhore as poflible, often furprifed by the 
plunging of alligators, and gready delighted with 
the pleafing profpeft of cultivation, and the increafe 
of human induftry, which frequently ftruck my view 
from the elevated, diftant Ihores. 

At night I ran in fhore, at a convenient harbour, 
\vhere I was received and welcomed by the gentle- 
man, who was agent for the plantation, and at whofe 
pleafant habitation near the harbour, I took up my 
quarters for the night. 

This very civil man happened to be a perforj 
with whom I had formerly been acquainted in St. 
Auguftine ; and as he lived about twenty miles dif- 
tant from iti I had good reafon to expeft that he 
Would be a proper perfon to obtain intelligence 
from^ Concerning the diflurbances which wei e thought 
ftill to fubfifl between the Lower Creeks and the 
white inhabitants of Eaft Florida. Upon enquiry, 
and converfation with him, I found my conjeftures 
on that head to have been well founded. My friend 
informed mc, that there had, but a few days fince, 
been a council held at St. Auguftine, between the 
governor of Kafl PUorida and the chiefs of the 
Lower Creeks. They had been delegated by their 


NORTH AMERrcy\. 7-7 

towns, to make inquiry concerning the late alarm 
and depredations committed by the Indians upon 
the traders ; which the nation being apprifed of, re- 
commended thefe deputies to be chofen and fent, 
as loon as poflible, in order to make reafonable eoh- 
cefllons, before the flame, already kindled, fhould 
Ijpread into a general war. The parties according- 
ly met in St. Auguftine, and the affair was ami- 
cably adjufted to the fatisfadion of both parties. 
The chiefs of the delinquent bands, whofe young 
warriors had committed the mifchief, promifed to 
indemnify the traders for the lofs of their goods, 
and requefted that they might return to their ftore- 
houfes, with goods as ullial, and that they IhouJd be 
fafe in their perfons and property. The traders at 
this time were adtually preparing to return. It ap- 
peared, upon a ftrid inveftigation of fails, that the 
affair had taken its rife from the licentious condu6t 
of a few vagrant young hunters of the Siminole na-: 
ticn, who, imagining themfelves to have been iH 
treated in their dealings with the traders (which 
by the bye was likely enough to be true) took thifj 
violent method of doing themfelves juftice. The 
culprits however endeavoured to exculpate them^ 
felves, by afferting, that they had no defign or in- 
tention of robbing the traders of their effccfts, but 
meant it only as a threat ; and that the traders, frorr> 
a confcioufnefs of their difhonefty, had been terri- 
fied and fled, leaving their ftorcs, which they took 
poffeffjon of, to prevent their being totally loft. 
This troubiefome affair being adjufted, was very 
agreeable news to me, as I could now, without ap- 
prehenfions, afcend this grand river, and vifit its 
delightful fliores, where and when I plealed. 

Bidding adieu to my obliging friend, I fpread my 
ik'il to tiie favourable threes e, and by qoon came to 

y8 TRAVELS in 

a-breaft of fort Picolata ; where, being defirous of 
gaining yet farther intelligence, I landed; but, to 
my difappointment, found the fort difmanded and 
deferted. This fortrefs is very ancient, and was built 
by the Spaniards. It is a fquare tower, thirty feet 
high, invefted with a high wall, without baftions, 
about breaPc high, pierced with loop holes and fur- 
rounded with "a deep ditch. The upper (lory is 
open on each fide, with battlennents, fupporting a 
cupola or roof: thefe battlements were formerly 
mounted with eight four pounders, two on each 

The works are conftrufted with hewn flione, ce- 
mented with lime. The ftone was cut out of quar- 
ries on St. Anaibtius Ifland, oppofite St. Auguf- 
tine: it is of a pale reddilli brick colour, and a tef-. 
taceous compofition, confiPdng of fmall fragments of 
fea-fliells and fine fand. It is well adapted to the 
conftru cling of fortifications. It lies in horizontal 
maffes in the quairy, and conflitutes the foundation 
of that ifland.' The caftlc ac St. Auguftine, and 
moft of the buildings of the town, are of this ftone. 

Leaving Picolata, I continued to afcend the ri- 
ver. I obkrvcd this day, during my progrefs up 
the river, incredible numbers of fmall flying infeds^ 
of the genus termed by naturalifts Ephemera, con- 
tinually emerging from the fliallow water near fhore, 
fome of them immediately taking their flight to 
tlie land, whilfl: myriads crept up the grafs and 
herbage, where rem.aining for a fliort time, as they 
acquired fufiicient ftrength, they took their flight 
alfo, following their kindred to the main land. 
This rcfurredion from the deep, if I may fo ex- 
prefs it, commences early in the morning, and ceafes 
after the fun is up. At evening they are feen in 



/ i* 

clouds of innumerable millions, Iwarming and wan- 
toning in the ftill air, gradually drawing near the 
river. They defcend upon its furface, and there 
quickly end their day, after committing their eo-as 
to the decpi which being for a little while toiTSi- 
about, enveloped in a vifcid fcum, are hatched, znd 
the little Larva delcend into their fecure and dark 
habitation, in the aozy bed beneath, where thtv 
remam gradually increal^ng in nze, until th€ re- 
turnmgfpring : they then chlinge to a Nymph, when 
the genial heat brings them, as it were, into exift- 
ence, and they again arife into the world. This 
fly leems to be delicious food for birds, frogs, and 
<filh. _ In the morning, when they arife, and in the 
evening, when they return, the tumult is great ia- 
deed, and the furface of the water along fnore 
broken into bubbles, or fpirted into the air, by th'- 
contending aquatic tribes '^ and fuch is the avidity 
of the fi/li and frogs, that they fpring into the air 
alter this delicious prey. 

Early in the evening, after a pleafant day's voy- 
age, I made a convenient and fafe harbour, in a little 
lagoon, under an elevated bank, on the Weft fliore 
or the river; where I Ihall entreat the reader's pa- 
tience, whilft we behold the clofing {ceac of the 
Ihgrt-hved Ephemera, and communicate to each 
other the refledions which fo fingular an exhibitior^ 
might rationally fuggeft to an inquifitive mind. 
Uur place of obfervation is happily fituated under 
the protecting fhade of majeftic Live Oaks alo- 
rious Magnolias, and the fragrant Orange, opeS to 
the view of the great river and ftill waters of tha 
iagoon juft before us. 

At the cool eve's approach, the fweet enchanting 



melody of the feathered fongfters gradually ceafes; 
iand they betake themfelves to their leafy coverts 
for fecurity and repofe. 

Solemnly and flowly move onward, to the ri- 
ver's fhore, the ruilling clouds of the Ephemera* 
How awful the procefTion ! innumerable millions of 
winged beings, voluntarily verging on to dellruc- 
tion, to the brink of the grave, where they behold 
bands of their enemies with wide open jaws, ready 
to receive them. But as if infenfible of their dan- 
ger, gay and tranquil each meets his beloved mate 
in the Hill air, inimitably bedecked in their new 
nuptial robes. What eye can trace them, in their 
varied wanton amorous chaces, bounding and flut- 
tering on the odoriferous air! With what peace, 
love, and joy, do they end the laft moments of their 
exiilence ? 

I think we may afiert, without any fear of ex- 
aggeration, that there are annually of thefe beau- 
tiful winged beings, which rife into exiftence, and 
for a few momiCnts take a tranfient view of the glory 
of the Creator's works, a number greater than the 
whole race of mankind that have ever exifted fince 
the creation ; and that, only from the fhores of this 
river. How many then mud have been produced 
fince the creation, when we confider the number of 
large rivers in America, in comparifon v/ith which, 
this river is but a brook or rivulet. 

The importance of the exiftence of thefe beau- 
tiful and delicately formed litde creatures, whofe 
frame and organization are equally wonderful, more 
delicate, and perhaps as complicated as thofe of 
the mod perfe6l human being, is well worth a 
few moments contemplation j I mean particularly 



viien they appear in the fly Itate. And if we con- 
fiiier the very fhort period of that flage ofexiftence, 
which we may reafonably fuppofe to be the only 
fpace of their life that admits of pleafure and enjoy- 
rnent, what a leffon doth it not afford us ofxhe vanity 
of our own purfuits! 

Their whole exiflence in this world is but one 
complete year : and at lead three hundred and fixty 
days of that time they are in the form of an ugly 
grub, buried in mud, eighteen inches under water, 
and in this condition fcarcely locomotive, as each 
larva or grub has but its own narrow folitary cell, 
from which it never travels or moves, but in a per- 
pendicular progrefTion of a few inches, up and down, 
from the bottom to the furface of the mud, in order 
to intercept the paffing atoms for its food, and get a 
momentary refpiration of frefh air; and even here it 
muft be perpetually on its guard, in order to efcape 
the troops of fifh and fhrimps watching to catch it, 
and from whom it has no efcape, but by inftantly 
retreating back into its cell. One would be apt al- 
moft to imagine them created merely for the food 
of fifii and other animals. 

Having refted very well durihg tlie night, I was 
awakened in the morning early, by the cheering 
converfe of the wild turkey-cocks (Meleagris occi- 
dentalis) faluting each other, from the fun-bright- 
ened tops of the lofty Cupreflus didicha and Mag- 
"iiolia grandiflora. They begin at early dawn, and 
continue till fun-rife, from March to the lail of 
-April. The high forefts ring with the noife, like 
the crowing of the domeftic cock, of thcfe fecial 
ceminels ; the watch- word being caught and repeat- 
ed, from one to another, for hundreds of miles 

G around j 


around j inlbmuch that the whole country is for an 
Jiour or more in an univerfal fhout. A little after 
fun-rife, their crowing gradually ceafes, they quit 
their high lodging-places, and alight on the earth, 
where expanding their fiiver bordered train, they 
{brut and dance round about the coy fennale, while 
the deep forefts feem to tremble with their Ihrill 

This morning the winds on the great river were 
high and againil me; I was therefore obliged to 
keep in port a great part of the day, which I em- 
ployed in little excurfions round about my encamp- 
ment. The Live Oaks are of an aftonilhing mag- 
nitude, and one tree contains a prodigious quantity 
of timbcrj yet, comparatively, they are not tall, even 
in thefe forefts, where growing on ftrong land, in 
company with others of great altitude (fuch as 
Fagus iylvatica, Liquidambar, Magnolia grandi- 
flora, and the high Palm tree) they ftrive while young 
to be upon an equality with their neighbours, and 
to enjoy the influence of the fun-beams, and of the 
pure animating air. But the others at laft prevail, 
and their proud heads are feen at a great diftance, 
towering far above the reft of the foreft, which con- 
fifts chiefly of this fpecics of oak, Fraxinus, Ulmus, 
Acer rubrum, Laut us Borbonia, Quercus dentata. 
Ilex aquifolium, Olea Americana, Morus> Gledirfia 
triacanthus, and, I believe, a fpecies of Saplndus. 
But the latter fpreads abroad his brav/ny arms, to. 
a great diftance. The trunk of the Live Oak is 
generally from twelve to eighteen feet in girt,, 
and rifcs ten or twelve feet erett from the earth, 
feme I have feen eighteen or twenty; then di- 
vides itfelf iuro three, four, or five great limbs, 
6 which 



which continue to grow In nearly an horizontal di- 
re(5lion, each limb forming a gentle curve, or arch, 
from its bafe to its extremity. I have ftepped 
above fifty paces, on a flrait line, from the trunk of 
one of thefe trees, to the extremity of the limbs. 
It is evergreen, and the wood almoft incorruptible, 
even in the open air. It bears a prodigious quantity 
of fruit i the acorn is fmall, but fweet and agreeable 
to the tafte when roafted, and is food for almoft all 
animals. The Indians obtain from it a fweet oil, 
which they ufe in the cooking of hommony, rice, 
&:c. ; and they alfo roaft it in hot embers, eating it 
as we do chefnuts. 

The wind being fair In the evening, I fat fail again, 
and croffing the river, made a good harbour on the 
Eaft ihore, where I pitched my tent for the night. 
The bank of the river was about twelve or fifteen 
feet perpendicular from its furface, but the afcent 
gentle. Although I arrived here early in the even- 
ing, I found fufficient attractions to choofe it for my 
lodging-place, and an ample field for botanical em- 
ployment. It was a high, airy fituation, and com- 
manded an extenfive and varied profpecl of the rivef 
and its fhores, up and down. 

Behold yon promontory, projefting far Into the 
great river, beyond the ftill lagoon, half a mile dif- 
tant from me : what a m.agnificent grove arifes 
on its banks ! how glorious the Palm ! how ma- 
jeftlcally ftands the Laurel, its head forming a per- 
fe6l cone ! its dark green foliage fcems filvered over 
Nvith milk-white flowers. They are fo large, as to 
be diftinftly vifible at the diftance of a mile or more. 
The Laurel Magnohas, which grow on this river* 
are the moft beautiful and tall that I have any 
^vhgre feen, unlefs we except thole, which ftand 

Q 2 ea 


Oh the bcinks of the MilTifippi; yet even thele miift' 
yield to thofe of St. Junn, in neatnefs of form, 
beauty of foliage, and, I think, in largenefs and 
fragrance of flovv^er. Their ufual height is about' 
one hundred feet, and fame greatly exceed that. 
The trunk is perfectly erect, rifing in the form of 
a bcautiftil column, and fupporting a head like an 
obtufe cone. The flowers are on the extremities 
of the fubdivffions of the branches, in the center of 
a' coronet of dark green, fhining, ovate pointed 
entire leaves : they are large, perfectly white, and 
expanded like a full blown Rofe. They are poly- 
petalous, confining of fifteen, twenty, or twenty- 
five petals : thele are of a thiclc coriaceous texture, 
and deeply concave, their edges being fomewhat 
reflex, when mature". In the center ftands the 
young cone ; which is large, of a flefh colour, 
and elegantly fliwdded with a gold coloured ftigma, 
that by the end ot fummer is greatly enlarged, and 
in the autumn ripens to a large crimfon cone or 
flrobile, difclofmg multitudes of large coral red 
berries, which for a time hang down from themy 
fufpended by a fine, white, filky thread, four, fix, or 
even nine inches in length. The flowers of this tree 
are the largefl: and mod complete of any yet known: 
when fully expanded, tl>ey are of fix, eight, and 
nine inches diameter. The pericarpium and ber- 
ries polTcfs an agieeiible fpicy Icent, and an aroma-- 
tic bitter tafte. T'lie wood when feafoned is of a 
flraw colour, compaft, and haj-der and firmer than 
that of tlie poplar. 

It is really aftonifliing to behold the Grape-Vines 
in this place. From tiieir bulk and llrength, one 
would imagine they were combined to pull down 
thefc mighty tree:* to the curtlii when, in fad:., 



;imong{l -other good piirpofes, they feive to upliold 
.them. They are frequently nine, ten, and twelve 
inches in diamettr, and twine round the trunks of 
the trees, climb to their very tops, and then fpread 
^long their limbs, from tree to tree, throughout 
xhe ibreft: the fruit is but fmall and ill tafted. 
The Grape vines, with the Rlmmnus vdlubilis, Big- 
nonia radicans, Bignonia crucigera, and another 
rambling fhrubby vine, which feems allied to the 
Rhamnizs, perhaps Zizyphus Icande-ns, feem to tie 
the trees together with garlands and felloons, and 
form enchanting fliades. The long mofs, fo called, 
(TiUandfea ufneaoides), is a fingular and furprifing 
vegetable production : it grows from the limbs and 
twigs of all trees in thefe fouthern regions, from 
N. lat. 35 down as far as 28, and I believe every 
where within the tropics. Whereve.r it fixes itfeli, 
on a limb, or branchy it fpreads into fhort and in- 
tricate divarications ; thefe in time colleft dufc, 
wafted by the wind, which, probably by the moif- 
ture it abforbs, foftens the bark and fippy part of 
the tree, about the roots of the plant, and -ren- 
ders it more fit for it to eftabliili itfelf; and frora 
this fmaJl beginning, it Lncreafes, by fendbg down- 
w^ards and obliquely, on all fides, long pendaRt 
branches, which divide and fubdivide themfelves 
ad infinitum. It is common to find the fpaces be- 
twixt the limbs of large trees, almoil occupied by 
this plant: it alfo hangs waving in the wind, like 
ftreamers, from the lower limbs, to the length of 
fifteen or twenty feet, and of bulk and weight, 
more than feveral men togetlier could carry ; and 
in fome places, cart loads of it are lying on the 
ground, torn off by the violence of the v/ind. 
Any part of the living plant, torn off and caught 
in the limbs of a tree, will prefently take root, 

G 3 grow. 


grow, and jncreafe, in the fame degree of pei-fec^ 
tion as if it had fprimg up from the ked. When 
frefh, cattle and deer v/ill eat it in the winter fea- 
fon. It feenns particularly adapted to the purpofe 
of ftufEng mattraffes, chairs, faddles, collars, &c. ; 
and for thefe purpofes, nothing yet known equals 
it. The Spaniards in South America and the Weft- 
Indies, work it into cables, that are faid to be very 
ftrong and durable ; but, in order to render it ufefuj, 
it ought to be thrown into lliallow ponds of water, 
and expofed to the fun, v/here it foon rots, and the 
outfide furry fubftance is difiblved. It is then taken 
out of the water, and fpread to dry ; when, after a 
litde beating and fhaking, it is fufficiently clean, 
nothing remaining but the interior, hard, blacky 
eisdic filament, entangled together, and gready re- 
fembling horfc-hair. 

The Zanthoxylum clavaHerculis alfo grows here. 
It is a beautiful fpreading tree, and much like a well 
grown apple-tree. Its arom.atic berry is delicious 
food for the little turtle dove; and epicures fay, that 
it gives their flefh a fine flavour. 

Flaving finifhed my obfervations, I betook myfelf 
to reft 5 and when the plunging and roaring of the 
crocodiles, and the croaking of the frogs, had ceafed, 
I flept very well during the remainder of the night; 
as a breeze from the river had fcattered the clouds 
©f mufquitoes that at firft infefted me. 

It being a fine cool morning, and fair wind, I fat 
faW early, and faw, this day, vait quantities of the 
Piftia ftratiotes, a y^^Y Angular aquatic plant. It 
fillociates in large communities, or floating iflands, 
fome of them a quarter of a mile in extent, v^'hich 
are impelled to and fro^ as the wind jind current 



may direc^t. They are firll produced on, or cbfe 
to, the Ihore, in eddy water, where they graduiUy 
fpread themfelves into the river, formii^ mod de- 
lightful green plains, feveral miles in length, and in 
fome places a quarter of a mile in breadth. Thele 
plants are nourifhed and kept in their proper hori- 
zontal fituanon, by means of long fibrous roots, 
which defcend from the nether center, downwards, 
towards the muddy bottom. Each plant, when full 
grown, bears a general refemblance to a well grown 
plant of garden lettuce, though the leaves are more 
nervous, of a firmer contexture, and of a full green 
colour, inclining to yellow. It vegetates on the fur- 
face of the (till ftagnant water ; and in its natural 
fituat on, is propagated from feed only. In great 
ftorms of wind and rain, when the river is fuddenly 
raifed, large mafles of thefe floating plains are bro- 
ken loofe, and driven from the fhores, into the wide 
water, where they have the appearance of iflets, and 
float about, until broken to pieces by the winds and 
waves J or driven again to fhore, on Ibme diftant 
coafl: of die river, where they again find footing, 
and there, forming new colonies, fpread and extend 
themfelves again, until again broken up and dii- 
perfed as before. Thefe floating iflands prefent a 
very entertaining profpe6t : for although we behold 
an aflTemblage of the primary produ6tions of nature 
only, yet the imagination feems to remain in fuf- 
penfe and doubt j as in order to enliven the delufion, 
and form a moft pidurefque appearance, we fee not 
only flowery plants, clumps of fhrubs, old weather- 
beaten trees, hoary and barbed, with the long mofs 
waving from their fnags, but we alfo fee them com- 
pletely inhabited, and alive, with crocodiles, ferpents, 
frogs, otters, crows, herons, curlews^ jackdaws, &c. 
G 4 There 


There f'-ems, in fliort, nothing wanted hut the ap- 
pearance of a wigwam and a canoe to complete the 

Keepin2- alorg the Weft or T dian fhore, I faw 
bafking, on the fedgy banks, nurribers of aUigators% 
fome of them of an enormous fize. 

The high foretis on this coaf!: now wore a grand 
?.nd fubha'ie appearance i the earth rifjng gradually 
from the river weftward, by eafy fwelling ridges, 
behind one another, lifting the diftant groves up in- 
to the flcies. The trees are of the lofty kind, as the 
grand laurel magnolia, palma elata, liquidambar 
ftyrucuiua, fgus fylyaiica, querci, juglans hiccory, 
fraxiiius, and others. 

On rny doubling a long point of land, the river 
appeared furprifingly widened, formjng a large bay, 
of an ov?l fo'-m, and feveral miles in extent. On the 
Vv jIt fide it was bordered round with lovy marfhes, 
and invefted with a fv/amp of Cyprefs, the trees 
fo ^'T V, as 10 preclude the fight of the high-land 
foiclts beyond them; and thefe trees, having flag 
tops, and ail of equal height, feemed to be a green 
plain, lifted up and fjppcrrc J upon columns in the 
air, round the \¥ea fide of the bay. 

The Cu'?"'^rnis difdcha ftands in the firft order of 
North Amenccii tre* s. Its majefLic feature is fur- 
prifing; and on ^nproaching it, we are ftruck 
with a kind of, at beholding the fiatelinefs of 
tlie trunk, lifting its cumbrous top towards the fkics, 
and calling a /ide (hade upon the ground, as a 
dark intervening cloud, which, for a time, excludes 

• I have maJc ufe of the terms alligator aiu! crocodile indifcriminately 
^or this ;iaimal, aliigutoi- bciij^; thu country name. 



the rays of the fun. The delicacy of its coloiTr^ and 
texture of its leaves, exceed every thing in vege- 
tation. It generally grows in the water, or in low 
flat lands, near the banks of great rivers and lakes, 
that are covered, great part <.{ the year, with two 
or three feet depth of waters and that part of the 
trunk which is fubjeft to be under water, and four 
or five feet higher up, is greatly enlarged by pro- 
digious buttrelfes, or pilafters, which, in full grown 
trees, projeft out on every fide, to fuch a diflance, 
that feveral men might eafily hide thenifelves in 
the hollows between. Each pilafter terminates un- 
der ground, in a very large, ftrong, fcrpentine 
joot, which ftrikes off, and brdnches every way, 
jufl; ;jnder ;the furface of the earth : and from thefe 
'roots grow woody cones, called cyprefs knees, four, 
five, and fix inches high, and from fix to eighteen 
inches and two feet in diameter at their bafes. The 
large ones are hollow, and ferve very v/ell for bee- 
hives ; a fmall fpace of tlie tree itfelf is hcliow, 
nearly as high as the buttrefies already mentioned. 
From this place, the tree, as it were, takes another 
beginning, forming a grand ftr-aight column eighty 
or nintty feet high, when it divides every way 
«f around into an extenfive flat horizontal top, like an 
umbrella, where eagles have their fccurc nefts^ and 
,cranes and ftorks their temporary relling-places ; 
and what adds to the magnificence of their appear- 
ance is the ftreamers of long mofs that hang from 
the lofty limbs and float in the winds. Tlus is 
their majellic appearance v/hen ftanding alone, in 
large rice plantations, or thinly planted on the 
banks of g:eat rivers, 

Parroquets are commonly feen hovering and flut- 
tering on their tops: they delight to fliell tlve 



balls, its feed being their favourite food. The 
trunks of rhefe trees, vi.en hollowed put, make 
large and durable pectiaugers and canoc^^, and af- 
ford excellent ihingies, boards, and other timber, 
adapted to every p\irpofe in fame built! ins;s. Vv^hen 
the planters fell thefc migh.y trees, they raife a 
flage round them, as high as to reach above the 
butc^trffes ; on this fcage, ei^ht or ten negroes 
afcciid with their axes, and fall to work round its 
trunk. 1 have feen trunks of thefe trees that would 
meaiure eight, ten, and twelve feet in diameter, 
for forty and fifty feet ftraight fhaft. 

As I continued coafting the Indian fliore of this 
bay, on doubling a promontory, I fuddenly faw be- 
fore me an Indian fctdement, or village. It was a 
fine fituation, the bank rifing gradually from the 
water. There were eight or ten habitations, in a 
row, or flreet, fronting the water, and about fifty 
yards diftance from it. Some of the youth were 
naked, up to their hips in the water, fiiking with 
rods and lines; whilft others, younger, were divert- 
ing themfelves in fliooting frcgs with bows and ar- 
rows. On my near aporoach, the little children 
took to their heels, and ran to Ibme women who 
were hoeing corn; but the ftouter youth ftood 
their ground, and, fmiling, called to me. As I 
palled along, I obferved fome elderly people re- 
clined on fkins fpread on the ground, under the 
cool fhade of fpreading Oaks and Palms, that were 
• ranged in front of their houfes : they arofe, and 
eyed me as I pafled, but perceiving that I kept on 
without flopping, they refumed their former po- 
fition. They were civil, and appeared happy in 
their fituaiion. «• 

There was a large Orange grove at the upper 



end of their village ; the trees were large, care- 
fully pruned, and the ground under them clean, 
open, and airy. There fcemed to be feveral hun- 
dred acres of cleared land about the village ; a 
confiderable portion of which was planted, chiefly 
with corn (Zea), Batatas, Beans, Pompions, Squafnes 
(Cucurbitaverrucofa)j Melons (Cucurbita citrullus), 
Tobacco (Nicotiana), &c. abundantly fuiiicicnt for 
the inhabitants of the village. 

After leaving this village, and ccafling a con- 
fiderable cove of the lake, I perceived the river be- 
fore me much contradled within its late bounds, 
buc ftill retaining the appearance of a wide and 
deep river, both coafts bordered for feveral miles 
with rich deep fwamps, well timbered with Cyprefs, 
AHi, Elm, Oak, Hiccory, Scarlet Maple, Nyffa 
aquatica, Nyflii tupilo, Gordonia lailanthus, Cory- 
pha palma, Corypha pumila, Laurus Borbonia, &c. 
Ihe river gradually narrowing, I came in fight of 
Charlotia, where it is not above half a mile wide, 
but deep j and as there was a confiderable current 
againft me, I came here to an anchor. This town 
was founded by Den. Roile, efq. and is fituated 
on a high bluff, on ihe eaft coafl, fifteen or twenty 
feet perpendicular from the river, and is in length 
half a mile, or more, upon its banks. The upper 
Itratum of the earth confifls entirely of feveral fpe- 
cies of frefli water Cochkse, as Coch. helix, Coch. 
Ubyrinthus, and Coch. voluta ; the fccond, of ma-, 
rine fheils, as Concha mytulus, Cone, ofirea, Cone, 
peeton, Haliotis auris marina, Hal. patella, &c. 
mixed with lea fand ; and the third, or lower flra- 
tum, which was a little above the common level of 
the river, of horizontal malles of a pretty hard 
rock, compofed almoft entirely of the above fnell, 
generally w^iole, and lying in every direftion, pe- 


trified or cemented together, with fine white fand; 
and thefe rocks were bedded in a ftratiim of clay. 
I faw many fragments of the earthen ware of thp 
ancient inhabitants, and bones of animals, amongit 
the fhells, and mixed with the earth, to a great 
depth. This high fhelly bank continues, by gentle 
parallel iidges, near a quarter of a mile back from 
the river, gradually diminilTiing to the level of the 
fandy plains^ which widen before and on each fidf; 
eaftward, to a feetiiingly unlimited diftance, and 
appear green and delightful, being covered with 
grafs and the Corypha rept-ns, and thinly planted 
with trees of the long-leaved, or Broom Pine, and 
decorated with clumps, or coppices, of floriferous, 
evergreen, and arotnatic fhrubs, and enamelled 
with patches of the beautiful little Kalmea ciliata. 
Thefe ilieliy ridges have a vegetable furface of loofe 
black mould, very fertile, which naturally produces 
Orange groves. Live Oak, Laurus Borbonia, Pal- 
ma elata, Carica papaya^ Sapindus, Liquidambar, 
Frr.xinus exelfior, Morus rubra, Ulmus, Tilia, 
Sambucus, Ptelea, Tallow-nut or Wild Lime, and 
many others. 

Mr. Rolle obtained from th^ crown a grant of 
forty thoufand acres of land, in any part of Eaft 
Floiida, where the land was unlocated. It feems^ 
his views v/ere to take up his grant near St. Mark's^ 
in the bay of Apalntchi ; and he Cat fail from England, 
with about one hundred families, for that place ; 
but by contrary winds, and ftrefs of weather, he 
niidcd his aim ; and being obliged to put into St. 
Juan'?, he, with fome of the principal of his ad- 
herents, afcended the river in a boat, and being 
ftruck with its majelly, the grand fituadons of its 
banks, and fertility of its lands, and at the fame 
time confidering the extcnfive navigation of the 



fiVer, and its near vicinity to St. Auguftine, the 
capital and feat of government, he altered his views 
on St. IVIark's, and fuddenly determined on this 
place, where he landed his firil litde colony. But 
it feems, from an ill-concerted plan in its infant 
eftablifhmcnt, negligence, or extreme parfimony 
in fending proper recruits and other neceiTiries, 
together with a bad choice of citizens, the fettle- 
ment by degrees grew weaker, and at length to- 
tally fell to the ground. Thofe of them who 
cfcaped the conftant contagious fevers, fled the 
dreaded place, betaking themfelves for fubfiftence 
to the more fruitful and populous regions of Georgia, 
and Carolina. 

The remaining old habitations are mouldering 
to earth, except the manfion houfe, which is a 
large frame building, of cyprefs wood, yet irl 
tolerable repair, and inhabited by an overfeer and 
his family. There is alfo a blackfmith with his 
fliop and family, at a fmall diftance from it. The 
moll valuable diftri6t belonging to Mr. RoUe's 
grant, lies on Dun's lake, and on a little river, 
which runs from it into St. Juan. This diftri(5t 
confills of a vaft body of rich fwamp land, fit for 
the growth of rice, and fome very excellent high, 
land furrounding it. Large fwamps of excellent 
rice land are alfo fituited on the well fhore of the 
river, oppofite to Charlotia. 

The aborigines of America had a very great 
town in this place, as appears from the great tu- 
muli, and conical m.ounts of earth and fhells, and 
other traces of a fettlement which yet remain. 
There grew in the old fields on thefe heights, great 
quantities of callicarpa, and of the beautiful fhrub 
annona : the flowers of the latter are large, white, 
and iweet fcented. 



Having obtained from the people here direftlons 
for difcovering die little remote ifland -where the 
traders and their goods were fecreted, which was 
about feven miles higher up, I fat fail again, with 
a fairv/ind, and in about one hour and an half 
arrived at the defired place, having fortunately 
taken the right channel of the river, amongft a 
multitude of others, occafioned by a number of 
low fwampy iflands. But I fhould have run by the 
landing, if the centinels had not by chance CcGn 
me drav/ing near them; who perceiving that I 
was a white man, ventured to hail me ; upon which 
I immediately ftruck fail, and came to. Upon my 
landing they conduced me to their encampment, 
forty or fifty yards from the river, in an almoft 
impenetrable thicket. Upon my inquiry, they con- 
firmed the accounts of the amicable treaty at St, 
Auguftine, and in confequence thereof, they had 
already removed great part of the goods to the 
trading- houfe, which was a few xniles higher up, 
on the Indian fhore. They fhowed me my cheft, 
which had been carefully preferved, and upon in- 
fpedlion I found every thing in good order. Having 
learned from them, that all the efiefts would, in a 
few days time, be removed to the llore-houfe, I 
bid adieu to them, and in a little time arrived at 
the trading-houfe, where I was received with great 
pbiicenefs, and treated, during a refidence of feve- 
ral r.ionths^ with the utmoil civility and friendfliip, 
by Mr.C. M^Latche, Meifrs. Spalding and Kelfali's 

'i~he river almoft from Charlotia, and for near 
tv/clve miles higher up, is divided into many chan- 
nels by a great number of iilands. 




Having refted myfelf a few days, and by ranging 
about the neighbouring plains and groves, furround- 
ing this pleafant place, pretty well recovered my 
ftre ngth and ipirits, I began to think of planning my 
future excurficns, at a diflance round about this 
centre. I found, from frequent conferences with 
Mr. M'Latche, that 1 might with fafety extend my 
journeys every way, and with prudence, even into 
the towns and fettlcments of the Indians, as they, 
"Were perfectly reconciled to us, and fincerely wiflied, 
for the renewal of our trade. 

There were three trading -houfes to be eilablillied 
this fummer, each of which had its fupplies from 
the {tore on St. Juan, where I now had my refi- 
dencc, and in which the produce or returns were 
to centre annually, in order to be fnipped for Sa- 
vanna or Sunbury, and from thence to Eurupe. 

One of thefe trading-houfes was to be fixed 
about fixty miles higher up the river, from this place, 
by the name of Spalding's upper ftcrc ; a fecond at 
Alachua, about fifty miles weft from the river St- 
Juan; and a third at Tabhafochte, a confiderable 
town of the Siminoles, on the river Little St. Juan, 
near the bay of Apalachi, about one hundred and 
twenty miles diitance. Each of thefe places I de- 
figned to viiit, before the return of the vefTei to 
Frederica in the autumn, thac i might avail my- 
felf of an opportunity fo favourable for tranfport- 
ing my collcdlions fo fkr on their wgy towards 


^5 Travels tit 

The company for Alachua were to fet Oi? irl 
about a month; that to Little St. Juan, in July, 
v/hich fuited me exceedingly well, as I might make! 
my tour to the upper ftore diredlly, that part of the 
country being at this feafon enrobed in its richefb 
and gayeft apparel. 

About the middle of May, eVery thing being in 
readinefs to proceed up the river, we fat fail. The 
traders with their goods in a large boat went 
a-head, and myfelf in my little \*-eflel followed them ; 
and as their boat was large, and deeply laden, I 
found that I could eafily keep up with them, and, if* 
I chofe, out-fail them ; but I preferred keeping them 
company, as well for the fake of collecting what I 
could from converfation, as on account of my 
fafety in crofTing the great lake, expefting to 
return alone, and defcend the river at my own 

We had a pleafant day, the wind fair and mode^ 
rate, and ran by Mount Hope, fo named by my fa- 
ther John Bartram, when he afcended this river, 
about fifteen years ago. It was a very high flielly 
bluff, upon the little lake. It was at that time a fine 
Orange grove, but now cleared and converted into a 
large indigo plantation, the property of an Englifli 
gentleman, under the care of an agent. In the 
evening we arrived at Mount Royal, where we came 
to, and ftayed all night : we were treated with 
great civility, by a gentleman whofe name was 
Kean, and who had been an Indian trader. 

From this place we enjoyed a mofl enchanting 
profpeft of the great Lake George, through a grand 
avenue, if I may fo term this narrow reach of the 
river, which widens gradually for about two miles, 



towards its entrance into the lake, fo as to elude 
the exad: rules of perfpedive, and appears of an 
equal width. 

At about fifty yards diftance from the landing 
place, {lands a magnificent Indian mount. About 
fifteen years ago I vifited this place, at which time 
there were no fettlements of white people, but all 
appeared wild and favage ; yet in that uncultivated 
Hate it poflefled an almofb inexprefTible air of gran - 
deur, which was now entirely changed. At that 
time there was a very coniiderable extent of old 
fields round about the mount ; there v/as alfo a 
large orange grove, together with palms and live 
oaks, extending from near the mount, along the 
banks, downwards, all of which has fmce been 
cleared away to make room for planting ground. 
But what greatly contributed towards completing 
the magnificence of the fcene, was a noble Indian 
highway, which led from the great mount, on a 
ftraight line, three quarters of a mile, firft through a 
point or wing of the orang-e o-rove, and continuing: 
thence through an awful foreft of live oaks, it was 
terminated by palms and laurel magnolias, on the 
verge of an oblong artificial lake, which was on 
the edg-e of an extenfive green level favanna. This 
grand highway was about fifty yards wide, funk 
a little below the common level, and the earth 
thrown up on each fide, making a bank of about 
two feet high. Neither nature nor art could any 
where prefent a more ftriking contrail, as you ap- 
proached this favanna. The glittering water pond 
played on the fight, through the dark grove, like a 
brilliant diamond, on the bofom of the illumined 
favanna, bordered with various flowery Ihrubs and 
plants; and as we advanced injco the plain, the 

H fighc 


fight was agreeably relieved by a diftant view of the 
forefts, which partly environed the green expanfe on 
the left hand, whilfr the imagination was ftill flatter- 
ed and entertained by the far diftant mifty points 
of the furrounding forefts, which projected into the 
plain, alternately appearing and disappearing, mak- 
ing a grand fweep round on the right, to the diftant 
banks of the great lake. But that venerable grove 
is now no more. All has been cleared away and 
planted with indigo, corn, and cotton, but fince de- 
ierted : there was now fcarcely five acres of ground 
under fence. It appeared like a defart to a great 
extent, and terminated, on the land fide, by fright- 
ful thickets, and open pine forefts. 

It appears, hov/ever, that the late proprietor had 
feme tafte, as he has preferved the mount and this 
little adjoining grove inviolate. The profpedl from 
this ftation is fo happily fituated by nature, as to 
comprife at one view the whole of the fublime and 

At the reanimating appearance of the rifing fun, 
nature again revives ; and I obey the cheerfiil fum- 
mons of the gentle monitors of the meads and 

Ye vigilant and faithful fervants of the Moft High ! 
ye who worfhip the Creator morning, noon, and 
eve, in fimplicity of heart ! I hafte to join the uni- 
verfal anthem. My heart and voice unite with 
yours, in fincere homage to the great Creator, the 
univerfal Sovereign. 

O may I be permitted to approach the throne of 
mercy ! May thefe my humble and penitent fuppli- 
cations, amidft the univerial fhouts of homage from 
f hy creatures, meet with thy acceptance ! 



And although I am fenfible, that my fervice can- 
not increafe or diminifh thy glory, yet it is pleafing 
to thy fervant to be permitted to found thy praife ; 
for, O fovereign Lord ! we know that thou alone 
art perfeft, and worthy to be woriliipped. O uni- 
verfal Father ! look down upon us, we befeech 
thee, with an eye of pity and compafTion, and grant 
that univerfal peace and love may prevail in the 
earth, even that divine harmony which fills the hea- 
vens, thy glorious habitation ! 

And, O fovereign Lord ! fince it has pleafed thee 
to endue man with power and pre-eminence here 
on earth, and eftablifli his dominion over all crea- 
tures, may we look up to thee, that our under- 
ftanding may be fo illuminated with wifdom, and 
our hearts warmed and animated with a due fenfe 
of charity, that we may be enabled to do thy will, 
and perform our duty towards thofe fiibmitced to 
our fervice and protedlion, and be merciful to chem, 
even as we hope for mercy. 

Thus may we be worthy of the dignity and fu- 
periority of the high and diftinguiflied ftation in 
which thou hail placed us here on earth. 

The morning being fair, and having a gentle fa- 
vourable gale, we left our pleafant harbour, in pur- 
fuit of our defired port. 

Now as we approach the capes, behold the little 
ocean of Lake George, the diftant circular coaft 
gradually rifing to view, from his mifty fringed 
horizon. I cannot end rely fupprefs my apprehen- 
fions of danger. My vefTel at once diminiilied to 
a nut-lliell on the fwelling fcas, and at the dif- 
Jance of a few miles, mud appear to the furprifed 
H a obiervef 


obferver as fome aquatic animal, at intervals crrterg'-^ 
ing from its furface. This lake is a large and 
beautiful piece of water ; it is a dilatation of the 
river St. Juan, and is about fifteen miles wide, and 
generally about fifteen or twenty feet deep, except- 
ing at the entrance of the river, where lies a bar, 
which carries eight or nine feet water. The lake 
is beautified with two or three fertile ifiands. The 
firft lies in the bay, as we afcend into the lake, near 
the weft coaft, about S. W. from Mount Royal, 
from whence it appears to form part of the weft 
fliore of the bay. The fecond ifland leems to ride 
on the lake before us as we enter, about a mile with- 
in it. This ifland is about two miles in breadth, 
and three quarters of a mile where broadeft, moftly 
high land, v/ell timbered, and fertile. The third and 
laft lies at th.e fouth end of the lake, and near the 
entrance of the river ; it is nearly circular, and 
contains but a few acres of land, the earth high and 
fertile, and almoft an entire orange grove, with 
grand m.agnolias and palms. 

Soon after entering the lake, the wind blew fo 
brin^y from the weft, with thunder- clouds gather- 
ing upon the horizon, that we were obliged to feek 
a ihelter from the approaching tempeft, on the large 
beautiful ifland before mentioned; where, having 
gained the fouth promontory, we met with an ex- 
cellent harbour, in which we continued the remain- 
ing part of the day and the night. This circum- 
ftance gave rne an opportunity to explore the great- 
eft- part of it. 

This ifland appears, from obvious veftiges, to 
have been once the chofen refidence of an Indian 
prince, there being to this day evident remains of 

a large 


a large town of the Aborigines. It was fituated on 
an eminence near the banks of the lake, and com- 
manded a comprehenfive and charming profpe6l of 
the waters, iflands, eaft and weft fhores of the 
lake, the capes, the bay, and Mount Royal ; and 
to the fouth, the view is in a manner infinite, where 
the Ikies and waters feem to unite. On the fite of 
this ancient town, ftands a very pompous Indian 
mount, or conical pyramid of earth, from which 
runs in a ftraight line a grand avenue or Indian high- 
way, through a magnificent grove of magnolias, 
live oaks, palms, and orange trees, terminating 
at the vero;e of a lar2;e green level favanna. This 
ifland appears to have been well inhabited, as is 
very evident, from the quantities of fragments of 
Indian earthen ware, bones of anjmals and other re- 
mains, particularly in the fhelly heights and ridges 
all oyer the ifland. There are no habitations at 
prefent on the ifland, but a great number of deer, 
turkeySj bears, wolves, wild cats, fquirrels, racoons, 
and opofllims. The bears are invited here to par- 
take of the fruit of the orange tree, which they are 
immoderately fond of; and both they and turkeys 
are made extremely fat and delicious, from their 
feeding on the fv/eet acorns of the live oak. 

There grow on this ifland many curious flirubs, 
particularly a beautiful fpecies of lantana (perhaps 
lant. camerara, Lin. Syft. Veget. p. 473). It 
grows in coppices in old fields, about five or fix 
feet high, the branches adorned with rough fer- 
rated leaves, which fit oppofite, and the twigs ter- 
rr'iated with umbelliferous tufts of orano-e-coloured 


blofibms, which are fucceeded by a ciufter of fmall 
blue berries : the flowers are of various colours, on 
die fame plant, and even in the fame clufter, as 

H 3 crimfon, 


crlmfon, fcarlet, orange and golden yellow : the 
whole plant is of a mod agreeable fcent. The 
orange-flowered fhrub Hibifcus is alfo confpicuoufly 
beautiful (perhaps Hibifc. fpinifex of Linn.) It grows 
five or fix feet high, and fubramous. The branches 
are divergent, and furnifhed with cordated leaves, 
which are crenated. The flowers are of a mode- 
rate fize, and of a deep fplendid yellow. The pe- 
ricarpii are fpiny. I alio faw a new and beautiful 
palmated leaved convolvulus *. This vine rambles 
over the fhrubs, and ftrolls about on the ground ; 
its leaves are elegantly finuated, of a deep grafs 
green, and fit on long petioles. The flov/ers arc 
very large, infundibuliform, of a pale incarnate co- 
lour, having a deep crimfon eye. 

There are feme rich fwamps on the fhores of the 
iflcnd, and thefe are verged on the outfide with 
large marfhes, covered entirely with tall grafs, 
rufhes, and herbaceous plants ; amongft thefe are 
feveral fpecies of Hibifcus, particularly the hibif- 
cus coccineus. This moft fl:ately of all herbaceous 
plants grows ten or twelve feet high, branching 
regularly, C> as to form a fharp cone. Thefe 
branches alfo divide again, and are embellifhed 
v/ith large expanded crimfon flowers. I have feen 
this plant of the fize and figure of a beautiful little 
tree, having at once feveral hundred of thefe fplen- 
did flowers, which may be then feen at a great 
diftance. They continue to flower in fuccellion 
all fummer and autumn, when the ftems wither 
and decay ; but the perennial root fends forth new 
ftems the next fpring, and fo on for many years. 
Its leaves are large, deeply and elegantly finuated, 
having fix or fevcn very narrow dentated feg- 

* Con vol. diffcdiis. 

rnents | 


ments ; the furface of the leaves, and of the whole 
plant, is fmooth and polifned. Another fpecles 
of hibifcus, worthy of particular notice, is like- 
wife a tall floiirifliing plant; feveral ftrong ftems 
arife from a root, five, fix., and feven feet high, 
embelliflied witii ovate lanciohte leaves, covered 
with a fine down on their nether furfaces : the 
flowers are very large, and of a deep incarnate co- 

The lafi: we fiiall now mention feems nearly al- 
lied to the alcea; the fiowers are a fize lefs than 
the hibifcus, and of a fine damafls: rofe colour, and 
are produced in great profufion on the tall pyra- 
midal Items. 

The lobelia cardinalis grows in great plenty here, 
and has a moft fplendid appearance amidft extenfive 
meadows of the golden corymbous jacobca (fenecio 
jacobea) and odorous pancratium. 

Having finifhed my tour on this princely ifland, 
I prepared for repofe. A calm evening had fijc- 
ceeded the flormy day. The late tumultuous winds 
had now ceafed, the face of tlie lake had become 
placid, and the ll<ies ferene ; the balmy v;inds 
breathed the animating odours of the groves around 
me ; and as I reclined on the elevated banks of the 
lake, at the foot of a live oak, I enjoyed the proi- 
peft of its wide waters, its fringed coalls, and tiie 
diftant horizon. 

The fquadrons of aquatic fowls, emerging out 
of the water, and haftening to their leafy coverts on 
fhore, clofed the varied fcenes of the paft day. I 
was lulled afieep by the mixed founds of the wearied 

II 4 furf. 


fljrf, lapfing on the hard beaten lliore, and the ten- 
der warblings of the painted nonpareil and other 
winged inhabitants of the grove. 

At the approach of day the dreaded voice of the 
alhgators fliook the ifle, and refounded along the 
neighbouring coafbs, proclaiming the appearance of 
the glorious fun. I arofe, and prepared to accom- 
plifn iny daily tafk. A gentle favourable gale led 
us out of the harbour : we failed acrofs the lake, 
and towards evening entered the river on the op- 
pofite fouth coaft, where we made a pleafant and 
fafe harbour, at a fhelly promontory, the eaft cape 
of the river on that fide of the lake. It is a moft 
defira'cle fituation, commanding a full view of the 
lake. The cape oppofite to us was a vaft cyprefs 
fwamp, environed by a border of graffy marllies, 
which were projected farther into the lake by float- 
ing fields of the bright green piftia flratoites, which 
rpfe and frll alternately with the waters. Juft to 
leeward of this point, and about half a mile in the 
lake, is the litde round ifland already mentioned. 
But let us take notice of our harbour and its envi- 
rons : it is a beautiful little cove, juft within the 
fandy point,' which defends it from the beating 
furf of the lake. From a flielly bank, ten or 
tv/elve feet perpendicular from the water, we en- 
tered a grove of live oaks, palm, magnolia, and 
orange trees, which grow amongft fhelly hills, and 
low ridges, occupying about three acres of ground, 
comprehending tne iftjimus, and a part of the penin- 
fula, which joins it to the grafiy plains. 1 his en- 
chandng litde foreft is partly encircled by a deep 
creek, a branch of the river, that has its Iburce in 
the high fbrefts of the main, fouth eaft from us ; 
and winds dirough the extcnfive grafly plains which 

fur round 


fiirround this peninfula, to an almoft infinite dif- 
tance, and then unites its waters with thole of the 
river, in this little bay which formed our harbour. 
This bay, about the mouth of the creek, is ilmoft 
covered with the leaves of the nymi, hrea n iambo: 
its large fweet-fcented yellow flov/ers are lifted up 
two or three feet above the furface of the water, 
each upon a green ftarol, reprefcnting the cap of 

The evening drawing on, and there being no 
convenient landing place for feveral miles higher up 
the river, we concluded to remain here all night. 
Whilft my fellow travellers were employing them- 
felves in colle6ling fire-wood, and fixing our camp, 
I improved the opportunity in reconnoitring our 
ground ; and taking my fufee with me, I penetrated 
the grove, and afterwards entered Ibme almoft un- 
limited favannas and plains, which were abfolutely 
enchanting; they had been lately burnt by the In- 
dian hunters, and had jufl now recovered their vernal 
yerdure and gaiety. 

How happily fituated is this retired fpot of earth ! 
What an elyfium it is ! where the wandering Simi- 
nole, the naked red warrior, roams at large, and 
after the vigorous chafe retires from the fcorching 
heat of the meridian fun. Plere he reclines, and 
repofes under the odoriferous fhades of Zanthoxy- 
lon, his verdant couch guarded by the Deity ; Li- 
berty, and the Mufes, infpiring him v^ith wifdom 
and valour, whilft the balmy zephyrs fin him to 

Seduced by thefe fublime enchanting fcencs of 

primitive nature, and thefe vifions of terreftrial hap- 

pinefs, I had roved fir away from Cedar Point, but 

4 awakening 


awakening to my cares, I turned aboutj and in the 
evening regained our camp. 

On my return, I found feme of my coinpanions 
fifhing for trout, round about the edges of the float- 
ing nymphsa, and not unfuccefsfully, having then 
caught more than fufEcient for us all. As the me- 
thod of taking thefe fifh is curious and fmgular, I 
fhall juft mention it. 

They are taken with a hook and line, but with- 
out any bait. Two people are in a little canoe, one 
fitting in the Hern to iteer, and the other near the 
bow, having a rod ten or twelve feet in length, to 
one end of which is tied a llrong line, about tv/enty 
inches in length, to which are fattened three large 
hoQksj back to back. Thefe are fixed very fecurely, 
and covered with the white hair of a deer's tail, 
ilireds of a red garter, and fome parti-coloured fea- 
thers, all which form a tuft or taffel, nearly as 
large as one's fift^ and entirely cover and conceal 
the hooks : this is called a bob. The fteerfman 
paddles fofcly, and proceeds (lowly along fhore, 
keeping the boat parallel to it, at a diftance jull 
fudicient to admit the fiflierman to reach the edge 
of the floating weeds along fliore ; he now ingeni- 
oufly fwings the bob backwards and forwards, jufl: 
above the furfacc, and fometimes tips the water 
vvith it; when the unfortunate cheated trout in- 
liandy fprings from under the weeds, and feizes the 
fuppcfed prey. Thus he is caught without a pofTi- 
bility of efcape, unkfs he break the hooks, line, or 
r.)d, which he, however, fometimes does by dint of 
flrengch ; but, to prevent this, the filherman ufed 
to the fpoit, is careful not to raife the reed fuddenly 
;ip, but. jerks it inftanrly backwards, then fteadily 
drags the flurdy reludant fifa to the fide of the 
6 canoe. 


canoe, and with a fudden upright jerk brings him 
into it. 

The head of this fifli makes about one third of 
his length, and confequently the mouth is very large: 
birds, fiih, frogs, and even ferpents, are frequently 
found in its ftomach. 

The trout is of a lead colour, inclining to a deep 
blue, and marked with tranfverfe waved lifts, of a 
deep flate colour, and, when fully grown, has a call: 
of red or brick colour. The fins, with the tail, 
which is large and beautifully formed, are of a light 
reddifh purple, or flefli colour: the whole body is 
covered with large fcales. But what is moft fin- 
gular, this fifh is rem.arkably ravenous ; nothing 
living that he can feize upon efcapes his jaws j and 
the opening and extending of the branchioftega, at 
the momicnt he rifes to the furface to feize his prey, 
difcovering his bright red gills through the tranf- 
parent waters, give him a very terrible appearance. 
Indeed it may be obferved, that all fiili of prey have 
this opening and covering of the gills very large, in 
order to difcharge the great quantity of water which 
they take in at their mouth, when they ftrike at their 
prey. This fifli is nearly cuneiform, the body ta- 
pering gradually from the breail to the tail, and 
lightly comprefled on each fide. They frequently 
weigh fifceen, twenty, and thirty pounds, and are 
delicious food. 

My companion, the trader, being defirous of 
eroding the river to the oppofite fhore, in hopes of 
getting a turkey, I chofe to accompany him, as it 
offered a good opportunity to obferve the natural 
productions of thofe rich fwamps and ifiands of 
the river. Having croffed the river, which is here 



five or fix hundred yards wide, we entered a narrow 
channel, which, after a Terpentine courfe for fome 
miles, rejoins the main river again, above -, form- 
ing a large fertile ifiand of rich low land. Wc 
landed on this ifland, and foon faw a fine roebuck * 
at fome diftance from ns, who appeared leader of a 
company of deer that were feeding near him on the 
verge of a green meadov/. My companion parted 
from me in piirHiit of the deer, one way ; and I, 
obferving a flock of turkeys at fome diftance, on 
the other, direcfled my fteps towards them, and 
with great caution got near them ; when, fingling 
out a large cock, and being jult on the point of 
firing^ I obferved that feveral young cocks were af- 
frightedj and in their language v/arned the reft 
to be on their guard againft an enemy, whomi I 
plainly perceived was induftrioufly making his fub- 
tile approaches towards them, behind the fallen 
trunk of a tree, about twenty yards from me. This 
cunning fellow-hunter was a large fat wild cat 
(lynx): he faw me, and at times feemed to watch 
my motions, as if determined to feize the delicious 
prey before me. Upon which I changed my objedt, 
and levelled my piece at him. At that inftant, my 
companion, at a diftance, alfo difcharged his piece 
at the deer, the report of which alarmed the flock 
of turkeys; and my fellow-hunter, the cat, fprang 
over the log, and trotted off. The trader alio mifl'ed 
his deer : thus we foiled each other. By this time 
it being near night, we returned to cannp, where 
having a delicious meal ready prepared for our hun- 
gry flomaciis, we iat down in a circle round our 
wholefome repaft. 

How fupremcly bleflTed were our hours at this 

* C'.ivvis Alvuticus. Tlie American i!cer. 

time ! 


time ! plenty of delicious and healthful food, our 
ftomachs keen, with contented minds; under no 
controul, but what reafon and ordinate palTions dic- 
tated, far removed from the feats of (Irife, 

Our fituation was like that of the primitive ftate 
of man, peaceable, contented and fociable. The 
fimple and necefTary calls of nature being fatisfied, 
we were altogether as brethren of one family, ftran- 
gers to envy, malice, and rapine. 

The night being over we arofe, and purfued our 
courfe up the river ; and in the evening reached the 
trading-houfe, Spalding's upper (lore, where I took 
up my quarters for feveral weeks. 

On our arrival at the upper (lore, we found it 
occupied by a white trader, who had for a compa- 
nion a very handfome Siminole young womian. Her 
father, who was a prince, by the name of the White 
Captain, V7as an old chief of the Siminoles, and with 
part of his family, to the number of ten or tv/elve, 
was encamped in an orange grove near the ftores, 
having lately come in from a hunt. 

This white trader, foon after our arrival, deli- 
vered up the goods and ftore-houfes to my compa- 
nion, and joined his father-in-law's camp, and foon 
after went away into the forefts on hunting and tra- 
ding amongft the flying camps of Siminoles. 

He is at this time unhappy in his connexions with 
his btautiful favagc. It is but a few years fince he 
came here, I think from North Carolina, a (lout 
genteel well-bred man, a6live, and of a heroic and 
amiable difpofidon ; and by his indudry, honedy, 
and engaging manners, had gained the a(Feclions of 
the Indians, and foon made a little fortune by trafnc 



with the Siminoles : when unfortunately meeting 
■with this little charmer, they were married in the 
Indian manner. He loves her fincerely, as fhe pof- 
fefles every perfeftion in her perfon to render a mam 
happy. ■ Her features are beautiful, and manners 
eno-aging. Innocence, modefty, and love, appear 
to a ftranger in every adlion and movement; and 
thefe powerful graces fhe has fo artfully played upon 
her beguiled and vanquifhed lover, and unhappy 
flave, as to have already drained him of a]l his pof- 
fefllons, which fhe dilhoneflly d'.flributes amongil: 
her favage relations. He is now poor, emaciated, 
and half diftrafted, often threatening to fhoot her, 
and afterwards put an end to his own life ; yet he has 
not refolution even to leave her; but now endea- 
vours to drown and forget his fbrrows in deep 
draughts of brandy. Her father condemns her dif- 
honeil and cruel condud. 

Thefe particulars were related to m.e by my old 
friend the trader, direftly after a long conference 
which he had with the White Captain on the fub- 
je6b, his fon in-law being prefent. The fcene was 
affecting ; they both Ihed tears plentifully. My 
reafons for mentioning this affair, lb foreign to my 
bufinefs, was to exbibit an inftance of the power of 
beauty in a favage, and her art and finelTe in im- 
proving it to her private ends. It is, however, 
but doing juflice to the virtue and moral conduft of 
the Siminoles, and American aborigines in general, 
to obferve, that the chara6ler of this woman is 
condemned and deiefted by her own people of both 
fexcs ; and if her hufband fliould turn her away, 
according to the cuftoms and ufages of thefe people, 
fne would not get a hufnand again, as a divorce 
feldom takes place but in confequence of a delibe- 


rate impartial trial, and public condemnation, and 
then Ihe would be looked upon as a harlot. 

Such is the virtue of thefe untutored favages : 
but I am afraid this is a common-phrafe epithet, 
having no meaning, or at lead improperly applied ; 
for thefe people are both well-tutored and civil ; and 
it is apparent to an impartial obferver, who refides 
but a little time amongft them, that it is from the 
moft delicate fenfe of the honour and reputation of 
their tribes and fimilies, that their laws and cuftoms 
receive their force and energy. This is the divine 
principle which influences their moral conduct, and 
Iblely preferveg their conftitution and civil govern- 
ment in that purity in which they are found to pre- 
vail amonsH them. 




Being defiroiis of continuing my travels and ob- 
fervations higher up the river, and having an invi- 
tation from a gentleman who was agent for, and 
refident at, a large plantation, the property of an 
Englifh gentleman, about fixty miles higher up, I 
refolved to purfue my refearches to that place ; and 
having engaged in my fervice a young Indian, ne- 
phew to the white captain, he agreed to afiift me 
in working my veflel up as high as a certain bluff,- 
where I was, by agreem.ent, to land him, on the 
Weft or Indian Ihore, whence he defigned to go in 
queft of the camp of the White Trader, his relation. 

Provifions and all neceflaries being procured, 
and the morning pieafant, we went on board and 
ftood up the river. We pafled for feveral miles on 
the left, by iflands of high fwamp land, exceedingly 
fertile, their banks for a good diftance from the wa- 
ter, much higher than the interior part, and fuffi- 
ciently lb to build upon, and be out of the reach of 
inundations. They confift of a loofe black mould, 
widi a mixture of fand, fhells, and dilTolved vege- 
tables. The oppofite Indian coaft is a perpendicu- 
lar bluff, ten or twelve feet higli, confifting of a; 
black fandy earth, mixed with a large proportion of 
fhells, chiefly various fpecies of frefii water cochlese 
and mytuli. Near the river, on this high ihore, 
grew corypha pa] ma, magnolia grandiflora, live 
oak, callicarpa, myrica cerifera, hibiicus fpinifex, 
and the beautiful evergreen llirub called v.'ild hme 
or tallow nuc. This lall Hirub growb fix or eight 
feet high, many ered ftems fpring from a root ; 



the leaves are lanceolate and entire, two or three 
inches in length and one in breaddi, of a deep green 
colour, and polillied ; at the foot of each leaf grows 
a ftiff fharp thorn ; the flowers are fmall and in 
clufters, of a greenifh yellow colour, and fweet 
fcented ; they are fucceeded by a large oval fruit, 
of the fhape and fize of an ordinary plumb, of a 
fine yellow colour when ripe ; a ibft fweet pulp co- 
vers a nut which has a thin fliell, enclofing a white 
kernel fomewhat of the confidence and tafte of the 
f.veet almond, but more oily and very much Hke 
hard tallow, which induced my father, when he firft 
obferved it, to call it the tallow-nut. 

At the upper end of this bluff is a fine orange 
grove. Here my Indian companion requefted me 
to fet him on fliore, being already tired of rowing 
under a fervid fun, and having for fome time inti- 
mated a diflike to his fituation. I readily complied 
with his defire, knowing the impoflibility of com- 
peUing an Indian againft his ov/n inclinations, or 
even prevailing upon him by reafonable arguments^ 
when labour is in the queftion. Before my veflel 
reached the fhore, he fprang out of her and landed, 
when uttering a flirill and terrible whoop, he bound- 
ed off like a roebuck, and I loft fight of him, 
I at firft apprehended, that as he took his gun with 
him, he intended to hunt tor fome game and return 
to me in the evening. The day being exceffively 
hot and fultry, I concluded to take up my quarters 
here undl next morning. 

The Irtdian not returning this morning, I fat fail 
alone. The coafts on eacli fide had much the lame 
appearance as already defcribed. The palm-trees 
here feem to be of a different fpecies from the cabbage 
treej their ftraight trunks are fixty, eighty, or ninety 

I fcec 

114 TRAVELS 11^ 

feet high, with a beautiful taper, of a bright afh co- 
lour, until within fix or feven feet of the top, where 
it is a fine green colour, crowned with an orb of 
rich green plumed leaves : I have meafured the ftem 
of thefe plumes fifteen feet in length, befides the 
plume, which is nearly of the fame length. 

The little lake, which is an expanfion of the ri- 
ver, nov/ appeared in view ; on the eaft fide are ex-- 
teiifive marihes, and on the other high forefls and 
orange groves, and then a bay, lined with vaft cy- 
prefs fwamps, both coafts gradually approaching 
each other, to the opening of the river again, which 
is in this place about three hundred yards wide. Even- 
ing nowdrawing on, I was anxious to reach fome high 
bank of the river, where I intended to lodge j and 
agreeably to my wifhes, I foon after difcovered, on 
the wefl: fiiore, a little promontory, at the turning 
of the river,, contrafting it here to about one hun- 
dred and fifty yards in width. This promontory is 
a peninfula, containing about three acres of high 
ground, and is one entire orange grove, with a few 
live oaks, magnolias, and palms. Upon doubling 
the point, I arrived at the landing, which is a cir- 
cular harbour, at the foot of the blufi"^, the top of 
which is about twelve feet high ; the back of it is 
a large cyprefs fwamp, that fpreads each vay, the 
right wing forming the weft coaft of the little lake, 
and the left ftretching up the river many miles, and 
cncompaffing a vaft fpace of lov/gralTy marfiies. From 
this promontory, looking eaftward acrofs the river, 
I behcLl a landfcape of low country, unparalleled 
as I think ; en the left is the eaft coaft of the little 
lake, wliich I had juft pafted i and from t!ie orange 
bluir at the lower end, the high forefts begin, and 
iacreale in breadth from the Ihore of tlie lake, mak- 
6 in"' 


ing a circular fweep to the riglit, and contain 
many hundred thoufand acres of meadow ; and this 
grand fweep of high forefts encircles, as I appre- 
hend, at lead twenty miles of thefe green fields, 
interfperfed with hommocks or iflets of evergreen 
trees, where the fovereign magnolia and lordly 
palm (land confpicuous. The iflets are high fnelly 
knolls, on the fides of creeks or branches of the 
river, which wind about and dr.un off the fuper- 
abundant waters that cover thefe meadows during 
the winter feafon. 

The evening was temperately cool and calm. 
The crocodiles began to roar and appear in uncom- 
mon numbers along the fhores and in the river. I 
fixed my camp in an open plain, near the utmoft 
projeftion of the promontory, under the flielter of 
a large live oak, which flood on the higheft part 
of the ground, and bu: a few yards from my boat. 
From this open, high fituation, I had a free prof- 
ped: of the river, which was a matter of no trivial 
confideration to me, having good reaibn to dread 
the fubde attacks of the alligators, who were crowd- 
ing about my harbour. Having coile6lcd a good 
quantity of wood for the piirpof: of keeping up a 
light and fmoke during the night, I began to cntnk 
of preparing my fupper, when, upon examining my 
flores, I found but a fcanty provifion. I thereupoa 
determined, as the moft expeditious way of fupply-. 
ing my necefTides, to take my bob and try for fome 
trout. About one hundred yards ab.'^v^e my har- 
bour began a cove or bay of the livcr, oul uf which 
opened a large lagoon. The mouth or entrance 
from the river to it was narrow, but the waters 
foon after fpread and formed a little lake, extend- 
ing into the marlhes: its entrance and fuores within 

I 2 I obfcrvccl 

11^ TRAVELS Iff 

I obferved to be verged with floating lawns of the 
piflia and nymphea and other aquatic plants ; thefc 
I knew were excellent haunts for trout. 

The verges and ifFets of the lagoon were ele- 
gantly embelliflied with flo'.vering plants and fhrubsj 
the laughing coots with wings half fpread were trip- 
ping over, the little coves, and hiding themfelves in 
the tufts of grafs ; young broods of the painted 
fummer teal, fkimming the flill furface of the waters, 
and following the watchful parent unconicious of 
danger, were frequendy furprifed by the voracious 
trout ; and he, in turn, as often by the fubtle 
greedy alligator. Behold him rufliing forth from 
the flags and reeds. His enormous body fwells» 
His plaited tail brandiilied high, floats upon the 
lake. The waters like a catarad defcend from his 
opening jaws. Clouds of fmoke ifTue from his di- 
lated noftrils. The earth trembles with his thunder. 
When immediately from the oppofite coaft of the 
lagoon, emerges from the deep his rival champion. 
They fuddenly dart upon each other. The boiling 
furface of the lake marks their rapid courfe, and 
a terrific conflict commences. They now fmk to 
the bottom folded together indiorrid wreaths. The 
water becomes thick and difcoioured. Again they 
rife, their jaws clap together, re-echoing through 
the deep furrounding forefts. Again they fink, when 
the conteft ends at the muddy bottom of the lake, 
and the vanquifhed makes a hazardous efcape, hid- 
ing himfelf in the muddy turbulent waters and fedge 
on a diftant fliore. The proud vi6tor exulting re- 
turns to the place of aftion. Tiie fhores and foreih 
refound ifis dreadful roar, together with the triumph- 
ing fhouts of the plaited tribes around, witnefltrs 
of the horrid combat. 



My apprehenfions were highly alarmed after be- 
ino- a fpecftator of fo dreadful a batde. It was ob- 
vious that every delay would but tend to increafe 
my dangers and difficulties, as the fun was near 
fctting, and the alligators gathered around my har- 
bour from all quarters. From thele confideration? 
I conclude-d to be expedidous in my trip to the la- 
goon, in order to take fome filh. Not thinking it 
prudent to take my fufee with me, left I might 
lofe it overboard in cafe of a battle, which I had 
every reafon to dread before my return, I therefore 
furniflied myfelf with a club for my defence, went 
on board, and penetrating the firft line of thofe 
which furrounded my harbour, they gave way ; but 
being purfued by feveral very large ones, I kept 
ftritftly on the watch, and paddled with all my might 
towards the entrance of the lagoon, hoping to be 
flieltered there from the multitude of my afiailancs; 
but ere I had half-way reached the place, I was at- 
tacked on all fides, ieveral endeavouring to overl'et 
the canoe. My fituation now became precarious to 
the laft degree : two very large ones attacked me 
clofely, at the fame inltant, rufhing up v/ith their heads 
and part of their bodies above the water, roaring 
terribly and belching floods of water oyer me. They 
ftruck their jaws together fo clofe to my ears, as 
almoft to ftun nrte, and I expedled every moment to 
be dragged, out of the boar and inftantly devoured. 
But I applied my weapoiis fo €ffe6lually about me, 
though at random, that I was fo fucccfsful as to 
beat them off a little j when, finding that they de- 
figned to r£new the battle, I made for the fliore, 
as the only means left me for my prefervation ; for, 
by keeping clofe to it, I fliould have my enem.ies on 
one fide of me only, whereas I was before furround- 
ed by them j and there was a probability, if pulhed 

} 3 ?Q 


to the bd extremity, of faving myfelf, by jumping 
out of the canoe on fhore, as it is eafy to outwalk 
them on land, akb.ough comparatively as fwift as 
lightning in che water. I found this lafb expedient 
alone couid fully anfwer my expe6tations, for as 
foon as I gained the flicre, they drew off and kept 
aloof. This was a hr.ppy relief, as my confidence 
was, in fome degree, recovered by it. On recol- 
leding myfelf, 1 difcovered that I had almoft reach- 
ed the entrance of the lagoon, and determined to 
venture in, if pofTible, to take a few fifh, and then 
return to my harbour, while day-light continued ; 
f^r 1 could now, witn caution and refolution, make 
my way with fafety along fhore j and indeed there 
was no other way to regain my camp, without leav- 
ing ray boat and making my retreat through the 
marfiics and reeds, which, if I could even efFeft, 
would have been in a manner throwing myfelf 
away, for then there would have been no hopes of 
ever recovering my bark, and returning in fafety 
to any fettlements of men. I accordingly proceed- 
ed, and made good my entrance into the lagoon, 
though not without oppofition from the alligators, 
who formed a line acrofs the entrance, but did not 
purfue me into it, nor was I molefted by any there, 
though there were fome very large ones in a cove 
at the upper end. I foon caught more trout than 
I had prelent occafion for, and the air was too hot 
and fukry to admit of their being kept for many 
hours, even thv^ugh faked or barbecued. I now 
prepared f;T n^y return to camp, which I fucceeded 
in with but l\[t!e trouble, by keeping dole to 
the Ihore ; yet I was oppofed upon re-entering the 
river out ot the lagoon, and purfued near to my 
laiKiiri^ ('hou^rh not cL>fely attacked), particularly 
by an old daiing one, about twelve feet in length, 



who kept clofe after me ; and when I ftepped on 
ihore and turned about, in order to draw up my 
canoe, he ruflied up near my feet, and lay there for 
feme time, looking me in the face, his head and 
flioulders out of water. I refolved he fliould pay 
for his temerity, and having a heavy load in my fu- 
fee, I ran to my camp, and returning with my piece, 
found him with his foot on the gunwale of tlie boat, 
in fearch of fifh. On my coming up he withdrew 
fullenly and (lowly into the water, but foon returned 
and placed himfelf in his former pofition, looking 
at me, and feeming neither fearful nor any way 
difturbed. I foon difpatched him by lodging the 
contents of my gun in his head, and then proceeded 
to cleanfe and prepare m.y fifh for fupper ; and 
accordingly took them out of the boat, laid them 
down on the fand clofe to the water, and began to 
fcale them ; when, raifing my head, I faw before 
me, through the clear water, the head and fhoui- 
ders of a very large alligator, moving (lowly towards 
m.e. I inflantly ilepped back, when, v/ith a fweep 
of his tail, he brufhed off feverai of my fifh. It 
was certainly moil providential that I looked up at 
that inilant, as the monfbcr would probably, in lefs 
than a minute, have feized and dragged me into the 
river. This incredible boldr.efs of the aninial dil- 
turbed m.e greatly, fuppofmg there could now be n,o 
reaibnable fafcty for me during the night, but by 
keeping continually on the watch : I therefore, as 
foon as 1 had prepared the filh, proceeded to fe- 
cure m.yfelf and effefts in the beft manner I could. 
In the firft place, I hauled my bark upon the 
fliore, almoft clear out of the water, to prevent 
their overfetting or finking her ; after this, evrry 
moveable was taken out and carried to my camp, 
I 4 which 


which was but a few yards off j then ranging fome 
dry wood in fuch order as was the moft convenient, 
I cleared the ground round about ir, that there might 
be no impediment in my way, in cafe of an attack 
in the night, either from the water or the land j for 
I difcovered by this time, that this fmall ifthmus, 
from its remote fituation and fruitfulnefs, was re- 
forted to by bears and wolves. Having prepared 
myfelf in the beft manner I could, I charged my 
gun, and proceeded to reconnoitre my camp and the 
adjacent grounds j when I difcovered that the pe- 
ninfula and grove, at die diftance of about two hun- 
dred yards from my encampment, on the land fide, 
were invefted by a cyprefs fwamp, covered with 
water, which below was joined to the fhore of the 
little lake, and above to the marfhes furrounding the 
lagoon; fo that I was confined to an iflet exceed- 
ingly circumfcribed, and I found there was no other 
retreat for m.e, in cafe of an attack, but by either 
afcending one of the large oaks, or pufhing off 
with my boat. 

It was by this time dufk, and the alligators had 
nearly ctafed their roar, when I was again alarmed 
by a tumultuous noife that fecmed to be in my 
harbour, and therefore engaged my immediate at- 
tendon. Returning to my camp, I found it undif- 
turbed, and then continued on to the extreme point 
of the promontory, where I faw a fcene, new and 
furprifing, which at firft threw my fenfes into fuch 
a tumuh, that it was fome time before I could com- 
prehend what was the matter; however, I foon 
accounted for the prodigious affemblage of croco- 
diles at this place, which exceeded every thing of 
the kind I had ever heard of. 

How fliall I exprefs myfelf fo as to convey an 



adequate idea of it to the reader, and at the fame 
time avoid raifing fuipicions of my veracity ? Should 
I fay, that the river (in this place) from fhore to 
fhore, and perhaps near half a mile above and be- 
low me, appeared to be one folid bank of fifli, of 
various kinds, pufning through this narrow pafs 
of St. Juan's into the little lake, on their return, 
down the river, and that the alligators were in fuch 
incredible numbers, and fo clofe together from fhore 
to fhore, that it would have been eafy to have 
v/alked acrofs on their heads, had the animals 
• been harmlefs ? What exprefTions can fufficiently 
declare the fhocking fcene that for fome minutes 
continued, whilft this mighty army of fifli were forc- 
ing the pafs ? During this attempt, thoufands, I 
may fay hundreds of thoufands, of them were caught 
and fwallowed by the devouring alligators. I hav^e 
feen an alligator take up out of the water feveral 
great fifli at a time, and jull fqueeze them betwixt 
his jaws, while the tails of the great trout flapped 
about his eyes and lips, ere he had fwallowed them. 
The horrid noife of their clofing jaws, their plung- 
ing amidft the broken banks of fifli, and rifing 
with their prey fome feet upright above the v/ater, 
the floods of water and blood rufhing out of their 
mouths, and the clouds of vapour ilTuing from their 
wide nofliils, were truly frightful. This fcene con- 
tinued at intervals during the night, as the fifli 
cam.e to the pafs. After this fight, fiiocking and 
tremendous as it was, I found myfelf fomewliat ea- 
fier and more reconciled to miy fituation ; being 
convinced that their extraordinary aflemblage here 
was owing to this annual feafl: of fifli ; and th?.t 
they were fo well employed in their own element, 
that I had little occafion to fear their payijig me a 



It being now almoft night, I returned to my 
camp, where I had left my fiHi broiling, and my 
kettle of rice Hewing j and having v/ith me oiJ, 
pepper, and fait, and excellent oranges hanging in 
abundance over m.y head (a valuable fubftitute for 
vinegar) I fit down and regaled myfelf cheerfully. 
Having finifned m.y repail, 1 rekindled my fire for 
light, and whilft I was reviling the notes of my pafl 
day's journey, I was fuddenly roufed with a noife 
behind me toward the main land. I iprang up on 
jny feet, and liftening, I didinftiy heard fome crea- 
ture wading in the water of the iili:;PAis. I feizcd 
my gun and went caudoufly fl-om my camip, direft- 
ing my fteps towards the noife : when I had ad- 
vanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a cop- 
pice of orange trees, and foon perceived two very 
large bears, which had m.ade their way throi.a'.i the 
■water, and liad landed in the grove, about one hun- 
dred yards diftance from me, and were advancing 
towards me. I waited until they v/ere within thirty 
yards of me : they there began to fnuffand look to- 
wards my camp : I fnapped my piece, but it flaflied, 
on which they both turned about and galloped oif> 
plunging through the water and fwamp, never halt- 
ing, as I fuppofe, until they reached fait land, as I 
could hear them leaping and plunging a long time. 
They did not piefumc to return again, nor was I 
molefted by, any other creature, except being occa- 
fionally awakened by the whooping of owls, fcream- 
ing of bitterns, or the wood-rats running amongfl: 
the leaves. 

I'hc wood-rat is a very curious animal. It Is 
not half the fize of the domeftic rat ; of a dark brown 
or black colour j its tail llender and Jhorter in 
propoiticn, and covered thinly with fl:ort hair. 



It is fingular with rerpe(5t to its ingenuity and 
great labour in the conftruftion of its habitation, 
which is a conical pyramid about three or four feet 
high, conftruv^led with dry branches, which it col- 
lefts with great labour and perfeverance, and piles up 
without any apparent order ; yet they are fo inter- 
woven with one another, that it would take a bear 
or wild-cat fome time to pull one of thefe caftlesto 
pieces, and allow the animals fufficient time to fe- 
cure a retreat with their young. 

The noife of the crocodiles kept me awake the 
greater part of the night ; but when I arofe in the 
morning, contrary to my expedlations, there was 
perfeft peace j very few of them to be feen, and 
thofe were afleep on the fliore. Yet I was not able 
to fupprefs my fears and apprehenfions of being at- 
tacked by them in future ; and indeed yefterday's 
combat with them, notwithftanding I came off in a 
manner vidorious, or at leaft made a fafe retreat, 
had left fufficient imprefllon on my mind to damp 
my courage; and it feemed too much for one of 
my ftrength, being alone in a very fmall boat, to 
encounter fuch collected danger. To purfue my 
voyage up the river, and be obliged every even- 
ing to pafs fuch dangerous defiles, appeared to me 
as perii(Ais as running the gauntlet betwixt tv.o rov/s 
of Indians armed with knives and firebrands, i 
however refolved to continue my voyage one day 
longer, if I pofnbly could wirh fafety, and then re- 
turn down the river, fnould I find the like difficul- 
ties to oppofe. Accordingly 1 got every thing on 
board, charged my gun, and kt fail, cautiouHy, 
along ffiore. As I paffed by Battle lagocn, I b':'gan 
to tremble and keep a good look-out j when fud- 
denly a huge alligator rulhed out of the reeds, and 



v;ith a tremendous roar came up, and darted as 
fwift as an arrow under my boat, emerging upright 
on my lee quarter, with open jaws, and belching 
•water and fmoke that fell upon me like rain in a 
hurricane. I laid foundly about his head with my 
club, and beat him off; and after plunging and dart- 
ing about my boat, he went off on a ftraight line 
through the water, feemingly with the rapidity of 
lightning, and entered the cape of the lagoon. I 
now employed my time to the very beil advantage 
in paddling ciofe along friore, but could not forbear 
looking now and then behind me, and prefently 
perceived one of them coming up again. The wa- 
ter of the river hereabouts was fhoaland very clear ; 
the monfter came up with the ufual roar and me- 
naces, and palled clofe by the fide of my boat, 
when I could diftin6lly fee a young brood of alliga- 
tors, to the number of one hundred or miOre, fol- 
lowing after her in a long tiain. They kept clofe 
together in a column, without ftraggling off to the 
one fide or the other ; the young appeared to be of 
an equal fize, about fifteen inches in length, almoft 
black, with pale yellow tranfverfe waved clouds or 
blotches, much like rattlefnakes in colour. I now 
loft fight of my enemy again. 

Still keeping clofe along fhore, on turning a 
point or proje6lion of the river bank, at once I be- 
held a great number of hillocks or Imall pyramids, 
refembling hay-cocks, ranged like an encampment 
along the banks. They ilood fifteen or twenty yards 
didant from the v/ater, on a high marfh, about four 
feet perpendicular above the water. I knew them 
to be the nefts of the crocodile, having had a de- 
fcription of them before; and now expeded a fu- 
rious and general att?ick, as 1 faw feveral large cro- 


codiles fwlmming abreaft of tliefe buildings. Thefe 
nefts being fo gieat a curiofity to me, I was deter- 
mined at all events immediately to land and exa- 
mine them. Accordingly, I ran my bark on fhore 
at one of their landing-places, v^hich was a fort of 
nick or little dock, from which afcended a floping 
path or road up to the edge of the meadow, v/hcre 
their nefts were ; moft of them were deferted, and 
the great thick whicifn egg-fliells lay broken and 
fcattered upon the ground round about them. 

The nefts or hillocks are of the form of an obxufe 
cone, four feet high and four or five feet in dia- 
meter at their bafcs i they are conftruflcd with mud, 
grafs and herbage. At firft they lay a floor of th.s 
.kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which 
they depofit a layer of eggs, and upon this a flra- 
tum of mortar, feven or eiglit inches in thicknefs, 
and then another layer of eggs ; and in this manner 
one ftratum upon another, nearly to the top. I be- 
lieve they commonly lay from one to two- hundred 
eggs in a nefb: thefe are hatched, I fuppofe, by the 
heat of the fun ; and perhaps the vegetable fub- 
ftances mixed with the earth, being acted upon by the 
fun, may caufe a fmall degree of fermentation, and 
fo increafe the heat in rhofe hillocks. The ground 
for feveral acres about thefe nefts fliewed evident 
marks of a continual refort of alligators ; the orafs 
was every where beaten down, hardly a blade or 
ftrav/ was left (landing ; whereas, all about, at a 
dillance, it v/as five or fix feet high, and as thick 
as it could grow together. The female, as I ima- 
gine, carefully watches her own neft of egcrs until 
they are all hatched ; or perhaps while flie i^ attend- 
ing her own brood, fne takes under her care and 
protedlion as many as flic can get at one time, ei- 

i2l5 TRAVELS Itt 

ther from her own particular neft or others : but 
certain it is, that the young are not left to fhift for 
theinfclves; for I have had frequent opportunities of 
feeing the female alligator leading about the fhores 
her train of young ones, jufl as a hen does her 
brood of chickens j and fhe is equally affiduous and 
courageous in defending the young, which are un- 
der her care, and providing for their fubfiftence ; 
and when £he is bafking upon the warm banks, with 
her brood around her, yt;u may hear the young ones 
continually whining and barking like young pup- 
pies. I believe but few of a brood live to the years 
of full growth and magnitude, as the old feed on 
the young as long as they can make prey of them. 

The alligator when full grov/n is a very large 
and terrible creature, and of prodigious ftrength, 
aftivity and fvviftnefs in the water. I have ieen 
them twenty feet in length, and fom.e are fuppofed 
to be twenty- two or twenty-three feet. Their body 
is as large as that of a horfe; their fhape ex- 
a6lly refembles that of a lizard, except their tail, 
which is flat or cuneiform, being comprefled on each 
fide, and gradually diminifhing from the abdomen 
to the extremity, which, with the v/hole body is 
covered with horny plates or fquamms, impene- 
trable when on the body of the live anim^al, evea 
to a riEe ball, except about their head and jufb be- 
hind their fore-legs or arms, where it is faid they 
are only vulnerable. The head of a full grown one 
is about three feet, and the mouth opens nearly the 
fame length ; their eyes are fmali in proportion, and 
fecm funk deep in the head, by means of the pro- 
minency of the brows ; the noftrils are large, in- 
flated and prominent on the top, fo that the head 
in the water refembles, at a diftance, a great 



chunk of wood floating about. Only the upper jaw 
moves, which they raife ahnoft perpendicular, fo 
as to form a right angle with the lower one. In 
the fore-part of the upper jaw, on each fide, jull 
under die noftrils, are two very large, thick, fcrong 
teeth or tulks, not very lliarp, but rather the (liape 
of a cone : thefe are as white as the fineft polirtied 
ivory, and are not covered by any (kin or lips, and 
always in fight, which gives the creature a fright- 
ful appearance : in the lower jaw are holes oppo- 
fite to thefe teeth, to receive them : when they clap 
their jaws together it caufes a furprifing noife, like 
that which is made by forcing a heavy plank with 
violence upon the ground, and may be heard at a 
great diftance. 

But what is yet more furprifing to a flranger, is 
the incredible loud and terrifying roar, v/hich they 
are capable of making, efpecially in the fpring fea- 
fon, their breeding time. It mod refembles vtrj 
heavy diftant thunder, not only Ihaking the air and 
waters, but caufiiig the earth to tremble ; and when 
hundreds and thouf-.nds are roaring at the fame time, 
you can fcarceiy be periuadcd, but that the whole 
globe is violently and dangercufly agitated. 

An old champi'jn, who is perhaps abfolute {ovs- 
reign of a little lake or lagoon (when fifty lefs than 
himfelf are obliged to content themfelves with fwell- 
ing and roaring in little coves round about) darLs 
forth from the reedy cov^erts all at once, on tho. 
furface of the waters, in a right line -, at firft feem- 
jngly as rapid as lightning, but gradually more fiowiy 
until he arrives at the centre of the lake, when he 
iiops. He now fwells himfelf by drawing in wind 
and water through his mouth, which caufes a loud 



fonorous rattling in the throat for near a minut(^, 
but it is imniediately forced out again through his 
mouth and noftrils, with a loud noife, brandifhing 
his tail in the air, and the vapour afcending from his 
noftrils like fmoke. At other times, when fwollen 
to an extent ready to burft, his head and tail lifted 
up, he fpins or twirls round on the furface of the 
waten He afts his part like an Indian chief when 
rehearfing his feats of war j and then retiring, the 
exhibition is continued by others who dare to ftep 
forth, and ftrive to excel each other, to gain the 
attention of the favourite female. 

Having gratified my curiofity at this general breed- 
ing-place and nurfery of crocodiles, I continued 
my voyage up the river without being greatly dlf- 
turbed by them. In my way 1 obferved iflets or float- 
ing fields of the bright green Piftia, decorated with 
other amphibious plants, as Senecio Jacobea, Per- 
ficaria amphibia, Coreopfis bidens, Hydrocotyle flui- 
tans, and many others of lefs note. 

The fwamps on the banks and illands of the river 
are generally three or four feet above the furface 
of the water, and very level ; the timber large and 
growing thinly, more lb than what is obferved to be 
in the fwamps below lake George ; the black rich 
earth is covered with m.oderateiy tall, and very fuc- 
culent tender grafs, which when chewed is fweet and 
agreeable to the tafte, fomewhat like young fugar- 
cane : it is a jointed decumbent grafs, fending out 
radicul^ at the joints into the earth, and ih fpreads 
itfclf, by creeping over its furface. 

The large tim.ber trees, which pofTefs the low lands, 
are Acer rubrum, Ac. negundo, Ac. glaucum,UlmL's 
fylvatica, Fraxinus exceUior, Frax, aquatica, Ulmus 



fubeiifer, Glcditfia monofperma, Gledit. trlacan- 
thus, Diofpyros Virginica, Nyffa aqiiatica, Nyfla 
Tylvatica, Juglans cinerea, Qiiercus dentata, Qiier- 
cus phillos, Hopea tinftoria, Corypha palma, Mo- 
ms rubra, and many more. The palm grows on the 
edges of the banks, where they are raifed hig.her than 
the adjacent level ground, by the accumulation of 
fand, river-lhells, &c. I palled along feveral miles 
by thofe rich fwamps : the channels of the river 
which encircle the feveral fertile iflands 1 had 
pafTed, now uniting, formed one deep channel near 
three hundred yards over. The banks of the river 
on each fide bsgan to rile, and prefent fhelly 
bluffs, adorned by beautiful Orange groves. Lau- 
rels and Live Oaks. And now appeared in fight a 
tree that claimed my whole attention: it was the 
Carica papaya, both male and female, which v/ere 
in flower , and the latter both in flower and fruit, 
fome of which were ripe, as large, and^of the form, 
of a pear, and of a moft charming appearance. 

This admirable tree is certainly the moft beau- 
tiful of any vegetable production I know of j the 
towering Laurel Magnolia, and exalted Palm, in- 
deed exceed it in grandeur and magnificence, but 
not in elegance, delicacy, and gracefulnefs. It rifes 
erecl to the height of fifteen or twenty feet, with a 
perfedly ftraight tapering fiiem, v/hich is fmooth and 
polilhed, of a bright afh colour, refemxbling leaffilver, 
curioufly infcribed with the footfteps of the falkn 
leaves; aiid thele veftiges are placed in a very re- 
gular uniform imbricated order, which has a fine 
efl^eCl, as if the little column were elegantly carved 
all over. Its perfectly fphcricai top is tormed of 
very large lobe-finuate leaves, fupported on very- 
long footftalks ; the lower leaves are the largeit 
as well as their petioles the longeft, and make 

K a graceful 


a graceful fweep or flourifh, like the long J^ or 
the branches of a fconcs candlefllck. The ripe 
and green fruit are placed round about the ftem or 
trunk, from the lowermoft leaves, where the ripe 
fruit are, and upwards almoft to the top ; the heart 
or inmofl: pithy part of the trunk is in a manner hol- 
Jow, or at bell confifts of very thin porous medulla 
or membranes. Tiie tree very feldom branches or 
divides into limbs, I believe never imlefs the top is 
by accident broke off when very young: I law one 
which had two tops or heads, the ftem of which di- 
vided near the earth. It is always green, orna- 
mented at the fame time with flowers and fruit, 
which like figs come out fingly from the trunk or 

After refllng and refrediing myfelf in thefe de- 
lightful fnades, I left them with reluftance. Em- 
barkino^ a^ain after the fervid heat of the meridian 
fun was abated, for feme time I paiTed by broken 
ridges of llielly high land, covered with groves 
of Live Oak, Palm, Olea Americana, and Orange 
trees j frequently obferving floating iOets and green 
fields of the Piliia near the llicres of the river and 

Here is in this river, and in the waters all over 
Florida, a very curious and handfome fpecies of birds, 
the people call them Snake Birds ; 1 think I have 
feen paintings of them on the Chinefe fcreens and 
other India piftures : they feem to be a fpecies 
of cormorant or loon (Colymbus cauda elongata), 
but far more beautiful and delicately formtd 
than any other fpecies that I have ever feen. The 
head and neck of this bird are extremely fmall and 
flender, the latter very long indeed, almoft out of 
all proportion i the bill long, llraight, and flen Icr, 



tapering from its ball to a fh srp point ; all the upper 
fide, the abdomen and thighs, are uS black rnd 
glonV as a raven's, covered with feathers fo rrm '^nd 
clailic, that they in fonae degree refemble fifli-fcaies ; 
the bread and upper part of the belly are covered 
with feathets of a cream colour 3 the tall is very 
long, of a deep black, and tipped uidi a fib. ery 
white, and when fpread, reprc-fents an unfurled fan» 
They delik^ht to fit in little peaceable com rr. unities, 
on the drv limbs ^^f fees, hanging over the flill waters, 
with their wings and tails expanded, I fuppofe to 
cool and air thcinfelveS) when at the i\vve time they 
behold their images in the watery mii ;our. At fuch 
times, when we approach them- they drop off the 
limbs into die warer as if dead, and for a minute or 
two are not to bi: fe^n ; when on a f .idden, at a 
vaft diftan:e, their long D.ender head and neck 
only appear, and have very m.uch the appearance 
of a fnake, and no other part of them is to be 
fcen when f. imming in the water, except fome- 
times the tip end of the tail. In the heat of the 
day they are feen in great num.bers, failing very 
high in the air, over lakes and rivers. 

I doubt not but if this bird had been an inhabit- 
ant of the Tiber in Ovid's days, it would have 
furniihed him with a fubje6l for fome beautiful 
and entertaining metamorphofes. I believe it 
feeds intirely on fifh, for its fiefh fmells and taflies 
intolerably ftrong of it ; it is fcarcely to be eaten, 
unlefs conftrained by infufferable hunger. 

I had nov/ fwamps and marines on both fides of 
me ; and evening coming on apace, I began to look 
out for high land to encamp on ; but the extenfive 
marfhcs feemed to have no bounds, and it was al- 
moll dark when I found a tolerably fuitable place, 
K 2 and 

132 tRAVELS m 

and at lall was confrrained to take up with a narrow 
{trip of high fiielly bank, on the weft fide. Great 
numbers of crocodiles were in fight on both fhores. 
I ran my bark on faore at a perpendicular bank four 
or five feet above the water, jull by the roots and 
under the fpreading limbs of a great Live Oak : this 
appeared to have been an ancient camping place by 
Indians and ftroUing adventurers, from afh heaps 
and old rotten fire-brands and chunks, fcattered 
about on the furface of the ground ; but was now 
evidently the harbour and landing-place of fome 
fovereign alligator : there led up from it a deep 
beaten path or road, which v;as a convenient afcent. 

I did not approve of my intended habitation from 
thefe circumllances ; and no fooner had I landed 
and moored my canoe to the roots of the tree, than 
1 faw a huge crocodile rifing up from the bottom 
clofe by me, who, when he perceived that 1 faw 
him, plunged down again under my veiTel. This 
determined me to be on my guard, and in time to 
provide againft a troublefome night. I took out of 
m.y boat every moveable, which I carried upon the 
bankj then chofe my lodging clofe to my canoe, 
under the fpreading Oak, as hereabouts only, the 
ground was open and clear of high grafs and bufhes, 
and confequently I had fome room to ftir and look 
round about. I then proceeded to colledl fi.rewood, 
which I found difficult to procure, i Tere were ftand- 
ing a few Orange trees. As for provifions, I had 
faved one or tv.o barbecued trout, the remains of 
my laft evening's colletlion, in tolerable good order, 
though the fultry heats of the day had injured them; 
yet by ftewing them up afrefli v/ith the lively juice 
of Oranges, they ferved well enough for my fup- 
per, as I had by this time but little relilli or appe- 


tite for my viduals -, for condant watching at night 
againft the attacks of alligr.tors, flinging of muf- 
quitoes and fukry heats of the day, together with 
the fatigues of working my bark, had ahiioft de- 
prived me of every defire but that of ending my 
troubles as fpeedily as poflible. I liad the good for- 
tune to collect together a fufficiency of dry flicks 
to keep up a light and fmoke, which I laid by mie, 
and then fpread my fkins and blankets upon the 
ground, kindlc'i up a little fire, and fupped before 
it was quite dark. The evening \vas however ex- 
tremely pieafant ; a briflv cool breeze fprang up, and 
the fkies were perfeftly ferene, the liars twinkling 
with uncommon brilliancy. I ftreiched myfelf a- 
long before my fire ; having the river, my litde 
harbour, and the flern of my velTel in view ; and now 
through fatigue and wearinefs I fell afleep. But 
this happy temporary reieafe from cares and trou- 
bles I enjoyed but a few moments, when I was 
awakened and greatly furprifcd, by the terrifying 
fcrearns of Owls in the deep fwamps around nie j 
and what increafed my extreme mifery was the dif- 
ficulty of getting quite awake, and yet hearing at 
the fame time fuch fcreaming and iliouting, which 
increafed and fpread every way for miles around, in 
dreadful peals vibrating through the dark extenfive 
forefts, meadov.s, and lakes. I could not after this fur- 
prife recover my former peaceable flate and tranquil- 
lity of mind and repofe, during the long night; and I 
believe it was happy for me that 1 was awakened, 
for at that moment the crocodile was darni;:ig my 
canoe againft the roots of the tree, cndcavourin<^ 
to get into her for the fifh, which I hovv'ever pre- 
vented. Anc-ther time in the night I believe I nar- 
fowly efcaped being dragged into the '•iv r bv 1 m; 
for when again through exccfTive fat-gue I had falleu 

K 3 afleepj 


afleep, but was again awakened by the fcreaming 
cwl, I found the monfter on the top of the bank, 
his head towards me, not above two yards diftant ; 
when ftarting up, and feizing my fufee well loaded, 
which I always kept under my head in the night 
time, he drew back and plunged into the water. 
After this, I roufed up my fire, and kept a light 
during the remaining part of the night, being deter- 
mined not to be caught napping fo again : indeed che 
mufquitoes alone would have been abundantly fuffi- 
cient to keep any creature awake that pofTelied 
their perfe6t fenfes ; but I was overconie and ftu- 
pified v/ith inceflant watching and labour. As foon 
as I difcovered the firft figns of day-light, I arofe, 
got all my effefts and implements on board, and fez 
fail, proceeding upwards, hoping to give the muf- 
quitoes the flip, who were now, by the cool morning 
dews and breezes, driven to their fhelrer and hiding 
places. I was miftaken however in thefe conjec- 
tures, for great numbers of them, which had con- 
cealed themfclves in my boat, as foon as the fun 
arofe, beg^n to revive, and fling me on my legs, 
which oi. liged me to land in order to get bulhes to. 
beat the,:; out of their quarters. 

It is very pleafmg to obferve the banks of the 
river, ornamented with hanging garlands, com- 
pofed of variedes of climbing vegetables, both 
fhrubs and plants., forming perpendicular green 
walls, with projecting jambs, piiafters, and deep 
apartments, twenty or thirty feet high, and com- 
pletely covered witli Glycine frutefcens, Glyc. apios, 
Vitls labrufca, Vids vulpina, Rajana, Hedera quin- 
quifoha, Hedera arborea, Eupatorium fcandens, 
Bignonia crucigera, and various fpecies of Convol- 
vulus, particularly an amazing tali climber of this 



©•cniis, or perhaps an Ipomca. This has a very 
large white flower, as big as a Imall funnel ; its tube 
is five or fix inches in length, and not thicker than 
a pipe ftem ; the leaves are alfo very large, oblong, 
and cordated, fometimes dentated or angled, near 
the infertion of the foot-ftalk ; they are of a thin 
texture, and of a deep green colour. It is exceed- 
ingly curious to behold the Wild Squafh* climbing 
over the lofty linnbs of the trees ; its yellow fruit, 
fomewhat of the fize and figure of a large orange, 
pendant from the extremities of the limbs over 
the water. 

Towards noon, the fultry heats being intolerable, 
I put into fhore, at a middling high bank, five or 
lix feet above the furface of the river. This low Tandy 
teflaceous ridge along the river fide was but narrow ; 
the furface light, black, and exceedingly fertile, pro- 
ducing very large venerable Live Oaks, Palms, and 
grand Magnolias, fcatteringly planted by nature. 
There being no underv/ood to prevent the play of 
the breezes from the river, it afforded a defirable re- 
treat from the fun's heat. Immediately at the back of 
this narrow ridge, were deep wet fwamps, where flood 
fome aftonifhingly tall and fpreading Cyprefs trees. 
And now being weary and drowfy, I was induced to 
indul::;e ^and iilten to the didlates of reafon and 
invitations to repofe ; which confcnting to, after 
fecuring my boat and reconnoitring the ground, 
I fpread my blanket under the Oaks near my boat, 
on which I extended myfelf, where, falling to fleep, I 
inftantaneoufly paflfed away the fultry hours of noon. 
What a blifsful tranquil repofe ! Undilfurbed I awoke, 
refreflied and ftrengthened ; I cheerfully ftepped on 
board again, and continued to alcend the river. The 

« Cucurbita peiesiina. 

K 4 afternoon 


afternoon being cool and pleafant, and the trees 
very lofty on the higher weftern banks of the river, 
by keeping near that fhore I pafled under agreea- 
ble fhades the remaining part of the day. During 
alnnofl all this day's voyage, the banks of the river 
on both fhores were middling high, perpendicular, 
and waflied by the briflc current : the fhores were 
not lined with the green lawns of floating aquatics, 
and confequently not very commodious reforts or 
harbours for crocodiles ; I therefore was not • dif- 
turbed by them, and faw but few, but thofe were 
very large. I however did not like to lodge on 
thofe narrow ridges, infefted by fuch dreary fwamps ; 
and evening approaching, 1 began to be anxious 
for high land for a camping place. It was quite 
dark before I came up to a bluff, which I had in 
view a long time, over a very extenfive point of 
meadows. I landed however at laft, in the befl man- 
ner I could, at a magnificent foreft of Orange 
groves, Oaks, and Palms. I here, with httle labour 
or difficulty, foon colle6ted a fufficient quantity of 
dry wood : there v/as a pleafant vifta of grafs be- 
twixt the grove and the edge of the river bank, 
which afforded a very convenient, open, airy en- 
camping place, under the protection of fome fpread- 
ing Oaks. 

This was a high perpendicular bluff, fronting 
more than one hundred yards on the river, the earth 
black, loofe, and fertile : it is a compofidon of river- 
Ihells, land, &c. At the back of it from the river, were 
open Pine foreils and favannas. I met with a cir- 
cumftance here, that, with fome, may be reckoned 
•worthy of mentioning, fince it regards the monu- 
ments of the ancients. As I have already obferved, 
when I landed it was quite dark j and in colleding 



vood for my fire, (Irolling in the dark about the 
groves, I found the furface of the ground very un- 
even, by means of little mounts and ridges. In 
the morning I found I had taken up my lodging on 
the border of an ancient burying-ground, containing 
lepulchres or tumuli of the Yamafees, who were here 
flain by the Creeks in the h\\ decifive battle, the 
Creeks having driven them into tliis point, between 
the doubling of the river, where few of them efcaped 
the fury of the conquerors. Thefe graves occupied 
the v/hole grove, confiftingof two or three acres of 
ground : there were near thirty of thefe cemeteries of 
the dead, nearly of an equal fize and form, being 
oblong, twenty feet in length, ten or twelve feet in 
width, and three or four feet high, now overgrown 
with orange trees, live oaks, laurel magnolias, red 
bays, and other trees and flirubs, compofing dark and 
folemn fhades. 

I here, for the firfl time fince I left the trading 
houfe, enjoyed a night of peaceful repofe. I arofe 
greatly refrefhed and in good fpirics, fteppcd on 
board my baik, and continued my voyage. After 
doubling the point, I palled by fwamps and meadows 
on each fide of me. The river here is fomething 
more contracted within perpendicular banks ; the 
land of an excellent quality, ferdle, and producing 
prodigioufly large timber and luxuriant herbage. 

The air continued fultry, and fcarcely enough 
wind to flutter the leaves on the trees. The Eaftern 
coaft of the river now opens, and prefents to view 
ample plains, confiding of graffy marllies and green 
meadows, and affords a profpe6t almoft unlimit- 
ed, and extremely pleafing. The oppofite Ihore 
exhibits a fublime contrail ; a high bluff bearing 
pagnificent forefts of grand magnpiia, glorious 



palms, frultflil orange groves, live oaks, bays and 
other trees. This grand elevation continues four or 
five hundred yards, defcribing a gentle curve on the 
river, ornannented by a fublime grove of palms, con- 
fifling of many hundreds of trees together ; they 
entirely iliade the ground under them. Above and 
below the bluff, the grounds gradually defcend to 
the common level fvvamps on the river: at the back 
of this eminence open to view expanfive green 
meadows or favannas, in which are to be feen glit- 
tering ponds of water, furrounded at a great dif- 
tance by high open pine forefts and hommocks, 
and iflets of oaks and bays projecting into the 
favannas. After ranging about thefe folitary groves 
and peaceful fliades, I re-embarked and continued 
fome miles up the river, between elevated banks 
of the fwamps or low lands; when on the Eaft 
fliore, in a capacious ccve or winding of the river, 
were pleafmg floating fields of piflia ; and in the 
bottom of this cove opened to view a large creek 
or branch of the river, which I knew to be the en- 
trance to a beautiful lake, on the banks of which 
was the farm I was going to vifit, and which I de- 
figned fhould be the laft extent of my voyage up the 

About noon the weather became extremely fultry, 
nor a breath of wind ftirring, hazy or cloudy, with 
very heavy diftant thunder, which was anfwered by 
the crocodiles — lure prefage of a ftorm ! 

Soon after afcending this branch of the river, on 
the right hand prefents itfelf to view a delightful 
little biufp, confining chiefly of fhells, and covered 
•with a dark grove of red cedar, Zanthoxylon and 
myrtle. 1 could not refift the temptation to flop 
here, although the tremendous thunder all around 
^ the 


the hemifphere alarmed me greatly, having a large 
lake to crofs. From this grove appears to view an 
expanfivc and pleafing profpecfl. The beauteous 
long lake in front, about North Eaft from me, its 
moil diftiuit Eaft fliores adorned with dark, high 
forefts of fcately trees; North and South almollend- 
lefs grefn plains and meadow?, embelliihed with 
iflets and projecting promontories of high, dark fo- 
refts, where the pyramidal magnolia grandiilora, 
palmaelata, anclfhadyoak, confpicuoufly tower. 

Being heretofore fo clofely inverted by high fo- 
refts and deep fvvamps of the great river, I was pre- 
vented from feeing the progrefs and increafe of the 
approaching tempeft, the terrific appearance of 
which now at once confounded me. He w purple 
and fiery appeared the tumultuous clouds, fwiftly 
afccnding or darting from the horizon upwards I 
they Icemed to oppofe and dalh againil eacli other ; 
the fki'js appeared ilreaked with blood or purple 
flame overhead, the flamiing lightning ftreaming 
and dardng about in every direction around, feemicd 
to fill the world with fire ; whilft the heavy thunder 
kept the earth in a conftant tremor. 1 had yet 
fome hopes of crofTing the lake to the plantation in 
fight. On the oppofite fhore of the creek bctore 
pne, and on the cape as we enter the lake, ftooi a 
large illet or grove of oaks and palms. Here I in- 
tended to feek ihelter, and abide till the fury of tiie 
huri icane was overpaft, if i found it too violent to 
permit n.e to crols the lake. In confcquence of vAs 
pi ecipi.ate determination, I ftepped into my boat 
and pulhed ufr'. What a dreadful ru .iing and roaring 
there was every where aroun 1 me! aid to my ut- 
ter confufion and altoniftimt nt, I couid not find from 
•yvhat particular quarter its itrongeft cuireat or di.'-ec- 



tion came, whereby I might have a proper chance 
of taking meafaresfor lecurino; a harbour or runnina; 
from it. The high forefts behind me bent to the 
blaft ; and the fturdy limbs of the trees cracked. I 
had bylthis time got up abreaft of the grove or hom- 
mock : the hurricane clofe by, purfuing me, I found 
it dangerous and imprudent in the higheft degree to 
put in here, as the groves were already torn up, and 
the fpreading limbs of the ancient live oaks were 
flying over my head, and carried about in the air as 
leaves and (lubble. I ran by and boldly entered the 
lake (being hurried in by a ftrong current, which 
(eemed a prodigy, the violent wind driving the flream 
of the creek back again into the lake), and as foon 
as pofiible took fiielter under the high reedy bank 
of the lake, and made fall my bark to the boughs 
of a low fhrubby Hickory, that leaned over the wa- 
ter. Such was the violence of the wind, that it 
raifed the waters on the oppofite fhores of the lake 
feveral feet perpendicular, and there was a rapid flow 
of water from the creek into it, which was contrary 
to its natural courfe. Such floods of rain fell during 
the fpace of half or three quarters of an hour, that 
my boat was filled, and 1 expected every moment 
when I fhould fee her fink to the bottom of the lake^ 
and the violence of the wind kept the cable fo con- 
flaiTtly extended, that it was beyond my ability to 
get to her. My box, wliich contained my books of 
Jpecim.ens and other colle6lions, was floating about 
in her; and for a great part of the time the rain came 
down with fuch rapidity, and fell in fach quantities, 
that every objedl was totally obfcured, excepting the 
continual fl:reams or rivers of lightning, pouring 
from the clouds. All fcemed a frightful chaos. 
When the wind and rain abated, I was overjoyed to 
fee the face of nature again appear, 



Ic took me an hour or more to clear the water out 
of my bark. I then eroded the lake before a brifk 
and favourable breeze (it was about a mile over), 
and landed fafely at the plantation. 

When I arrived, my friend was affrighted to fee 
me, and immediately inquired of me in what man- 
ner I came there ; fuppofing it impollible (until I 
had Ihowed him my boat) that I could have arrived 
by water through fo tremicndous a hurricane. 

Indeed I faw plainly that they were greatly terri- 
fied, having fuffered almoft irreparable damiages 
from the violence of the ftorm. All the buildings 
on the plantation, except his own dwelling-houfe, 
were hid almoft flat to the ground, or the logs and 
roof rent afunder and twifted about i the manfion- 
houfe fliook and reeled over their heads. He had 
nearly one hundred acres of the Indigo plant almoft 
ripe for the firft cutting, which were nearly ruined; 
and feveral acres of very promifing fugar-cane, to- 
tally fpoiled for the feafon. The great live oaks 
which had been left ftanding about the fields, were 
torn to pieces, their limbs lying fcattered over the 
ground : and one very large one which ftood near 
h's houfe torn down, which could not have been 
done by the united ftrength of a thoufand men. But 
what is incredible, in the midft of this devaftation 
and ruin, providentially no lives v/ere loft -, although 
there were about fixty Negro Haves on the planta- 
tion, and moft of them in their huts when the ftorm 
camiC on, yet they efcaped with their lives, though, 
leveral were badly wounded. 

I continued here three days : indeed it took moft 
of the time of my abode with him, to dry my books 
iaad fpecimens of plants. But with attention and 


14^ Travels ff/ 

care I faved the greatefl: number of thern ; though 
fome v/ere naturally fo delicate and fragile, that it 
Was impofTible to recover them. Here is a vaft body 
of land belonging to t!iis eftate; of high ridges fit 
for the culture of corn, indigo, cotton, batatas, &c. 
and of low fwamps and marfhes, which when pro- 
perly drained and tilled, would be fuitable for rice, 
Thefe rich low grounds, wlien drained and ridged, 
are as produdbive as the natural high land, and vafdy 
more durable, efpecially for fugar-cane, corn, and 
even indigo ; but this branch 'jf agriculture being 
more cxpenfive, thefe rich lands are neglected, and 
the upland only is under culture. The farm is fitu- 
ated on the Haft ihore cf the beautiful Long Lake, 
which is above two miles long, and near a mile broad. 
This lake communicates with the St, Juan, by the 
little river that 1 afcended, which is about one mile 
and an half in length, and thirty or forty yards widcr 
The river, as well as the lake, abounds with fifh and 
wild fowl of various kinds, and incredible numbers, 
efpecially during the winter feafon, when the geefe 
and ducks arrive here from the north. 

New Smyrna*, a pretty ^.hriving town, is a colo- 
ny of Creeks and Minorquines, ellablifhed by Mr. 
Turnbull, on the Mufquito river, and very near its 


* New Smyrna is br.ilt on a high Ihelly bluff, on the Weft bank of the 
South branch of Mufqivt) river, about ten miks a^ove the capes of that 
river, which is about t'jiiiy miles North of Cape Canaveral, Lat. 28. I 
Xvas there abiiut ten vears ago, when the fiirveyor run the lines or precindls 
of the colony, where tirre vi'as neitlier habitation nor cleared tiek!. It 
was then a famous orar je grove, the upper or South promontory of a riclge, 
nearly !i .It a mile wide, and ftrefhing North about forty miles, to the head 
of the North branch of the, to where the Ttjmoko river unites 
with it, nearly parallel to tlie fea coaft, and not ;.hove tv/o miles acrofs to 
the fca beach. All this ridge was then one entire orange grove, with live 
oaks, magnolia;-, palms, red bays, and others : I obferved then, near where 
New Symina now ftand>, a fpacious Indian mount and avenue, which' 
ftood near the banks of the river : the a- cnue ran on a Ifrait line back, 
through tlie grovec, acroi's the il^iga, and terminated at the verge of na- 
tural favannas and ponds. 

mouth i 


mouth i it is about thirty miles over land from this 

My friend rode with me, about four miles diftance 
fr6m the houfe, to fhow me a vaft fountain of warm, 
or "rather hot mineral v/ater, which iiTued from a 
high ridge or bank on the river, in a great cove or 
bay, a few miles above the mouth of the creek, 
which I afcended to the lake j ir boils up with great 
force, forming immediately a vafl circular bafon, ca- 
pacious enough for feveral fhallcps to ride in., and 
runs with rapidity into the river three or four hun- 
dred yards diftance. This creek, which is formed 
inftantly by this admirable fountain, is wide and 
deep enough for a (loop to fail up into the bafon. 
The water is perfe<5tly diaphanous, and here are 
continually a prodigious number and variety of fifii; 
they appear as plain as though lying on a table be- 
fore your eyes, although many feet deep in the wa- 
ter. This tepid water has a moil difagreeable tafte, 
brafly and vitriolic, and very ofFcnfive to the fmell, 
much like bilge-water, or the wafliings of a gun-bar- 
rel, and is fmelt at a great diftance. A pale bluifh 
or pearl coloured coagulum covers every inanimate 
fubft:.nre that lies in the water, as logs, limbs of 
, trees, ^c. Alligators and gar were numerous in the 
bafon, even at the apertures where the ebullidon 
emerges through the rocks ; as alfo many other tribes 
of fifh. In the winter feafon feveral kinds of fifli 
and aquatic animals migrate to thefe warm foun- 
tains. The forbidding taile and fmell of thefe waters 
feems to be owing to vitriolic and fulphureous fumes 
j or vapours i and thefe being condenfed, form this 
I coagulum, which reprefents flakes of pearly clouds 
1 in the clear cenilean waters in the bafon. A charm- 
ing oraiige grove, with magnolias, oaks, and palms, 



half furrounded this vafl fountain. A deligfitful 
ftream of ccol falubrious water ifTues from the ridge, 
meandering :dong, and entering the creek jiift below 
the bafon. I returned in the evening, and next day 
fat off again down the river. 

My hofpitable friend, after fupplying me with ne- 
celTaries, prevailed on me to accept of the company 
and affftance of his purveyor, one day's voyage 
down the river, whom I was to fet on fiiore at a 
certain bluff, upwards of twenty miles below, but 
not above one third that diftance by land; he was 
to be out in the forcfts one day, on a hunt for tur- 

The current of the river being here confined 
within its perpendicular banks, ran brifkly down: 
we cheerfully defcended the grand river St. Juan, 
enjoying enchanting profpefts. 

Before night we reached the deflined port, at a 
jpacious orange grove. Next morning we fcparated, 
and I proceeded down the river. The profpefls 
on either hand are now pleafing, and I view them at 
Icifure, and without toil or dread. 

Induced by the beautiful appearance of the green 
meadows, which open to the Eaflward, I determined 
not to pafs this Elyfium without a vifit. Behold the 
loud, fonorous, watchful favanna cranes (grus pra- 
tenfis) with mufical clangor, in detached fquadrons. 
They fpread their light elaflic fail : at firil they 
move from the earth heavy and flow ; they labour 
and beat the dcnfe air; they form the line with wide 
extended wings, tip to tip; they all rife and fall to- 
gether as one bird j now they mount aloft, gradually 
wheeling about i each fquadron performs its evolu- 


tion, encircling the expanfive plains, cbferving each 
one its own orbit ; then lowering fail, defcend on 
the verge of fome glittering lakej whilft other 
fquadronsj afcending aloft in fpiral circles, bound 
on interefting difcoveries, wheel round and double 
the promontory, in the filver regions of the clouded 
fkies, where, far from the fcopc of eye, they care- 
fully obferve the verdant meadows on the borders of 
the Eaft Lake ; then contradl their plumes and de- 
fcend to the earth, where, after rcfting a while on fome 
verdant eminence, near the flowery border of the 
lake, they, with dignified, yet flow, refpedful fteps, 
approach the kindred band, confer, and treat for 
habitation ; the bounds and precin6ls being fettled* 
they confederate and take poffeflion. 

There is inhabiting the low fhores and fwamps 
of this river and the lakes of Florida, as well as 
Georgia, a very curious bird*, called by an Indian 
name (Ephoufkyca) which fignifies in our language 
the crying bird. I cannot determine what genus 
of European birds to join it with. It is about the 
fize of a large domeftic hen : all the body, above 
and beneath, is of a dark lead colour, every feather 
edged or tipped with white, which makes the bird, 
appear fpeckled on a near view j the eye is large 
and placed high on the head, which is very promi- 
nent J the bill or beak is five or fix inches in length, 
arched or bent gradually downwards, in that refpe(5t 
to be compared to one half of a bent bowj it is large 
or thick near the bafe, compreffed on each fide, and 
flatted at top and beneath, vvhich makes it appear 
four fquare for more than an inch, where the noftrils 
are placed, from whence, to their tips^ both man- 
dibles are round, gradually lellening or tapering to 

• TanMlus pidlusi 

L their 


their extremities, which are thicker for about half 
an inch than immediately above, by which the man- 
dibles never fit quite cloie their whole length ; the 
upper mandible is a fmall matter longer than the 
under j the bill is of a dufky green colour, more 
bright and yellowifli about the bafe and angles of 
the mouth ; the tail is very fhort, and the middle 
feather the longeft > the others on each fide fhorten 
gradually, and are of the colour of the reft of the 
bird, only fomewhat darker; the two fhorteft or 
outermoft feathers are perfecftly white, which the 
bird has a faculty of flirting out on either fide, as 
quick as a flafli of lightning, efpecially when he 
hears or fees any thing that difturbs him, uttering 
at the fame inftant an extreme harlh and loud 
ftriek ; his neck is long and flender ; and his legs 
are alfo long and bare of feathers above the knee, 
like thofe of the bittern^ and are black or of a dark 
lead colour. 

There are two other fpecies of this genus, which 
agree in almoft every particular with the above de- 
fcription, except in fize and coloui'. The lirll* of 
thefe I fliall mention is a perfedl white, except the 
prime quill feathers, v.'hich are as black as thofe of 
a crow J the bill and legs of a beautiful clear red, as 
alfo a fpace clear of feathers about the eyes. The 
other fpecies j- is black on the upper fide, the breall 
and belly white, and the legs and beak as white as 
fnow. Both thefe fpecies are about half the fize of 
the crying bird. They fly in large flocks or fqua- 
drons, evening and morning, to and from their feed- 
ing place or roofts i both fpecies are called Spanifh 
curlews : thefe and the crying bird feed chiefly on 

• Tantalus albiis. Numiiius albus. Cit. 

\ Tautalu;; vcificolor. Numinus ful'cus. L'at, 



cray-fifh, whofe cells they probe, and with their 
ftrong pinching bills drag them out : all the three 
(pecies are eflecmed excellent food. 

It is a pleafing fight at times of high winds and 
heavy thunder ftorms, to obferve the numerous fqua- 
drons of thefe Spanifh curlews driving to and fro, 
turning and tacking about, high up in the air, when' 
by their various evolutions in the different and op- 
pofite currents of the wind high in the clouds, their 
filvery white plumage gleams and fparkles like the 
brighteft cryflal, reflefting the fun-beams that dare 
upon them between the dark clouds. 

Since I have turned my obfervations upon the 
birds of this country, I fhall notice another very 
fingular one, though already mod curioufly and 
exaftly figured by Catefby, which feems to be 
nearly alHed to thofe before mentioned ; I rhean 
the bird which he calls the wood pelican*. This 
is a large bird, perhaps near three feet high when 
ftanding ere6t. The bill is very long and ftrong, 
bending with a moderate curve from the bafe to 
the tip ; the upper mandible is the largeft, and re- 
ceives the edges of the nether one into its whole 
length ; the edges are very fharp and firm ; the 
whole of a dark afh or horn colour; the forehead 
round the bafe of the beak and fides of the head 
is bare of feathers, and of a dark grcenifh colour, 
in which fpace is placed the eyes, which are very 
Jarge; the remainder of the head and neck is of a 
nut brown colour j the back of a light bluilh grey; 
upper part of the wings, bread, and belly, almoft 
white, with fome flight dalhes of grey ; the quill- 
feathers and tail, which are very fhort, are of a dark 
flate colour, almoft black ; the legs, which are very 

• Tantalus locubtor. Linnv 

h 2 long. 


Jong, and bare of feathers a great length above 
the knees, are of a dark dull greeniih colour : ic 
has a fmall bag or pouch under its throat : it feeds 
on ferpents, young alligators^ frogs, and other rep- 

This folltary bird does not afTociate in flocks, bue 
is generally feen alone ; cotnmonly near the banks 
-_*f great rivers, in vaft marilies or meadows, efpe- 
cially fuch as are caufed by inundations ; and alfo 
m the vaft defcrted rice plantations : he {lands 
alone on the topmofl limb of tall dead cyprefs trees> 
Tiis neck contraftcd or drawn in upon his fhoulders, 
and beak relling like a long fcythe upon his breall : 
in this penfive pofiiure and folitary fituation, it 
looks extremely grave, forrov/ful, and melancholy, as 
if in the deepcft thought. They are never feen on 
the fait fea coafl:, and yet are never found at a great 
diftance from it. I take this bird to be of a different 
genus from the tantalus, and perhaps it approaches 
the neareft to the Egyptian ibis of any other bird yet 

There are two fpecies of vultures* in thefe re- 
gions, I think not mentioned in hiftorj' : the firflwr 
Ihall defcribe is a beautiful bird, near the fize of 
a turkey buzzard f , but his wings are much fliorter, 
and confequently he falls greatly below that admi- 
rable bird in fail, i Ihall call this bird the painted 
vulture. The bill is long and ftraiglit almoft to 
the point, when it is hooked or bent fuddenly down 
and fharp ; the head and neck bare of feathers 
nearly down to the flomach, when the feathers be- 
gin to cover the fkin, and fooii become long and 
of a foft texture, forming a ruff or tippet, in which 
the bird by contracting his neck can hide tliat as 

*' VuUur lact;-^ -f Vuluir umoa. 


"well as his head ; the bare fl-;in on the neck appe.^rs 
loole and wrinkled, and is of a deep bright yel- 
low colour, intermixed with coral red ; the hinder 
part of the neck is nearly covered with fljort, ftiff 
hair ; and the fkin of this part of the neck is of a 
dun-purple colour, gradually becoming red as it 
approaches the yellow of the fides and fore part. 
The crown of the head is red ; there are lobed lap- 
pets of a reddifh orange colour, which lie on the, 
bafe of the upper mandible. But what is fingular, 
a large portion of the ftcmach hangs down on the 
breaft of the bird, in the likenefs of a lack or half 
wallet, and feems to be a duplicature of the craw, 
which is naked and of a reddilli flefh colour ; this is 
partly concealed by the feathers of the breaft, unlefs 
when it is loaded with food (which is commonly, I 
believe, roafted reptiles), and then it appears promi- 
nent. The plumage of the bird is generally white or 
cream colour, except the quill-feathers of the wings 
and two or three rows of the coverts, which are of a 
beautiful dark brown ; the tail, which is large and 
white, is tipped with this dark brown or black ; the 
legs and feet of a clear white ; the eye is encircled 
with a gold coloured iris; the pupil bl^ck. 

The Creeks or Mufcogulges conftruft their royal 
ftandard of the tail feather of this bird, which is 
called by a name fignifying the eagle's tail : this they 
carry with them when they go to battle, but then it 
is painted with a zone of red within the brown rips.j 
and in peaceable negotiations it is difplayed new, 
clean, and white : this ftandard is held moft facred 
by them on all occafions, and is conftru^ted and or- 
namented with great ingenuity. Thefe birds feldom 
appear but when the defcrts are fet on fire (which 
iJ^ppens- almo/t every day throughout the year, in 
L 3 fomo 


fome part or other, by the Indians, for the purpofc 
of roufing the game, as alfo by the lightning :) when 
they are feen at a diftance fearing on the wing, ga- 
thering from every quarter, and gradually ap- 
.proaching the burnt plains, where they alight upon 
the ground yet fm^kirig with hot embers : they ga- 
ther up the roafled ferpents, frogs, and lizards, 
filling their facks with them: at this time a perfon 
may ihoot them at plealure, they not being willing 
to quit the feaft, and indeed feeming to brave all 

The other fpecies may very properly be called 
the coped vulture, and is by the inhabitants called 
the carrion crow. As to bulk or weight, he is near- 
ly equal to either of the others before-mentioned* 
His wings are not long and Iharp pointed, but broad 
and rouhd at their extremities, having a clumly ap- 
pearance ; the tail is remarkably fhort, which he 
fpreads like a little fan, when on the wing. They 
have a heavy laborious flight, flapping their wings, 
then fail a litde and then flap dieir wings again, 
and fo on as if recovering themfelves when falling. 
The beak is very long and fl:raight, until it makes 
a fuddcn hook at the point, in the manner of thfc 
other vultures. The whole bird is of a fable or 
mourning colour j the head and neck down to the 
breaft is bare of feathers, and the fkin wrinkled j 
this unfeathered fkin is of a deep livid purple, ap- 
pearing black and thinly fet with fhort black hair. 
He has a rufi^or tippet of long foft feathers, like a 
collar, bearing on his breaft, in which he cgn con- 
ceal his neck and head at pleafure. 

Having agreeably diverted away the intolerable 
Jbeats of fukry noon in fruitful fragrant groves, with 
renewed vigour I again refume my fylvan pilgrimage. 

^ - ■ . ; ^. - The 


'^he afternoon and evening moderately warm, and 
exceeding pleafant views from die river and its va- 
ried fhores. I pafTed by Battle lagoon and the 
bluff, without much oppofition ; but the crocodiles 
were already afiembling in the pafs. Before night I 
came to, at a charming orange grove bluff, on the 
Eaft fide of the little la];e ; and afrcr fixing my camp 
on a high open fituation, and collefting a plenty of 
dry wood for fuel, I had time to get fome fine trout 
for fupper and joyfully return to my camp. 

What a mod beautiful creature is this fifli before 
me ! gliding to and fro, and figuring in the iVilI 
clear waters, with his orient attendants and alfo- 
ciates : the yellow bream * or fun fifh. It is about 
eight inches in length, nearly of the fhape of the 
trout, but rather larger in proportion over the 
fhoulders and brcafti the mouth large, and the 
branch ioftega opens wide j the whole fifli is of a 
pale gold (or burnifhed brafs) colpur, darker on the 
back and upper fides ; the fcales are of a propor- 
tionable fize, regularly placed, and eveiy where 
variably powdered with red, ruffet, filver^ blue, and 
green ipecks, fo laid on the fcales as to appear like 
teal dufb or opaque bodies, each apparent particle 
being fo projefted by light and ihade, and the va- 
rious attitudes of the filh, as to deceive the fight; 
for in reality nothing can be of a more plain and 
polifhed furface than the fcales and v/holc body of 
the fifh. The fins are of an orange cok ur ; and, 
like all the fpecies of the bream, the uitimat:^ angle 
of the branchioflega terminates bv a little fpat'jla, 
the extreme end of which reprefents c. cierceni: of 
the finelf ultramarine blue, encircled wicii filvcf and 

* Cyprinus coronariiis, 

L 4 vc-lvet 


velvet black, like the eye in the feathers of a pea- 
cock's train. He is a fifh of prodigious {Irength. 
and adlivity in the water; a warrior in a gilded coat 
of rnail ; and gives po reft or quarter to fmall filh, 
which he preys upon. They are delicious food and 
in great abundance. 

The orange grove is but narrow, betwixt the 
river banks and ancient Indian fields, where there 
are evident traces of the habitations of the ancients, 
furrounded with groves of live oak, laurel nnagno- 
lia, zanthoxylon, liquidambar, and others. 

How harmonious and foothing is this natiye fyl- 
van mufic now at frill evening ! incxpreffibly tender 
are the refponfive cooings of the innocent dove, in 
the fragrant zanthoxylon groves, and the variable 
and tuneful warblings of the nonpareil, v/itn the 
more fprightly and elevated flrains of the blue linnet 
and golden ifterus : this is indeed harmony, even 
amidft the incelfant croaking of the frogs : the 
Ihades of filent night aie made more cheerful, with 
the fhrill voice of the whip-poor-will * and adive 
mock- bird. 

My fituation high and airy: a brifk and cool breeze 
fieadily and inccilantly palTung over the clear waters 
of the lake, and fluttering over me through the fur- 
roundiiig groves, wings its way to the moon-light 
17.. annas, while I repofe on my fweet and healthy 
couch of the foft tillandfia ufnea-adfcites, and the 
latter glocir.y and itill hours of night pafs rapidly 
away as it yveic^ in a m.oment. 1 aroie, ftrength- 

* Cnprimulju' rufus.cilled chiick-uill's-widow, from a faiicicil rcfein- 
blaiice of In:, noles to thefe words : ic inhabits the maritime parts of Caro- 
lina ana Fli.iida, and k i.iore than Iv.kc the fiiie of the night hawk or 



. '/./-fa C<^'/r,jt^. 

Kail . hi,'lui.i-a ,rijiivliiihl,i 
C aalis. Iriy/ i ii,/inati.c , 

rolii S. J.ln,.U-ilMIMVt,UU. 

I'liiribus. nr/'iirisis in,i,jni.r Cturuleij' 
Vuin ToumcTort. 


encd and cheerful, in the morning. Having feme 
repairs to make in the tackle of my vefTel, I p-id my 
firll attention to them; which being accomplilhed, 
my curioiity prompted mc to penetrate the grove 
and view the illumined plaiiis. 

What a beautiful difplay of vegetation is here 
before me ! feemjngly unlimited in extent and va- 
riety: how the dew-drops twinkle and play upcn 
the fight, tiemblino; on the tips of the lucid, green 
favanna, fparkling as the gem that flames on the 
turban of the eallern prince. See the pearly tears 
rolling off the buds of tiie exj inding Granadilla*; 
behold the azure fields of cerulean ixea! what can 
equal the rich golden flowers oftheCanna lutea, which, 
ornament the banks of yon ferpentine rivulet, mean- 
dering over the meadows j the almoil: endlefs va- 
rieties of the gay Phlox, tJiat enamel the fwelling. 
grctn banks, aflbciated with the purple Verbena co- 
rymbofa, Viola, pearly Gnaphalium, and filvcry Per- 
jdicium ? How fantaftical looks the libertine Clito- 
pa, mantling the fiirubs, on the villas fkirting the 
groves! My morning excurfion finiihed, I returned 
to my camp, breakfafted, then went on board 
my boat, gently defcended the no' Ic river, and 
pafl^ed by fcyeral openings of exteniivc plains and 
meadows, environing the eaft lake, charming be- 
yond compare. At evening I came to at a good 
harbour, under the high bc.nks of the river, and 
relied during the night amidft the fragrant groves, 
expofed to the conflar»t breezes from the river : 
here I made ainple collections cf fpecimens andgrow-i 
ing roots of curious vegetables, which kept me (uUy 
employed the greatcft p.irt of the day; and in the 
evening arrived at a charming fpot en the call 

* Pafliflora incarnata> called May-Appb. 



banfc, which 1 had marked on my afcent up the n^ 
Ver, where 1 made fomc addition to my collec- 
tions ; and the next day I employed myfcflf in the 
fame manner, putting into fliofe frequendy, at con- 
venient places, which I had nodcedj and in the 
evening arrived again at the upper ilore, where I 
liad the pleafure of finding my old friend, the trader, 
III good health and cheerful, and his afTairs in a 
proiperous way. There were alfo a fmall party 
^of indians here, who had lately arrived with their 
hunts to purchale goods. I continued a few days 
at this pofl, fearching its environs for curious ve- 
getable produflionS) colle6ling kcds and planting- 
growing roots in boxes, to be tranfported to the 
lower trading houfe. 

Now, having procured necefiaries to accommo- 
tTate me on my voyage down to the lower flore, I 
bid adieu to my bid friend and benefactor, Mr. Job 
Wiggens, embarked alone on board my little for- 
tunate ve.fTel, arui fee fail. I chofe to follow the 
eaftenimoft channel of the river to the Great Lake^ 
becaufe it ran by high banks and blulTs of the eadern 
main the greateft part of the diftance, v/hich af- 
forded me an opportunity of obferving a far greater 
variety of natural fubjeds, than if 1 had taken the 
weflern or middle channel, which flowed through 
fwamps and rnarfhes. 

At evening I arrived at Cedar Point, my former 
^ife and plcafant harbour, at the eaft cape of the 
Great Lake, where I had noticed feme curious 
ihrubs and plants; here 1 relied, and on the fmootli 
and gentle current launch again into the little ocean 
of Lake George, meaning now, on my return, to 
coaft his weflern ihores in iear'ch of new beauties in 
the bounteous kingdom of Flora. 


1 was however induced to deviate a little from 
my intended courfe, and touch at the inchanting 
little Ifle of Palms. This delightful fpot, planted by- 
nature, is almoft an entire grove of Palms, with a few 
pyramidal Magnolias, Live Oaks, golden Orange, 
and the animating Zanthoxylon. What a beauti- 
ful retreat is here ! bleffed imviolatcd fpot of earth, 
rifing from tlie limpid waters of the lake : its fra- 
grant groves and blooming lawns inveiled and pro- 
tected by encircling ranks of the Yucca gloriofa. 
A fafcinating atmofphere furrounds this blifsful gar- 
den; the balmy Lantana, ambrofial Citra, perfum- 
ed Crinum, perfpiring their mingled odours, wafted 
through Zanthoxylon groves. I at lad broke away 
from the enchanting fpot, and ftepped on board 
my boat, hoifted fail, and foon approached the coafl 
of the main, at the cool eve of day : then traverf- 
ing a capacious femicircular cove of the lake, verged 
by low, extenfive grafly meadows, I at length by 
dufk made a fafe harbour, in a little lagoon, on the 
Tea lliore or ftrand of a bold fandy point, which 
defcended from the furf of the lake. This was a 
clean fandy beach, hard and firm by the beating 
furf, when the wind fets from the eafb coaft. I 
drew up my light veffel on the (loping fliore, that 
fhe might be fafe from the beating waves in Cafe of 
a fudden florm of v;ind in the night. A few yards 
back the land was a little elevated, and over- 
grown with thickets of ihrubs and low trees, con- 
fiding chicfi'/ of Zanciioxylon, Olea Americana, 
Rhamnus frangula, Sideroxylon, Morus, Ptelea, Ha- 
lefia, Querci, M)rica cerifera, and others. Thefe 
groves were but low, yet fufficiently high to Ihel- 
ter me from the chilling dews; and being but a 
|ew yards diftance from my veffel^ aere I fixed my 



encampment, A brifk v;ind arifing from the lakr, 
drove away the clouds of mufquitoes into the thick- 
ets. I now, v;ith difficulty and induftry, coilefted 
s fufnciency of dry wood to keep up a light during 
the night, and to roafl fome trout which I had caught 
i&'hen defcending the river : their heads I Hewed in 
the juice of Oranges, which, with boiled rice, af- 
forded me a v/holcfome and delicious fupper: I hung 
the remainder of my broiled fifh on the fnags of 
fome Ilirubs over my head. I at laft, after recon- 
noitring my habitation, returned, fpread abroad 
my fl'cins and blanket upon the clean fands by my 
tire-fide, and betook myfelf to repofe. 

Hovv glorious the powerful fun, minifler of the 
Moft High in the rule and government of this earth, 
leaves oik hemifphere, retiring from our fight 
beyond the weftern forcfts ! 1 behold with gra- 
titude his departing fmiles, tinging the fleecy rofe- 
ate clouds, now riding far away on the eaftern ho- 
rizon ; behold they vanifli from light in the azure 
fides ! 

All now filent and peaceable, I fuddenly fell 
afleep. At midnight I awake j when, raifmg nw 
head ereft, T find myfelf alone in the wildernefs of 
Florida, on the Ihores of Lake George. Alone in- 
deed, but under the care of the Almighty, and pro- 
teuled by the invifible hand of my guardian angel. 

When quite awake, 1 ftarted at the heavy tread 
of i-bme animal ; the dry limbs of trees upon the 
ground crack under his fectj the clofe fhrubby thick- 
ets part and bend under him as he rullies off. 

I rekindle my llecpy fire; lay in contad the 
exfoliated fmoking brands damp with the dew of 



The bright flame afcends and illuminates the 
ground and groves around me. 

When looking up, I found my fifh carried off> 
though I had thought them C^fc on the Ihrubsjjuil 
over my head ; but their fcent, carried to a great 
diftance by tlie damp nocturnal breezes, I ilippofe 
were too powerful attraftions to refifu. 

Perhaps it may not be time lod:, to refl: a 
while here, and refleft on the unexpected and un- 
accountable incident, which however pointed out 
to me an extraordinary deliverance or protection^ 
of my life, from the rapacious wolf that Hole my 
fifh fjrom over my head. 

How much and more eligible might it have 
been for him to have leaped upon my bread in ths 
dead of fleep, and torn my throat, v/hich v/oulii 
have inftantly deprived me of life, and then glut- 
ted his ftomach for the prefent with my warm blood, 
and dragged off my body, which would have made 
A feaft afterwards for him and his howling afTociates !" 
I fay, would not this have been a wifer ilep, than 
to have made protracted and circular approaches, 
and then after, by chance, efpying the fifn over 
my head, with the greateft caution and nlencc 
rear up, and take them off the fnags one by one, 
then make oft with them, and that fo cunningly as 
not to waken me until lie had fairly accomplifned 
his purpofe ^ 

The morning being clear, I fat fail with a fa- 
vourable breeze, coatling along the fhores ; when 
on a fudden the waters became tranfparent, and 
difcovered the fandy bottom, ^nd the feveral na- 
tions of filh, pafiing and repaiTiag each other. • Fol- 


lowing this courfe I v/as led to the cape of the little- 
river, defcending from Six Mile Springs, and mean- 
dering fix miles from its fource through green mea- 
dows. I entered this pellucid ftream, failing over 
the heads of innumerable fquadrons of fifh, which, al- 
though many feet deep in the water, were diftinftly 
to be feen.- I paffed by charming iQets of flourifh- 
ing trees, as Palm, Red Bay, Afh, Maple, NyiTa, and 
others. As I approached the diftant high foreft oa 
the main, the river widened, floating fields of the 
green Pifria furrounded me, the rapid ftream wind- 
ing through them. What an alluring fcene was now 
before me 1 A vaft bafon or little lake of cryftal 
waters, half encircled by fwelling hills, clad with 
Orange and odoriferous Illicium groves, the tower- 
ing Magnolia, itfelf a grove, and the exalted Palm, 
as if confcious of their tranfccndenr glories, toffed 
about their lofty heads, painting, with mutable 
fhades, the green floating fields beneath. The fo- 
cial pratding coot enrobed in blue, and the fqueel- 
ing water-hen, with wings half expanded, tripped 
afcer each other, over the watery mirrour. 

I put in at an ancient landing place, which is a 
floping afcent to a level graflfy plain, an old In- 
dian field. As I intended to make my moft confi- 
derable colledlions ac this place, I proceeded im- 
mediately to fix my encampment but a few yards 
from my fafe harbour, where I fecurely faflened 
my boat to a Live Oak, which overlhadowed nrjy 

After collecting a good quantity of fire-wood, 
as it was about the middle of the afternoon, I re- 
folved to reconnoitre the ground about my encamp- 
ment. Having penetrated the groves next to me, 
I came to the open forefts, confifting of exceed- 


\ng]y tallftraight Pines (Piiiiis Paluflrls) that (lood 
^t a conficlerable tiillance from cacli other, dirougU 
which appeared at N. W. an almoll unlimited plata 
of grafly favannas, cmbellifhed with a chain of flial- 
Jow ponds, as far as the fight ccld reach. Here 
is a fpecies of Magnoha that ailociates with the 
Gordonia lafianthus ; it is a tall tree, fixry or eighty 
feet in heighth ; the taipk ftraight ; its jicad termi- 
nating in the form of a ll<:irp cone j the leaves are 
oblong, lanccolajie, of a iipe deep green, and glau- 
cous beneath ; the flowers are large, perfc<5lly white 
and extremely" fragrant : with refpe<?il to its flovve]-i» 
and leaves, it differs very Httle from the iVfagnolia 
glauca. The filyery whicenefs of the leaves of this 
tree, had a ftriking and pleafing effe6l on the fjght, 
as it flood amidft the dark green of the Quercus 
dentata, NyiTa fylvatica, Nyf. aquatica, Gordoni:^ 
Jafianthus, and many others of the lame hpe. 
The tall afpiring Gordonia laiianthus, which i^ow" 
itood ill my view in all its fplerjdour, is every way 
deferving of our admiration, It^ thick foliage, of 
a d'lrl^ gfcen colour, is flowered over with hrg^ 
milk-white fragrant bloflbmsj on long flender ehf- 
tic peduncles, at the extremities of its numerous 
branches, from the bofom of the leaves, and renewed 
every morning ; aad that in fuch incredible profu- 
fufion, th-at the tree appears filvered over with them, 
and the ground beneath covered with the fallen 
flowers,. If at die lame time continually pufnes 
forth new twigs, with young buds on theiu, and 
in the winter and fpring, the third year's leaves, now 
partly concealed by the new and perfect one^, arg 
gradually changing colour, from greeri to gpldeji 
yellow, from that to a fcarlet, from fcarlet to crim-.- 
Iqu i afid laltly to a brownilh purple, and dien fill 

l6o fRAVfiLS- IN 

to the ground. So that the Grordonk lafjanthus 
may be faiJ to change and renew its garnncnts 
every marning throughout the year; and every day 
appears with unfading luftre. And moreover, after 
the general flowering is pafl, there is a thin fuc- 
cefllon of fcatCering bloffoms to be feen, on fome 
parts of the tree, almoft every day throughout the 
remaining months, until the floral fcafon returns 
again. It> natural fituation, when growing, is on 
the edges of fliallow ponds, or lov/ wet grounds on 
rivers, in a fandy foil, the neareft fo the v/ater of 
any other tree, fo that in droughty feafons its long 
lerpentine roots which run near or upon the furface 
of the earth, may reach, into the water. When 
the tree has arrived to the period of perfefl mag- 
nitude, it is fixty, eighty, or an hundred feet high, 
forming a pyramidal head. The wood of old trees 
when fawn into plank is defer vedly admired in ca- 
binet-work or furniture ; it has a cinnamon coloured 
ground, marbled and veined with many colours : 
the inner bark is ufed for dying a reddifli or forrel 
colour ; it imparts this colour to wool, cotton> 
linen, and dreffed deer-fkins, and is highly efteemed 
by tanners. 

The Zamia pumila, the Erythryna coralloden- 
drum, and the Ca6lus opuntia, grow here in great 
abundance and perfection. The firft grows in the 
open pine forefts, in tufts or clumps, a large co- 
nical Itrobile difclofing its large coral red fruit, 
which appears fmgalarly beautiful amidfl the deep 
green fern-like pinnated leaves. 

The Erythryna corallodendrum is fix or eight 

feet high, ici, prickly limbs ftride and wreathe about 

with fingular freedom, and its fpikes of crimfon 

tiov/crs iiave a fine cfFcd amidfl the delicate foliage. 

8 Th(^ 


The CacTbus opuntia is very tall, ere<^, and large, 
and flrong enough to bear the weight of a man : 
fome are feven or eight feet high : the whole plant 
or tree feems to be formed of great oval comprefied 
leaves or articulations ; thofe near the earth con- 
tinually increafe, magnify and indurate as the tree 
advances in years, and at length lofe the bright 
green colour and gloily furface of their youth, ac- 
quiring a ligneous quality, with a whitifh fcabrous 
cortex. Every part of the plant is nearly deftitute 
of aculea, or thofe fafcicles of barbed brifiles which 
are in fuch plenty on the common dwarf Indian Fig. 
The cochineal infefts were feeding on the leaves. 
The female of this infed is very large and flcfhy, co- 
vered with a fine white filk or cottony web, which 
feels always moift or dewy, and feems defigned by 
nature to proteft them from the violent heat of the 
fun. The males are very fmall in comparifon to the 
females, and but very few in number : they each 
have two oblong pellucid wings. The large poly- 
petalous flowers are produced on the edges of the 
laft year's leaves, are of a fine fplendid yellow, 
and are fucceeded by very large pear-fliaped fruit, 
of a dark livid purple when ripe : its pulp is charged 
with a juice of a fine tranfparent crimfon colour, 
and has a cool pleafant tafte, fomewhat like that ot 
a pomegranate. Soon after eating this fruit the urine of the fame crimfon colour, which very 
much furprifes and affrights a ftranger, but is attend- 
ed with no other ill confequence ; on the contrary, it 
is efteemed wholefome, though powerfully diuretic. 

On the left hand of thofe open forefts and favan- 
jias, as we turn our eyes fouthward, fouth-weil: 
and weft, we behold an endlcfs wild defert, the 
upper ftratum of the earth of which is a fine v/hite 
fand, with fmall pebbles, and at fome diftance ap- 

M pears 


pears entirely covered with low trees and fhrubs of 
various kinds, and of equal heighth, as dwarf 
Sweet Bay, (Laurus Borboma)01ea Annericana,Ma- 
rus rubra, Myrica cerifera, Ptelea, ^fculus pavia, 
Quercus Ilex, Q^ glandifer, Q^ maritima, foliis 
cTjneiformibus obfolete trilobis minoribus, Q^pu- 
mila, Rhamnus frangula, Halefia diptera, & tetrap- 
tera, CafTine, Ilex aquifolium, Callicarpa John- 
ibnia, Erythryna corallodendrum, Hibifcus fpinifex, 
Zanthoxylon, Hopea tin£toria, Sideroxylum, with 
a multitude of other fhrubs, many of which were 
new to me, and fome of them admirably beautiful 
and fingular. One of them particularly engaged my 
notice, which, from its fruftification, I took to be 
a fpecies of Cacalia. It is an evergreen (hrub, about 
fix or eight feet high ; the leaves are generally 
fomewhat cuneiform, flefhy, and of a pale whitifli 
green, both furfaces being covered with a hoary 
pubefcence and veficula?, that when preffed feels 
clammy, and emits an agreeable fcent; the afcend- 
cnt branches terminate with large tufts or corymbes 
of rbfe coloured flowers, of the fame agreeable 
fcentj thefe clufters of flowers, at a diflance, look 
like a large Carnation or fringed Poppy flower, (Syn- 
genefia Polyg. -i^qul. Linn.), Cacalia heterophylla, 
foliis cuneiformibus, carnofis, papil. vifcidis. 

Here is alfo another fpecies of the fame genus, 
but it does not grow quite fo large ; the leaves are 
fmaller, of a yet duller green colour, and the flowers 
are of a pale rofe ; they arc both valuable evergreens. 

The trees and flirubs which cover thefe extenfivc 
wilds are about five or fix feet high, and feem 
to be kept down by the annual firing of the deferts, 
rather than the barrennefs of the foil, as I faw a 
few large Live Oaks, Mulberry trees, and Hicco- 



fie?, which evidently have withflood the devouring 
flames. Thefe adjoining wild plains, forefts, and 
lavannas, are (ituatcd lower than the hilly groves on 
the banks of the lake and river; but what fhould be 
the natural caufe of it I cannot even pretend to 
conjedlure, unlefs orie may fuppofe that thofe high 
hills, which we call bluffs, on the banks of this 
great river and its lakes, and which fupport thofe 
magnificent groves and high forefts, and are gene- 
rally compofed of fhells and fand, were thrown up 
to their prefent heighth by the winds and waves, 
when the bed of the river was nearer the level of 
the prefent furface of the earth ; but then, to reft: 
upon fuch a fuppofition, would be admitting that 
the waters were heretofore in greater quantities 
than at this time, or that their prefent channels and 
receptacles are worn deeper into the earth. 

I now dire<5led my fteps towards my encamp- 
ment, in a different dircdion. I feated myfeif 
upon a fwelling green knoll, at the head of the cryf- 
tal bafon. Near me, on the left, was a point or 
projection of an entire grove of the aromatic Illi- 
cium Floridanum ; on my right, and all around be- 
hind me, was a fruitful Orange grove, with Palms and 
Magnolias interfperled ; in front, juft under my feet, 
was the inchanting and amazing cryftal fountain, 
which inceffandy threw up, from dark, roclcy ca- 
verns below, tons of water every minute, form- 
ing a bafon, capacious enough for large fhal- 
lops to ride in, and, a creek of four or five feet 
depth of water, and near twenty yards over, which 
meanders fix miles through green meadows, pour- 
ing its limpid waters into the great Lake Georg-e, 
where they feem to remain pure and unmixed. A-. 
bout twenty yards from the upper edge of the bafon, 
M 2 ■ afid 


and dirc<^ly oppofite to the mouth or outlet of the 
creek, is a continual and amazing ebullition, where 
the waters are thrown up in fuch abundance and 
amazing force, as to j^et and fwell up two or three 
feet above the common furface : white fand and fmali 
particles of fhells are thrown up with the waters, 
near to the top, when they diverge from the cen- 
tre, fubfide with the expanding flood, and gently 
fmk again, fonning a large rim or funnel round 
about the aperture or mouth of the fountain, which 
is a vaft perforation through a bed of rocks, the 
ragged points of which are projeftcd out on every 
fide* Thus far I know to be matter of real fadt, 
and I have related it as near as I could conceive or 
expre fs myfelf. But there are yet remaining fcenes 
inexprefTibly admirable and pleafing. 

Behold, for inftance, a vaft circular expanfe be- 
fore you, the waters of wliich are fo extremely 
clear as to be abfolutely diaphanous or tranfparent 
as the ether ; the margin of the bafon ornamented 
with a great variety of fruitful and floriferous trees> 
fhrubs, and plants, the pendant golden Orange 
dancing on die furface of the pellucid waters, the 
balmy air vibrating with the melody of the merry 
birds, tenants of the encircling aromatic grove. 

At the lame inftant innumerable bands of filh 
are feen, fome clothed in the moft brilliant colours ; 
the voracious crocodile llretched along at full length, 
as the great trunk of a tree in fize ; the devouring 
garfifli, inimical trout, and all the varieties of 
gilded painted bream; the barbed catfifh, dread- 
ed fting-ray, Ikate, and flounder, fpotted bafs^^ 
fheeps head and oniinous drum ; all in their fepa- 
Fate band;? and comnnunitics, with free and unfuf- 
6 picious^ 


picious intercourfe performing their' evolutions: 
there are no figns of enmity, no attempt to devour 
each other ; the different bands feem peaceably and 
complaifantly to move a litde afide, as it were to 
make room for others to pafs by. 

But behold yet fomething far more admirable, 
fee whole armies defcending into an abyfs, into the 
mouth of the bubbling fountain: they difappear! are 
they gone for ever ? is it real ? I raife my eyes with 
terror and aftonilhment ; I look down again to 
the fountain with anxiety, when behold them as 
it were emerging from the blue ether of another 
world, apparently at a vaft diftance ; at their firft 
appearance, no bigger than flies or minnows ; now 
gradually enlarging, their brilliant colours begin to 
paint the fluid. 

Now they come forward rapidly, and inftantly 
emerge, with the elafl:ic expanding column of cryf- 
talline waters, into the circular bafon or funnel: 
fee now how gently they rife, fome upright, others 
obliquely, or feem to lie as it were on their fides, 
fuff'ering themfelves to be gently lifted or borne up 
by the expanding fluid towards the furface, fail- 
ing or floating like butterflies in the cerulean ether : 
then again they as gently defcend, diverge and move 
off; when they rally, form again, and rejoin their 
kindred tribes. 

This amazing and delightful fcene, though real, 
appears at firft: but as a piece of excellent paint- 
ing ; there feems no medium ; you imagine the 
pidlure to be within a few inches of your eyes, and 
that you may without the leaft: difficulty touch any 
one of the fifh, or put your finger upon the croco- 
dile's ^ye, when it really is twenty or thirty feet 
under water. 

M 3 And 


And although this paradife of fifh may feem to 
exhibit a juft reprefentation of the peaceable and 
happy ftate of nature v.'hich exifted before the fall> 
yet in reality it is a mere reprefentation ; for the 
nature of the fifh is the fame as if they were in Lake 
George or the river ; but here the water or element 
in which they live and move, is fo perfeftly clear 
and tranfparent, it places them all on an equality 
with regard to their ability to injure or efcape 
from one another ; (as all river fifti of prey, or fuch 
as feed upon each other, as well as the unwieldy 
crocodile, take their prey by furprife ; fecredng 
themfelves under covert or in ambulh, until an 
opportunity offers, when they rufh fuddenly upon 
tliem :) but here is no covert, no ambulh ; here the 
trout freely paffes by the very nofe of the alligator, 
and laughs in his face, and the bream by the trout. 

But what is really furprifing is, that the confciouf- 
nefs of each other's fafety, or fome other latent caufe, 
fhould fo abfolutely alter their conduft, for here is 
not the leafl attempt made to injure or diflurb one 

The fun pafTing below the horizonj and night ap- 
proaching, I arofe from my feat, and -proceeding oji 
arrived at my camp, kindled my fire, fupped and 
repofcd peaceably. Rifmg early, I employed the 
fore part of the day in coiiefting fpecimens of grow- 
ing roots and feeds. In the afternoon, I left thefe 
Elyfian fprings and the aromatic groves, and brifkly 
dcfcended the pellucid little river, re-entering thb 
great lake. The wind being gentle and fair for 
Mount Royal, I hoifted fail, and fuccefsfully cro fling 
the N, weft bay, about nine miles, came to at 
Rocky Point, the weft cape or promontory, as we 
cntef the river defcending towards Mount Royal : 
• thefe 


thefe rocks are horizontal flabs or flat maflles, 
fifing out of the lake two or three feet above its 
furface, and feem an aggregate compofition or 
concrete of fand, fhells, and calcareous cement, of a 
dark gray or dufky colour. The ftones are hard and 
iirm enough for buildings, and ferve very well for 
light hand mill-ftones; and when calcined afford a 
coarfe lime : they lie in vaft horizontal maffes 
upon one another, from one to two or three feet in 
thicknefs, and are eafily feparated and broken to 
any fize or form, for the purpofe of building. Rocky 
Point is an airy, cool, and delightful fituation, com- 
manding a mod ample and pleafing profped of the 
lake and its environs j but here being no wood, I 
re-embarked and failed down a little farther to the 
ifland in the bay, where I went on Ihore at a mag- 
nificent grove of Magnolias and Oranges, defirous 
of augmenting my collections. I arofe early next 
morning, and after ranging the groves and favannas, 
returned, embarked again, and defcending, called 
at Mount Royal, where I enlarged my coUedions ; 
and bidding adieu to the gentleman and lady who 
refided there, and who treated me with great hof- 
pitality on my afcent up the river, arrived in the 
-evening at the lower trading houfe. 

Ujl chap. 


C H A P. VI. 

OT-r my refiirn from my voyage to the upper (lore, 

I underilood rrom the trading company defigncd for 
Cufcowilla, that they had been very active in their 
preparations, and would be ready to fet off in a fevir 
days. I therefore availed myfelf of the little time 
^Uovi'ed me to fecure and preferve my colledtions, 
againft the arrival of the trading fchooner, which 
was hourly expedledj that every thing might be in 
readinefs to be lliipped on board her, in cafe Ihe 
fhould load again and return for Savanna during 
jny abfence. 

Every neceffary being now in readinefs, early 
on a fine morning we proceeded, attended by four 
men under the conduft of an ojd trader, whom Mr. 
M'Latche had delegated to treat with the Cowkeeper 
and other chiefs of Cufcowilla, on the fubjeft of re- 
eftablilhing the trade, &:c. agreeable to the late 
treaty of St. Auguftine. 

For the firft four or five miles we travelled wefl- 
ward, over a perfe6lly level plain, which appeared 
before and on each fide of us, as a charming green 
meadow, thinly planted with low fpreading Pine 
trees (P. paluflris). The upper flratum of the earth 
is a fine white cryftalline fand, the very upper fur- 
face of which being mixed or incorporated with 
the afhes of bu^-nt vegetables, renders it of fuffi- 
cient ftrengch or fertility to clothe itfelf perfedlly 
with a very great variety of gralTes, herbage, and 
remarkably low fhrubs, together with a very dwarf 
fpecies of Palmetto (Corypha pumila ftipit, lerratis). 



Of the low fhrubs many were new to me and of a 
very pleafing appearance, particularly a fpecies of 
annona (annona incarna, floribus grandioribus pani- 
culatis) ; this grows three, four, or five feet high, 
the leaves fomewhat cuneiform or broad lanceolate, 
attenuating down to the petiole, of a pale or light 
green colour, covered with a pubefcence or fhort 
fine down ; the flowers very large, perfeclly white 
and fweet fcented, many connected together on 
large loofe panicles or fpikes ; the fruit of the fize 
and form of a fmall cucumber, the fkin or exterior 
furface fomewhat rimofe or fcabrous, containing a 
yellow pulp of the confidence of a hard cuflard, 
and very delicious, wholefome food. This feems a 
variety, if not the fame that I firft remarked, flow- 
ing on the Alatamaha near Fort Barrington, Char- 
lotia, and many other places in Georgia and Eaft 
Florida ; and I obferved here in plenty the very 
dwarf decumbent annona, with narrow leaves, and 
various flowers already noticed at Alatamaha (an- 
nona pigmasa). Here is alfo abundance of the beau- 
tiful litde dwarf kalmia ciliata, already defcribed. 
The white berried empetrum, a very pretty ever- 
green, grows here on fomewhat higher and drier 
knolls, in large patches or clumps, afTociated with 
olea Americana, feveral fpecies of dwarf qucrci 
(•aks), vaccinium, Gordonia lafianthus, Andromeda 
ferruginea, and a very curious and beautiful fhrub 
which feems allied to the rhododendron, cafTme, 
rhamnus frangula, Andromeda nicida, &c. which 
being of dark green foliage, diverfify and enliven 
the landfcape : but what appears very extraordinary, 
is to behold here, deprefled and degraded, the glo- 
rious pyramidal magnolia grandiflora, aflfociated 
^mongft thefe vile dwarfs, and even fome of them 
|-jfing above it, though not five feet high} yet ftill 



Ihowing large, beautiful and expanfive white fra« 
grant blofibms, and great heavy cones, on flender 
procumbent branches, fome even lying on the earth; 
the ravages of fire keep them down, as is evident 
from the vaft excrelcent tuberous roots, covering 
ieveral feet of ground, from which thefe (lender 
fhoots fpring. 

In fucli clumps and coverts are to be feen feveral 
kinds of birds, particularly a fpecies of jay (pica 
glandaria cerulea non criftata) : they are generally 
of an azure blue colour, have no creft or tuft of 
feathers on the head, nor are they fo large as the 
great crefted blue jay of Virginia, but are equally 
clamorous. The towee birds (frangilla erythropthal- 
ma) are very numerous, as are a fpecies of bluifh 
gray butcher bird (lanius). Here were alfo lizards 
and fnakes. The lizards were of that fpecies called 
m Carolina, fcorpions : they are from five to fix 
inches in length, of a flender form; the tail in par- 
ticular is very long and fmall: they are of a yel- 
lowifli clay colour, varied with longitudinal lines or 
ftripes of a dufl^y brown colour, from head to tail: 
they are wholly covered with very fmall fquama?, 
vibrate their tail, and dart f@rth and brandifh their 
forked tongue after the manner of ferpents, when they 
are furprifcd or in purfuit of their prey, which are 
fcarabei, lacuflfe, mufci, and other infcfts; but I 
do not learn that their bite is poifonous, yet I have 
obKTved cats to be fick foon after eating them. 
i\tt.'r paffirjg over this extenfive, level, hard, wet 
favanna, we croiTed a fine brook or rivulet j the 
wzzzv cool and pleafant ; its banks adorned with va- 
riecies of tiees and flirubs, particularly the dehcate 
cyiiila, racemiBora, chionanthus, clethra, nyifa 
iyivacica, Andromeda nitida, Andromeda formq- 
filiima: anu here were great quantities of a very 



iafo-e and beautiful filix ofmunda, growing in great 
jufts or clumps. Afcer leaving the rivulet, we palled 
over a wet, hard, level glade or down, covered 
with a fine Ihort grafs, with abundance of low faw 
palmetto, and a few fhrubby pine trees, quercus ni- 
gra, quercus finuata or fcarlet oak : then the path 
defcends to a wet bay-gale j the ground a hard, fine, 
white land, covered with black flufh, which conti- 
nues above two miles, when it gently riles the higher 
fand hills, and diredly after pafles through a fine 
grove of young long-leaved pines. The foil fecmed 
here loole, brown, coarfe, fandy loam, though fer- 
tile. The afcent of the hill, ornamented with a va- 
riety and profufion of herbaceous planes and gralTes, 
particularly amaryllis atamafco, clitoria, phlox, ipo- 
mea, convolvulus, verbena corymbcfa, rucliia, viola, 
&c. A magnificent grove of {lately pines, fuc- 
ceeding to the expanfive wild plains we had a long 
time traverfed, had a pleafing effed:, roufing the 
faculties of the mind, awakening the imagination by 
its fublimity, and arrefting every aftive, inquifitive 
idea, by tiie variety of the fcenery, and the folemn 
fymphony of the fteady Weftern breezes, playing 
incelTantly, rifing and falling through the thick and 
wavy foliage. 

The pine groves pafled, we immediately find our- 
felves on the entrance of the expanfive airy pine fo- 
refts, on parallel chains of low fwelling mounds, 
called the Sand Hills j their afcent fo eafy, as to be 
almoll imperceptible to the progreffive traveller ; 
yet at a diftant view before us in fome degree ex- 
hibit the appearance of the mountainous fwell of 
the ocean immediately after a tempeftj but yet, as 
we approach them, they infenfibly difappear, and 
ieem to be loll j and we Ihould be ready to conclude 



all to be a vifionary fcene, were it not for the fpark- 
Jing ponds and lakes, which at the fame time gleam 
through the open forefts, before us and on tvcrj 
fide, retaining them in the eye, until we come 
up with them. And at laft the imagination re- 
mains flattered and dubious, by their uniformity, 
Being moftly circular or elliptical, and almoft fur- 
rounded with expanfive green meadows ; and al- 
ways a pi6luref ^a. dark gro/e of live oak, magno- 
lia, gordonia, and the fragrant orange, encircling 
a rocky fhaded grotto of tranfparent water, on 
fome border of the pond or lake j which, without 
the aid of any poetic fable, one might naturally 
fuppofe to be the facred abode or temporary refi- 
(dence of the guardian fpirit ; but is a6tually the 
polTefTion and retreat of a thundering abfolute cro- 

Arrived early in the evening at the Halfway 
pond, where we encamped and ilayed all night. 
This lake fpreads itfelf in a fpacious meadow, be- 
neath a chain of elevated fand-hills : the Iheet of 
water at this tinT,e was about: three miles in cir- 
cumference J the upper end, jiift under the hills 
furrounded by a crefcent of dark groves, which 
ffiaded a rocky grotto. Near this place was a (lop- 
ing green bank, terminating by a point of flat 
locks, which projefted into the lake, and formed 
one point of the crefcent that partly furrounded the 
vaft grotto or bafon of tranfparent waters, which 
is called by the traders a fink- hole, a fingalar kind 
of vortf'x or conduit, to the fubterranean recepi- 
tacles of the waters ; but though the waters of thef<^ 
ponds, in the fummer and dry fcafons, evidently tend 
towards thefe finks, yet it is fo flowly and gradually^ 
as to be almoft imperceptible. There is always a 



meandering channel winding through the favannas 
or meadows, which receives the waters fpread over 
them, by feveral lateral Imaller branches, flowly 
conveying them along into the lake, and finally in- 
to the bafon, and with them nations of the finny 

Juft by the little cape of flat rocks, we fixed our 
encampment, where I enjoyed a comprehenfive and 
varied fcene, the verdant meadows fpread abroad, 
charmingly decorated by green points of gralTy lawns 
and dark promontories of wood land, projecting int-e 
the green plains. 

Behold now at ftlll evening, the fun yet llreaking 
the embroidered favannas, armies of fifh were piir- 
fuing their pilgrimage to the grand pellucid f)untain^ 
and when here arrived, all quiet and peaceable, en- 
circling the little ceruJean hemifphere, they defcend 
into the dark caverns of the earth j where, probably, 
they are feparated from each other, by innumerable 
paths, or fecret rocky avenues ; and after encounter- 
ing various obilacles, and beholding new and un- 
thought-of fcenes of pleafure and difguft, after many 
days ab fence from the furface of the world emerge 
again from the dreary vaults, and appear exulting in 
gladnefs, and fporcing in the tranlparent waters of 
fome far diftant lake. 

The various kind of fifh and amphibious ani- 
mals, that inhabit thefe inland lakes and waters, may 
be mentioned here, as many of them here affem- 
bled, pafs and repafs in the lucid grotto : firft the 
crocodile alligator : the great brown fpotted garr, 
accoutred in an impenetrable coat of mail : this ad-^ 
mirable animal may be termed a cannibal amongft 
fiilij as filli are his prey j when fully grown he is 


174 Travels i^ 

from five to fix feet in length, and of proportion- 
able thicknefs, of a dufky brown colour, fpotted withr 
black. The Indians make ufe of their fiiarp teeth: 
to fcratch or bleed themfelves with, and their pointed 
fcalcs to arm their arrows. This filli is fometimes 
eaten, and, to prepare them for food, they cover 
them whole in hot embers, v/here they bxke them ; 
the flcin with the fcales eafily peels off, leaving the 
meat white and tender. 

The mud fiih is large, thick or round, and two 
feet in length j his meat v/hite and tender, but foft 
and tafles of the mud, and is not much efteemed. 
The great devouring trout and catfifh are in abun- 
dance ; the golden bream or funfiih, the red bellied 
bream, the filver or white bream, the great yellow 
and great black or blue bream, alfo abound here. 
The iaft of thefe m.entioned, is a large, beautifulj 
and delicious fifh i v/hen full grown tiiey are nine 
*nches in length, and five to fix inches in breadth ; 
the whole body is of a dull blue or indigo colour, 
marked v/ith tranfverfe lifts or zones of a darker co- 
lour, fcatteringly pov/dered with fky blue, gold and 
red fpecks ; fins and tail of a dark purple or livid 
fleili colour ; the ultimate angle of the branchioftega 
formjincr a fparula, the extreme end of which is 
broad and circular, terminating like the feather of 
the peacock's train, and having a brilliant fpot or eye 
like it, being delicately painted with a fringed bor- 
der of a fire colour. 

Tlie great yellov/ or particoloured bream is irf 
form and proportion much like the forcmentioned, 
but larger, from a foot to fifteen inches in length ; 
his back from, head to tail is of a dark clay and dufky 
colour, with tranfverfe dallies or blotches, of red- . 
diili dull purple, or bluiili, according to different 
' 4 expofures 


//^,w/ . /y/ -.////^■y//^v//v.//' { 


cxpofures to light ; the fides and belly of a bright 
pale yellow; the belly faintly ftained with vernnilion 
red, infenfibly blended with the yellow on the fides, 
and all garnifhed with fiery, blue, green, gold and 
filver fpecks on the fcales ; the branchioftega is of a 
yellowilh clay or ftraw colour ; the lower edge or 
border next the opening of the gills, is near a quar- 
ter of an inch in breadth, of a fea green or ma- 
rine blue; the ulterior angle protends backwards 
to a confiderable length, in the form of a fpatula or 
feather, the extreme end dilated and circular, of a 
deep black or crow colour, reflecting green and 
blue, and bordered round with fiery red, fomewhat 
like red fealing-wax, reprefenting a brilliant ruby on 
the fide of the fifh ; the fins reddifli, edged with a 
dove-colour : it is defervedly efteemed a mofl ex- 
cellent fifh. 

Here are, as well as in all the rivers, lakes, and 
ponds of Eaft Florida, the great foft-fhelled tor- 
toifes * : they are very large when full grown, from 
twenty to thirty and forty pounds weight, extremely 
fat and delicious, but if eaten to excefs, are apt to 
purge people not accuftomed to eat their meat. 

They are flat and very thin ; two feet and a half 
in length, and eighteen inches in breadth acrofs the 
back J in form, appearance, and texture, very much 
refembling the fea turtle : the whole back ihell, 
except the vertebra or ridge, which is not at all 
prominent, and ribs on each fide, is foft or carti- 
laginous, and eafily reduced to a jelly when boil- 
ed ; the anterior and pofterior extremities of the 
back ihell, appear to be emboflTed with round, 

• Teftudo naf« cylinUraceo e'ongato, tfuneato. 



horny warts 6r tubercles ; the belly or nether Ihell 
is but fmall and femicartilaginous, except a nar- 
row crofs bar connefting it at each end with the 
tack Ihell, which is hard and ofleous i the head is 
laro^e and clubbed, of nearly an oval form ; the up- 
per mandible, however, is protended forward, and 
truncated, fomewhat refembling a fwine's fnout, at 
the extreme end of which the noftrils are placed ; 
on each fide of the root- or bafe of this probofcis are 
the eyes, which are large ; the upper beak is hook- 
ed and fharp, like a hawk's bill j the lips and cor- 
ners of the mouth large, tumid, wrinkled, and barb- 
ed, with long pointed warts, which he can project 
and contradt at pleafure, which gives the creature 
a frightful and difagreeable countenance. They 
bury themfelves in the flufhy bottoms of rivers 
and ponds, under the roots of flags and other 
aquatic herbage, leaving a hole or aperture jull 
fiifficient for their head to play through ; to fuch 
places they withdraw themfelves when hungry, and 
there leize their prey by furprife, darting out their 
heads as quick as lightning, upon the unwary ani- 
inal that unfortunately ftrolls witliin their reach: 
they can extend their neck to a furprifing length, 
which enables them to feize young fowl fwimming 
on the furface of the water above them, which they 
inftantly drag down. They are feen to raife their 
heads above the furface of the water, in the depths 
of the lakes and rivers, and blow, caufing a faint 
puffing noife, fomewhat like a porpoife ; probably 
this is for paftime, or to charge themfelves with a 
proper fupply of frefh air. They are carnivorous, 
feeding on any animal they can feize, particularly 
young ducks, frogs, and fifli. 

We had a large and fat one fcrved up for our 






iupper, which I at firft apprehended we had made a 
very extravagant wafte of, not being able to con- 
fume one half of its flelh, though excellently well 
cooked : my companions, however, feemed regard- 
lefs, being in the midft of plenty and variety, at any 
time within our reach, and to be obtained with little 
or no trouble or fatigue on our part ; when herds of 
deer were feeding in the green meadows before u5 ; 
flocks of turkeys walking in the: groves around us, 
and myriads of fiih, of the greateft variety and de- 
licacy, {porting in the cryftalline floods before our 

The vultures and raVens, crouched on the crook- 
ed limbs of the lofty pines, at a little diftance from 
us, fharpening their beaks, in low debate, waiting to 
regale themfelves on the off'als, after our departiire 
from camp. 

At the return of the morning, by the powerful 
influence of light, the pulfe of n<:ture becomes more 
aflive, and the univerfal vibration of life infenfibl)'" 
and irrefiftibly moves the wondrous machine. How 
cheerful and gay all nature appears ! Hark ! the mu- 
flcal favanna cranes, ere the chirping fparrow flirts 
from his grafly couch, or the glorious fun gilds the 
tops of the pines, fpread their expanfive wings, leave 
their lofty roofl:s, and repair to the ample plains. 

From half-way pond, we proceed WeHward, 
through the high forefts of Cufcowilla. 

The appearance of the earth for five Or fix miles 
prefented nearly the fame fcenes as heretofore. 

Now the fand ridges became higher, and their 
bafes proportionably more extenflve j the favannas 

N and 


and ponds more expanfive ; the fummits of the ridgea 
more gravelly ; here and there, heaps or piles of 
rocks, emerging out of the fand and gravel : thefe 
rocks are the fame fort of concrete of fand and fhells 
as noticed at St. Juan's and the great lake. The 
vegetable produ<5tions nearly the fame as already 

We gently defcended again over fand ridges, 
crolTed a rapid brook, ripling over the gravelly bedy 
hurrying the tranfparent waters into a vaft and beau- 
tiful lake, through a fine fruitful orange grove, which 
magnificently adorns the banks of the lake to a 
great diftance on each fide of the capes of the creek. 
This is a fine fituation for a capital town. Thefe 
waters are tributary to St. Juan's, 

We alighted to refrefh ourfelves, and adjuft ou? 
packs. Here are evident figns and traces of a 
powerful fettlement of the ancients. 

Sat ofi^ again, and continued travelling over a 
magnificent pine foreft, the ridges low, but their 
bafes extenfive, with proportionable plains. The 
ftcady breezes gently and continually rifing and fall- 
ing, fill the high lonefome forefts with an awful re- 
verential harmony, inexprefllbly fublime, and not to 
be enjoyed any where, but in thefe native wild In- 
dian regions. 

Croffing another large deep creek of St. Juan's, 
.the country is a vaft level plain, and the foil good' 
for the diftance of four or five miles, though light 
_and landy, producing a foreft of ftately pines and 
laurels, v/ith fome others ; and a vaft profufion of 
herbage, fuch as rudbcckia, helianthus, filphium, 
polymnia, ruellia, verbena, rhexea, convolvulus, fo- 



phora, glycine, vitia, clitorea, ipomea, iirtica, falvia 
irraveolens, viola, and many more. How cheerful 
and Ibcial is the rural converle of the various tribes 
of tree frogs, whilft they look to heaven for prolific 
fhowers ! How harmonious the flTril! tuneful fongs 
of the wood thrufli, and the foothing love lays of 
the amorous cuckoo *, feated in the cool leafy 
branches of the (lately magnolias and fhadowy elms, 
maples and liquidambar, together with gigantic fa- 
gus fylvatica, which fhade and perfume thefe fequef- 
tered groves ! How unexpeded and enchanting the 
enjoyment, after traverfing a burning fandy de- 

Now, again, we behold the open pine forefts, and 
afcend the fandy hills, which continue for fome miles, 
then gently defcend again, when a level expanfive 
favanna plain prefents itfelf to view, which, after en- 
tering, and proceeding on, becomes wet and covered 
by a fine lliort grafs, with extenfive parterres of the 
dwarf creeping palmetto, its ftipes fharply toothed 
or ferrated, together with clumps of low Ihrubs, as 
kalmia, Andromeda, annona pygmea, myrica ceri- 
fera, empetrum, vaccinium, and others. 

We now afcend a little again, and pafs through a 
narrow pine foreft ; when fuddenly opens to view a 
vaftly extenfive and fedgy marfh, expanding South- 
erly like an open fan, feemingly as boundiefs as the 
great ocean: our road croffing the head of it, 
about three hundred yards over; the bottom here 
was hard fand, a foot or more under a foft muddy 
furface. The tra'ders informed m.e, that thele vad 
marflies lie on the borders of a great lake, many 
miles in length, in magnitude exceeding Lake 

* CaciiUis Caro'iinienfis. 

N 2 George, 


George, and communicating with St. Juan's by a 
river * j its confluence above the lower ftore at the 
Little Lake. 

Obferved as we pafTed over the fame hills, the 
dens of the great land tortoife, called gopher : this 
ftrange creature remains yet undefcribed by hifto- 
rians and travellers. The firft iigns of this animaFs 
exiftence, as we travel Southerly, are immediately 
after we crofs the Savanna River. It is to be feen 
only on the high diy fand hills. When arrived 
at its greateft magnitude, the upper Ihell is near 
eighteen Inches in length, and ten or twelve inches 
in breadth j the back is very high, and the Ihcll 
of a very hard bony fubHance, confifling of many 
regular compartments, united by futures, in the 
manner of the other fpecies of tortoife, and covered 
with thin horny plates. The nether or belly fhell 
is large, and regularly divided tranfverfeiy into 
five parts : thefe compartments are not knit toge- 
ther like the futures of the fkuli, or the back fhell 
of the tortoife, but adhere, or are conne6ted toge- 
ther by a very ridgy horny cartilage, which ferves 
as hinges for him to fhut up his body within his 
fliell at pleafure. The fore part of the belly fhell 
towards its extremity is formed fomewhat like a 
fpade, extends forward near three inches, and is 
about an inch and an half in breadth ; its extremity 
is a little bilid ; the pofterior divifion of the belly 
fhell is likewife protended backwards confiderably, 
and is deeply bifurcated. 

The legs and fjet are covered with fiat horny 
fquamrc ; he ferms to have no clefts in them or 
toes, but long flattifli nails or talons, fomewhat in 

* Great Ockli-Waha. 



refemblance to the nails of the human fingers, five 
on the fore feet; the hind legs or feet appear as if 
truncated, or as ftumps of feet, armed all round 
with fharp, flattifh ftrong nails, the number unde- 
termined or irregular; the head is of a moderate 
fize ; the upper mandible a little hooked, the edges 
hard and fharp ; the eyes are large ; the nofe pick- 
ed ; the noftrils near together and very minute ; 
the general colour of the animal is a light afh or 
clay, and at a diftance, unlefs it is in motion, any 
one would difregard or overlook it as a done or 
an old (lump. It is aftonifhing what a weight one 
of thefe creatures will bear; it will eafily carry any 
man (landing on its back, on level ground. They 
form great and deep dens in the fand hills, cafting 
out incredible quantities of earth. They are eileem- 
cd excellent food. I'he eggs are larger than a 
mufket ball, perfectly round, and the Iheil hard. 

After crofllng over this point or branch of the 
marfhes, we entered a noble foreft, the land level, 
and the foil fertile, being a loofe, dark brown, coarfe 
fandy loam, on a clay or mariey foundation : the 
foreft confifted of orange groves, overtopped by 
grand magnolias, palms, live oaks, juglans cinerea, 
morus rubra, fagus fylvatica, tilia, and liquidambar; 
with various kinds of flirubs and herbaceous plants, 
particularly callicarpa, halefia, fambucus, zanthoxy- 
lon, ptelea, rhamnus frangula, rudbeckia, filphi- 
um, polymnia, indigo fera, fophora, falvia graveo- 
lens, &c. We were cheerfully received in this 
hofpitable fliade, by various tribes of birds; their 
fprightly fongs feemed a prelude to the vicinity of 
human habitations. This magnificent grove was a 
wmg of the vaft forefts lying upon the coaft of the 
great and beautiful lake of Cufcowilla, at no great 

N 2 diftance 

l8'2 TRAVELS Iff ' 


diftance from ns. Continuing eight or nine miles 
through thi.s lublinne foreft, we entered on an open 
foreft of lofty pines and oaks, on gently fwclling fand 
hills, and prefently faw the lake, its waters fparkling 
through the open groves. Near the path was a large 
artificial mound of earth, on a moft charming, high 
fituation, fuppofed to be the work of the ancient 
Floridans or Yamafees j with other traces of an In- 
dian town. Here were three or four Indian habita- 
tions j the women and children faiuted us with 
cheerfulnefs and complaifance. After riding near a 
mile farther, we arrived at Cufcowilla, near the 
banks : a pretty brook of water ran through the 
town, and entered the lake juft by. 

We were welcomed to the town, and conduced 
by the young men and maidens to the chief's houfe, 
which ftood on an eminence, and was diftinguifhed 
from the reft by its fuperior magnitude, a large flag 
being hoiftcd on a high ftafF at one corner, We 
immediately alighted: the chief, who is called the 
Cowkeeper, attended by Jeveral ancient men, came 
to us, and in a very free and fociable manner, fnook 
our hands, or rather arms, (a form of falutation pe- 
culiar to the American Indians) faying at the fame 
time, " You are come." We followed him to an 
apartment prepared for the reception of their 

The pipe being filled, it is handed around ; after 
which a large bov/l, v/ith what they call " thin 
drink," is brough; in and let down on a fmall low 
table. In this bowl is a great wooden ladle; each 
perfon takes up in it: as much as he pieafes, and after 
drinking until fatisfied, returns it again into the 
bowl, pulliing the handle towards the next perfon in 
the circle ; and fo it goes round. 



After the ufual compliments and inquiries relative 
to our adventures, &c. the chief trader informed 
the Cowkeeper, in the prefence of his council or 
attendants, the purport of our bufinefs, with which 
he expreifTed his fatisfaftion. He was then informed 
what the nature of my errand was, and he received 
me with complaifance, giving me unlimited per- 
million to travel over the country for the purpofe 
of collefling flowers, medicinal plants, &c. faluting 
me by the name of Puc Puggy, or the Flower 
hunter, recommending me to the friendfliip and 
protection of his people. 

The next day being agreed on to hold a council 
and tranfa6b the bufinefs of our embaify, we ac- 
quainted the chief with our intention of making our 
encampment on the borders of the great Alachua 
SAVANNA, and to return at the time appointed to 
town, to attend the council according to agree- 

Soon after we had fixed on the time and manner 
of proceeding on the further fettlement of the treaty, 
a confiderable number of Indians alTembled around 
their chief, when the converlation turned to common 
and familiar topics. 

The chief is a tall well made man, very affable 
and cheerful, about fixty years of age, his eyes lively 
and full of fire, his countenance manly and placid, 
yet ferocious, or what we call favage, his nofe aqui- 
line, his drefs extremely fimple, but his head trim- 
med and ornamented in the true Creek mode. He 
has been a great warrior, having then attending 
him as flaves, many Yamafee captives, taken by 
himfelf when young. They were drefled better 

N 4 than 


^han he, and ^erved and waited upon him with figns 
of the mod abje(5b fear. The manners andcuftonns 
of the Alachuas, and molt of the lower Creeks or 
Siminoles, appear evidently tinctured with Spanifh 
civilization Their religious and civil ufages mani- 
feft a prediledion for the Spanifh cuftoms. There 
are feveral Chriftians among thern, many of whom 
wear litde filver crucifixes, affixed to a wampum 
,collar round their necks, or fufpendtd by a fmall 
chain upon their breaft. Thefe are faid to be bap- 
tized; and notwithftanding mofc of them fpcak and 
underftand Spanifli, yet they have been the moft 
bitter and formidable Indian enemies the Spaniards 
ever had. The ilaves, both male and female, are 
permitted to marry amongll them : their children 
are free, and considered in every refped equal to 
themfelves j but the parents continue in a ftate of 
flavery as long as they live. 

In obferving thefe flaves, we behold at once, in 
their countenance and manners, the ftriking contrafb 
betwixt a ftate of freedom and flavery. They ar>e 
the tameft, the moft abjeft creatures that we can 
poffibly imagine: mild, peaceable, and tradable, 
they feem to have no will or power to aft but 4s 
direfted by their mafters ; whilft the free Indians, 
on the contrary, are bold, adlive, and clamorous. 
They differ as widely from each other as the bull 
from the ox. 

The repaft is now brought in, confifting of veni- 
fon, ftewed with bear's oil, frefh corn cakes, milk, 
and homony ; and our drink, honey and water, very 
tool and agreeable. After partaking of this ban- 
quet, we took leave and departed fo.r the great fii- 
. yanna. 



We foon entered a level, grafly plain, inter- 
fperfed with low, fpreading, three -leaved Pine-;rees, 
large patches of low flirubs, confiding of Prinos 
glaber, low Myrica, Kaln^a glauca, Andromedas of 
feveral fpecies, and many other flirubs, with patches 
of Palmetto. We continued travelling through 
this favanna or bay-gale, near two miles, when the 
land afcends a little ; we then entered a liommock 
or dark grove, confifting of various kinds of trees, 
as the Magnolia grandiflora, Corypha palma. Citrus 
Aurantium, Qyercus fempervirers, Morus rubra, 
Uimus fylvatica, Tilia, Juglans cinerea, iEfculus p^- 
via, Liquidambar, Laurus Eorbonia, Hopea tinfto- 
ria, Cercis, Cornus Florida, Halefia diptera, Ha- 
lefia tetraptera, Olea Americana, Caliicarpa, An- 
dromeda arborea, Syderoxylon fericium, Sid. tenax, 
Vitis labrufc?., Hedera arborea, Hedera quinquefo- 
Ha, Rhamnus volubiiis, Prunus Caroliniana (pr. flor. 
racemofis, foliis fempervirentibus, lato-lanceolatis, 
acuminatis, ferratis) Fagus fylvatica, Zanthoxylon 
clava Herculis, Acer rubrum, Acer negundo, Frax- 
inus excelfior, with many others already mention- 
ed. The land ftill gently rifing, the foil fertile, 
loofe, loamy, and of a dark brown colour. This 
continues near a mile ; when at once opens to view 
the mod fjddt-n tranfition from darkntfs to light, 
that can pofTibiy be exhibited in a natural land- 

The extenfive Alachua favanna Is a level green 
plain, above fifteen miles over, fifty miles in cir- 
cumference, and fcarcely a tree or bulh of any kind 
to be feen on it. It is encircled with high, floping 
hills, covered widi waving forefts and fragrant 
Orange groves, rifing from an exuberantly fertile foil. 
The towering magnolia grandiflora and tranfcen- 



dent Palm, fland confpicuoiis amongfl them. At 
the fame time are leen innumerable droves of cat- 
tle ; the lordly bull, lowing cow, and Ileek capri- 
cious heifer. The hills and groves re-echo their 
cheerful, focial voices. Herds of fprightly deer, 
fquadrons of the beautiful fleet Siminole horfe, 
.flocks of turkeys, civilized communities of the fo- 
norous watchful crane, mix together, appearing 
happy and contented in the enjoyment of peace, 
till diPturbed and affrighted by the warrior man. 
Behold yonder, coming upon them through the 
darkened groves, fneakingly and unawares, the 
naked red warrior, invading the Elyfian fields and 
green plains of Alachua. At the terrible appear- 
ance of the painted, fearlefs, uncontrouled, and free 
Siminole, the peaceful innocent nations are at once 
thrown into diforder and dihiiay. See the different 
tribes and bands, how they draw towards each 
other ! as it were deliberating upon the general 
good. Suddenly they fpeed off with their young 
in the centre ; but the roebuck fears him not : here 
he lays himfelf down, bathes and flounces in the 
coo' flood. The red warrior, whofe plumed head 
ilafhes lightning, whoops in vain j his proud am- 
bitious horfe ftrains and pants ; the earth glides 
from under his fetty his flov/ing m.ane whifl;les in the 
wind, as he comes up full of vain hopes. The 
bounding roe views his rapid approaches, rifes up, 
lilts aloft his antlered head, cre6ts the white flag*, 
and fetching a flirill whittle, fays to his fleet and free 
affociates, " follov/ i" he bounds off, and in a fevv 
minutes diftances his foe a mile ; fuddenly he fl:ops, 
turns about, u-'id laughing fays, " how vain ! go 
chafe meteois in the azure plains above, or hunt 
butterflies in the fields about your towns." 

* AUudiuc, to hbtail. 



We approached the favanna at the fouth end by 
a narrow ifthmus of level ground, open to die ligh.t 
of day, and dear of trees or biiflies, and not greuely 
elevated above the common level, having on our 
right a fpacious meadow, embellifhed with ii iiitle 
lake, one verge of which was not very diftant from 
us J its fhore is ? moderate Iv high, circular bink, 
partly encircling a cove of the pond, in the form 
of a half moon; the water is clear ond deep, and, 
at the diilance of fome hundred yards, was a large 
floating field (if I may lb exprefs myfelf ) of the 
Nymphsea ntiuinbo, wid^ their golden bJolToms wav- 
ing to and fro on their Irfcy Items. Ijc-yond thefe 
fields of NymphiEa were fpacious plains, encon'.palTed 
by dark groves, onening to extjnfive Pine forefls, 
other plains Itill appearing beyond them. 

This little lake and furrounding meadows would 
have been alone fufficient to furprift .md deliglr: the 
traveller ; but being placed fo near the great fa- 
vanna, the attention is quickly drawn off, and wholly 
engaged in the contemplation of the unlimited, va- 
ried, and truly aftonilliing native v.ild iccnes of 
landfcape and perfpeftive, there exhibited : hov/ 
is the mind agitated and bewildered, at being thus, 
as it were, placed on the borders of a new world I 
On the firfl: view of fuch an amazing difplay of the 
wifdom and power of the fupreme author of nature, 
the mind for a moment feems fufpended, and im- 
prelTed with awe. 

This ifthmus being the common avenue or road 
of Indian travellers, we pitched our camp at a fmall 
diltance from it, on a rifing knoll near the verge 
of the favanna, under fome fpreading Live Oaks : 
this fituation was open and airy, and gave us an un- 
bounded profped: over the adjacent plains. Dewy 

4 evening 


evening now came onj the animating breezes, 
which cooled and tempered the meridian hours 
of this fukry feafon, now gently ceafed i the glori- 
ous fovereign of the day, calling in his bright beaming 
emanations, left us in his abfence to the milder 
government and protecflion of the filver qu<ien of 
night, attended by milhons of brilliant luminaries. 
The thundering alligator had ended his horrifying 
roar ; the filver plumed gannet and flork, the fage 
and folitary pelican of the wildernefs, had already 
retired to their fijent nofturnal habications, in the 
neighbouring forells ; the fonorous favanna cranes, 
in weil-difciplined fquadrons, now rifing from the 
earth, mounted aloft in fpiral circles, far above the 
denfe atmofphere of the humid plain ; they again 
viewed the glorious fun, and the light of day flill on their polifhed feather?, they fung their 
evening hymn, then in a ftraight line majeflically 
defcended, and alighted on the towering Palms or 
lofty Pines, their fecure and peaceful lodging places. 
All around being ftill and filent, we repaired to reft. 

Soon after fun-rife, a party of Indians on horfe- 
back appeared upon the favanna, to collect toge- 
ther feveral herds of cattle which they drove along 
near our camp, towards the town. One of the 
party came up, and informed us, the cattle belong- 
ed to the chief of Cufcovvilla ; that he had ordered 
fome of the beft ftecrs of his droves to be flaughtered 
for a general feaft for the whole town, in compli- 
ment of our arrival, and pacific negotiations. 

The catde were as large and fat as thofe of the 
rich grazing paftures of Moyomenfing in Pennfylva- 
nia. The Indians drove off the lowing herds, and 
we foon followed them to town, in order to be at 
council at the appointed hour, leaving t^yo young 
men of our party to protc6l our camp. 



Upon our arrival we repaired to the public fquare 
or council-houfe, where the chiefs and fenators were 
already convened ; the warriors and young men at- 
fembled foon after, the bufinefs being tranlacled 
in public. As it was no more than a ratification 
of the late treaty of St. Auguiline, with fome par- 
ticular commercial ftipulations, with refpeft to the 
citizens of Alachua, the negotiations foon terminated 
to the fatisfaftion of both parties. 

The banquet fucceeded ; the ribs and choiceft fat 
pieces of the bullocks, excellently well barbecued, 
were brought into the apartment of the public fquare, 
conftrudled and appointed for fcafting ; bov/ls and 
kettles of ilewed ficlh and broth were brought in for 
the next courfe, and v/ith it a very fingular difh, 
the traders call it tripe foup j it is made of the belly 
or paunch of the beef, not overclcanfed of its 
contents, cut and minced pretty fine, and then 
made into a thin foup, feafoned well with fait and 
aromatic herbs ; but the feafoning not quite ftrong 
enough to extinguifh its original favour and fcent. 
This difli is greatly eiieemed by the Indians, but 
is, in my judgm.ent, the lead agreeable they have 
amongft them. 

The town of Cufcowilla, which is the capital of 
the Alachua tribe, contains about thirty habitations, 
each of which confifts of two houfes nearly the fame 
fize, about thirty feet in length, twelve feet wide, 
and about the fame in height. The door is placed 
midwiy on one fide or in the front. This houfe 
is divided equally, acrofs, into two apartments, one 
of which is the cook room and common hall, and 
the other the lodging room. The other houfe is ■ 
nearly of the fame dimenfions, {landing about twtiity 
yards from the dwelling houfe, its end fronting 



the door. The building is two ftories hlgh> an<3 
conftriifted in a different manner. It is divided tranf- 
verfely, as the other, but the end next the dwelling 
houfe is open on three fides, fupported by pofts or 
pillars, it has an open loft or platform, the afcent to 
which is by a portable flair or ladder : this is a 
pieafant, cool, airy fituation, and here the mailer 
or chief of the family retires to repofe in the hot 
feafons, and receives his giieils or vifitors. The 
other half of this building is clofed on all fides by 
notched logs -, the lowefl or ground part is a pota- 
toe houfe, and the upper flory over it a granary for 
corn and other provifions. Their houfes are con- 
Itrufted of a kind of frame. In thcfirfl place, flrong 
corner pillars are fixed in the ground, with others 
fomewhat lefs, ranging on a line between -, thefe 
are llrengdiened by crofs pieces of timber, and the 
whole v/ith the roof is covered clofe with the bark 
of the Cyprefs tree. The dwelling flands near the 
middle of a fquare yard, cncompafTed by a low 
bank, formed with the earth taken out of the yard, 
which is always carefully fwept. Their towns are 
clean, the inhabitants being particular in laying their 
filth at a proper diftance from their dwellings, 
v/hich undoubtedly contributes to the heakhinefs of 
their habitations. 

The town flands on the moil pieafant fituation 
that could be well imagined or defired, in an inland 
country ; upon a high fvvelling ridge of fand hills, 
within three or f-ui hundred yards of a large and 
beautiful lake, the circular fliore of which conti- 
nually waihes a fandy beach, under a moderately 
hiiih floping bank, terminated on one fide by ex- 
tcnfive forcfts, confifting of Orange groves, over- 
topped with grand Magnolias, Falms, Poplar, Ti- 



Ha, Live Oaks, and others already noticed; and the 
oppofite point of the crefcent, gradually retires with 
hommocky projefting points, indenting the grafTy 
marlhes, and laftly terminates in infinite green 
plains and meadows, united with the ikies and wa- 
ters of the lake. Such a natural landfcape, fuch :i 
rural fcene, is not to be imitated by the united in- 
genuity and labour of man. At prefent the ground 
betwixt the town and the lake is adorned by an 
open grove of very tall Pine trees, which ftanding 
at a confiderable diftance from each other, adnit a 
delightful profped: of the fparkling waters. The 
lake abounds with various excellent fifn and wild 
fowl ; there are incredible numbers of the latter, 
efpecially in the winter ieafon, when they arrive 
here from the north to winter. 

The Indians abdicated the ancient Alachua town 
on the borders of the favanna, and built here, call- 
ing the new town Cufcowilla : their reafons for re- 
moving their habitation were on account of its un- 
healthinefs, occafioned, as they fay, by the flencli 
of the putrid fifh and reptiles in the fummer and au- 
tumn, driven on fhore by the alligators, and the 
exhalations from marfhes of the favanna, together 
with the perfecutions of the mufquitoes. 

They plant but little here about the town ; only 
a fmall garden pot at each habitation, confiihn'^ 
of a little Corn, Beans, Tobacco, Citruls, &c. 
Their plantation, which fupplies them with the chief 
of their vegetable provifions, fuch as Zea, Con- 
volvulus batata, Cucurbita citrulus. Cue. lagencria. 
Cue. pepo, Cue. melopepo, Cue. verrucofi, Do- 
lichos varieties, &c. lies on the rich prohfic lands 
bordering on the great Alachua favanna, about two 
miles diftanpe. This plantation is one common en- 


clofure, and is worked and tended by the whofe 
community; yet every family has ics particular 
part, according to its own appointment, marked off 
when planted ; and this portion receives the com- 
mon labour and afTiilance until ripe, when each fa- 
mily gathers and depoiits in its granary its own pro- 
per flure, fetting apart a fmall gift or contribution 
for the public granary, which ftands in the centre of 
tlie plantation. 

The youth, under the fupervifal of fome of their 
ancient people, are daily ftationed in the fields, 
and are continually whooping and hallooing, to 
chafe av.ay crows, jackdaws, black-birds, and fuch 
predatory animals j and the lads are armed with 
bows and arrows, and being trained up to it from 
their early youth, are fure at a mark, and in the 
courle of the day load themfelves with fquirrels, 
birdc, &c. The men in turn patrole the corn 
fields at night, to prote£t their provifions from the 
depredations of night rovers, as bears, raccoons, 
and deer; the two being immoderately fond 
of young corn, when the grain is filled with a rich 
milk, as fweet and nourifliing as cream ; and the 
deer are as fond of the Potatoe vines. 

Afcer the fcaft was over, v/e reti'med to our en- 
campment on the great favanna, towards the even- 
ing. Our companions whom v/e left at iht camp, 
were impatitnt for our return, having been out 
horle hunting in the plains and groves during our 
abfence. They fjon left us, on a vifit to die town, 
having there fome female friends, with whom they 
were anxieus to renew their acquaintance. The 
Siminole girls are by no means deititute oi charms 
to pleafe the lougher fex : the white traders are 
fuily fcnlible how gready it is to their advantage 



to o-ain their affections and friendfhip in matters of 
trade and commerce ; and if their love and eftccm 
for each other is fincere, and upon principles of re- 
ciprocity, there are but few inftances of their neg- 
k(fling or betraying t'le intcrefts and views of their 
temporary hufbands j they labour and watch con- 
ftantly to promote their private interefts, and de- 
teft and prevent any plots or evil deilgns Vvliich may 
threaten their perfons, or operate againft their trade 
or bufinefs. 

In the cool of the evening I embraced the oppor- 
tunity of making a folitary excurfion round the ad- 
jacent lawns. Taking mv fuzee with me, I foon 
came up to a little clump of flirubs, upon a fvvell- 
ing green knoll, where I obferved fevcral large 
fnakes entwined together. I ftepped up near them ; 
they appeared to be itinocent and peaceable, having 
no inclination to ftrike at any thing, though I en- 
deavoured to irritate them, in order to difcover 
their difpofition ; nor were they anxious to efcape 
from me. Thisfnake is about four feet in length, 
and as thick as a man's wrill ; the upper fide of a 
dirty alli colour} the fquams large, ridged, and 
pointed j the belly or under fide of a reddiih dull 
flefh colour; the tail part not long, but flender, like 
mod other innocent fnakes. They prey on rats, 
land frogs, young rabbits, birds, &c. I left them, 
continuing my piogrefs and refearches, delighted 
with the ample profpefls around and over the fa- 

Stopping again at a natural fhrubbery, on turn- 
ing my eyes to fome flowering Ihrubs, I obferved 
near my feet the furprifing glafs fnake (anguii 
fragilis). It feems as innocent and harmlefs as 
a worm. It is, when full grown, two feet and 

O an 

i^-^ "f RAVELS i}f 

an half in length, and three- fourths of an Inch m 
thicknel's; the abdomen or body part is remarkably 
fhort, and it ieems to be all tail, which, though 
long, gradually attenuates to its extremity, yet noc 
fmall and [lender as in fwitch fnakes. The colour 
and texture of the whole animal is exa6lly like 
bluiih green glafs, which, together with its fragi- 
lity, almoft perfuades a ftranger that it is in rea- 
lity of that brittle iiibftance r but it i^ only the tail 
part that breaks off, which it does like glafs, by a 
very gentle ftroke from a flender fwitch. Though 
k is quick and nimble in twifting about, yet it 
cannot run fafk from one, but quickly fecrets it- 
felf at the bottom of the grafs or under leaves,. 
It is a vulgar fable, that it is able to repair 
itfelf after being broken into feveral pieces ; 
Tvhich pi<?ces, common report fays.» by a power or 
faculty in the animal, voluntarily approach each 
other, join and heal again. The fun now low, 
thot the pointed fhadows of the projefling pro- 
montories far on the fkirts of the lucid green plain : 
flocks of turkeys calling upon their ftrolling aflb- 
ciates, circumfpedly marched onward to the groves 
and high forefts, their nocturnal retreats. Dewy eve 
now arrived. 1 turned about, and regained our en- 
campment in good time. 

The morning cool and pleafant, and the Ikiea 
ferene, v/e decamped, purfuing our progrefs round 
the Alachua favanna. Three of our companions 
feparatin^ from us, went a-head, and v/e foon loft 
fight of them : they again parting on different ex- 
curfions, in queft of game and in learch of their horfes, 
fomc entered the furrounding groves and forefts, 
others ftruck off into the green plains. My compa- 
nion, the old tr.atkr, and myfelf kept together, he 



being the moil: int'jlligent and willing to oblige me. 
We coafted the green verge of the plain, under the 
furroimdin.^ hills, occafionally penetrating and crof- 
fmg the piojefting promontories, as tlie pathway 
or convenicncy di Stated, to avoid ihe waters and 
mud which ftill continued deep and boggy near the 
flecp hills, in fpringy places ; lo that when we came 
to fuch places, we found it convenient to afcend 
and coaft round the fides of the hills, or flirike out 
a little into the favanna, to a moderately fwelling 
ridge, where the ground being dry, and a delight- 
ful green turf, was pleafant travelling; but then we 
were under the necefiity of fording creeks or rivu- 
lets, which are the conduits or drains of the flial- 
low boggy ponds or morafies juft under the hills. 
This range c/ chain of morafies continues round the 
fouth and ibuLh-weil: border of the lavanna, and 
appeared to me to be fed or occafioned by the 
great wet bay-gale or lavanna Pine lands, which lie 
imimediately back of the high hilly forefts on the 
great favanna, part of which we crofled in coming 
from Cufcowilla; which bottom is a flat, level, hard 
fand, lying between the fand ridge of Cufcowilla 
and thefe eminences of the great favanna ; and is a 
vaft receptacle or refervoir of the rain waters, which 
being defended from the a6live and powerful exha- 
lations of the meridian fun, by the fhadow of the 
Pine trees, low fhrubs, and grafs, gradually filter- 
ing through the land, drain dirough thefe liiils, and 
prefent themfelves in innumerable litde meander- 
ing rills, at the bafes of the fliady heights fronting 
the favanna. 

Our progrefs this day was extremely pleafant, 

over the green turf, having in view numerous herds 

of cattle and deer, and fquadrons of horfe, peaceably 

browzing on the tender, fweet grafs, or drolling 

O 2 throush 


thrciigh the cool fragrant groves on the furroundlng 

Befide the continued Orange groves, thefe height? 
abound with Palnns, Magnohas, Red Bays, Liquid- 
ambar, and Fagus fylvatica of incredible magni- 
tude, their truni<s imitating the fhafts of vaft co- 
lumns ; we obferved rafline, Prunus, Vitis la- 
brufcaj Rhamnus volubilis, and delightful groves of 
JEfculus pavia, and PrUnus Caroliniana, a moft 
beautiful evergreen, decorated with its racemes of 
fv/eet, white blofibms. 

Paffing through a great extent of ancient Indian 
fields, now grow n over with forefts of ftately trees. 
Orange groves, and luxuriant herbage, the old 
trader, my afibciate, inform.ed me it was the an- 
cient Alachua, the capital of that famous and power- 
ful tribe, who peopled the hills furroiinding the 
iavanna, when, in days of old, they could affcmble by 
thoufands at ball play and other juvenile diverfions 
and athletic exercifes, over thofe, then happy, fields 
and green plains. And there is no rcafon. to doubt 
of his account being true, as aimoll every Hep we 
take over thofe fertile heights, difcovers remains and 
traces of ancient human habitations and cultiva- 
tion. It is the moil elevated eminence upon the fa- 
vanna; and here the hills defcend gradually to the 
fivanna, by a range cf gentle, graffy banks. Ar- 
riving at a fv»elling green knoll, at fome diftancc 
in the plains, near the banks of a pond, oppofitc 
the old Alachua town, the place appointed for our 
meeting again together, it being near night, our 
alfociatcs foon after joined us, where we lodged. 
Early next morning we continued our tour ; one di- 
vifion of our company directing its courfe acrofs 
ihe pij»His to th€ north coaft ; my old companion, 



Vith myfeirin company, continued cur former roi't, 
coafting the favanna W. and N. VV".; and by ug ce- 
ment we were all to meet again at night, at the ii. 
end of the favanna. 

We continued fome miles croHlng over, from pro- 
montory to promontory, the moll enchanting green 
coves and villas, fcoUoping and indciiting the high 
coafts of the vafl plain. Obferving a company of 
wolves (lupus niger) under a few trees, about a 
quarter of a mile from Ihore, we rode up towards 
them} they obferving our approach, fat on their 
hinder parts until we came nearly within fhot of 
themi, when they trotted oJEF tjwards the forells, 
but Hopped again and locked at us, at about two 
hundred yards dift.ance: we then whooped, and 
made a feint to purfue them ; when they iepar..ted 
from each other, fome llretching off into t!-ie plains, 
and others fceking covert in the groves on ihore. 
When we got to the tree^, we obferved chty ha 1 oeen 
feeding on the carcafe of a horfc. Tne wjl^^es of 
Florida are larger than a dog, and are pcrfcilly 
black, except the females, which have a white fpot 
on the bread ; but they are not fo large as the 
wolves of Canada and Pennfyivania, which are of a 
yellowifh brown colour. 1 here were a number of 
vultures on the trees over the carcaft, who, as foon 
as the wolves ran off, immediacely fett'ed down 
upon it; they were however held in refrraint 
find fubordination by the bald eagle (faico ieu- 

On our route near a long projected point of the 
coaft, we obferved a large dock of turkeys : at 
pur approach thev hallened to the groves, vN'e f ion 
gained the promontory. On die afcenJing nids were 
vtiliges of an ancient Indian town, now overfiia- 
O 3 dowTci 


dowed with groves of the Orange, loaded widi both 
green and ripe fruit, and embelliihed with their 
fragrant bloom, gratifying the tafte, the fight, and 
the fmell at the fame inftant. Leaving this delight- 
ful retreat, we foon came to the verge of the groves, 
when prefented to view a vail verdant bay of the 
favanna. We difcovered a herd of deer feeding at 
a fmall diftance 3 upon the fight of us they ran off*, 
taking fhelter in the groves on the oppofite point 
or cape of this fpacious meadov/. My companions 
being old expert hunters, quickly concerted a plan 
for their defhrudlion. One of our company imme- 
diately ftruck ofi^, obliquely crofTing the meadow for 
the oppofite groves, in order to intercept them, 
if they fhould continue their courfe up the forefl:, to 
the iTjain ; and we croffed llraight over to the point, 
if pofTible to keep them in fight, and watch their 
jnotions, knowing that they would make a ftand 
thereabouts, before they would attempt their lafl 
efcape. On drawing near the point, we flackencd 
our pace, and cautioufly entered the groves ; v/hen 
we beheld them thoughtlefs and fecure, flouncing 
in a fparkling pond; in a green meadow or cove 
bi.-yond the point ; forne were lying down on their 
fides in the cool waters, whilfl: others were pranc- 
ing like young kids; the young bucks in playfome 
fport, v/ith their fiiarp horns hooking and fpurring 
tlie others, urging them to fplafii the water. 

I endeavoured to plead for their lives ; but my 
old friend, though he was a fenfibie rational and 
good fort of, would not yield to my philofo- 
phy. Pe requefied mc to mii.d our horfes, while he 
inade his approaches, cautioufiy gaining ground on 
them, from tree to tree, when they ail fuddenly up and herded together : a princely buck, 
who headed the party, wliiilied and bounded off; 
2 hi* 


!iis retinue followed ; but unfortunately for their 
chief, he led them with prodigious fpeed out to- 
wards the favanna very near us, and when paffing 
by, the lucky old hunter fired and laid him prol- 
trate upon the green turf, but a few yards from us. 
His affiighted followers at the inilant fprang off ia 
every diredion, Itreaming away like meteors or 
phantoms, and we quickly lofb fight of them. He 
opened his body, took out the eniirsils, and placed 
the carcafc in the fork of a tree, caftiiig his frock 
or hunting fhirt over to proteft it from the vultures 
and crows, who follow the hunter as regularly as 
his own ihade. 

Our companions foon arrived. We fet forward 
again, enjoying the like fcenes v/e had already paft j 
obferved parties of Siminole horfes courfing over 
the plains, and frequently faw deer, turkeys, and 
wolves, but they knew their fafety here, keeping 
far enough out of our reach. The wary, fharp- 
fighted crane, circumfpedly obferved our progrefs. 
We faw a female of them fitting on her neft, arid 
the male, her mate, watchfully trave fing back- 
wards and forwards, at a fmall diftance ; they fuf- 
fered us to approach near them before they arofe, 
when they ^read their wings, running and tipping 
the ground with their feet fome time, and then 
mounted aloft, foaring round and round over the 
neft. They fit upon only two €ggs at a time, whicii 
are very large, long^ and pointed at one (^nd, of a 
pale afh colour, powdered or fpecklcd wkh brov/n. 
The manner of forming their neds and fitting is 
very fingular : choofing a tufix>ck, and there forming 
a rude heap of dry grafs, or fuch like materials^ 
near as high as their body is from the ground, whea 
iianding upon their feet, on the fummit of this 
O 4 they 


they form the neft of fine foft dry grafs. When they 
cover their eggs to hatch them, they ftand over them. 
bearing their bodies and wings over the eggs. 

V/e again came up to a long proje<5ling point of 
the high forefts, beyond which opened to view an 
fxtenfive gralTy cove of the fayanna, feveral miles in 
circuit. VVe crofled flraight over from this promon- 
tory to the oppofite coaR, and on the way were con- 
ilrained to wade a mile cr more through the water, 
though at a little diftance from us it appeared as a 
tielightful meadow, the grafs grovv'ing tluough the 
water, the m.iddle of which, however, when we 
came up, proved to be a large fpace of clear water, 
aimoft deep enough to fwim our horfes ; it being a 
large branch of the main creek which drains the fa-r 
vanna After getting through this morafs, we arrived 
on a delightful, levt^l, green meadow, as ufual, 
which continued about a mile, when we reached 
the firm land j and then gradually afcending, we 
alighted on a hard fandy beach, which exhibited evi- 
dent figns of being waflied by the waves of the f.ivan- 
na, when in the v/inter feafon it is all under water, 
ard then prtftnts the appearance of a large lake. 
The coaft here is much lower than the ( ppofite fide, 
which we had left behind us, and rifes from the 
meadows with a gradual Hoping afcent, covered 
fcatteringly with low fpreading Live Oaks, fliort 
Palms, Zanthoxylon, Laurus Borbonia, CalTine, Si- 
deroxylin, Quercus nigra, (^ finuata, and others ; 
all leaning fr„m the bleak winds that opprcfs them. 
About one hundred yards back from this beach, the 
fand hills gradually rife, and the open pine fo- 
refts appear. We coafted a mile or two along the 
beach, then doubled a promontory of high forefts, 
and foon after cam^e to a Iwift running brook of 



clear water, rolling over gravel and white ilmd, 
which being brought along with it, in its defcent 
down the deeper fandy be^ch, formed an eafy fwell- 
ing bank or bar. The waters fpread g.eatly at this 
place, exhibiting a fhallow glittering fheet of clear 
water, but jufl; fufficient continually to cover the 
clear gravelly bed, and feemed to be funk a little 
below the common furface of the beach. This 
ftream, however, is foon feparated into a number of 
rivulets, by fmall fandy and gravelly ridges ; and the 
waters are finally ftolen away from the fight, by a 
charming green meadow, but again fccretly uniting 
under the tall grafs, form a little creek, meandering 
through the turfy plain, marking its courfe by reeds 
and rufhes, which Spring up from its banks, joining 
the main creek that runs through the favanna, and 
at length delivers the water into the Great Sink. 
Proceeding about a mile farther, we came up to 
and croffcd another brook, larger than the former, 
which exhibited the like delightful appearance. 
We next paiTed over a level green lawn, a cove 
of the favanna, and arrived at a hilly grove, Wc 
alighted in a pleafant vifta, turning our horfes to 
graze, while we amufcd ourfelves with exploring the 
borders of the Great Sink In this place a group 
of rocky hills almoft furrounds a large bafon, which 
is the general receptacle of the water, draining from 
every part of the vaft favanna by lateral conduits, 
winding about, and one after another joining the 
main creek or general conductor, which at length 
delivers them into this fink ; where they defcend by 
flow degrees, through rocky caverns, into the bow- 
els of the earth, whence they are carried by fecret 
fubterraneous channels iqto other receptacles and 


We afcended a colledlion of eminences, covered 
with dark groves, which is one point of the crefcent 
that partly encircles the fink or bafon, open only on 
the fide next the favanna, where it is joined to the 
crreat channel or general conductor of the waters. 
From this point over to the opponre point of the 
crefcent (which is a fimilar high rocky promontory) 
is about one hundred yards, forming a vaft femi- 
circulir cove or baibn, the hills encircling it rifmg 
very ftecp fifty or fixty feet high, rocky, perpen- 
dicular, and bare of earth next the waters of the ba- 
fon. Thefe hills, from the top of the perpendicular, 
fluted, excavated walls of rock, flant off moderat^^ly 
up to their fummics, and are covered with a very 
fertile, loofe, black earth, which nourifhes and fup- 
ports a dark grove of very large trees, varieties of 
ihrubs and herbaceous plants. Thefe high foreft 
trees furrounding the bafon, by their great height 
and fpread, fo elredually Jhade the waters, that 
coming fuddenly from the open plains, we feem at 
once ihut up in darknefs, and the waters appear 
black, yet are clear. When we afcend the top of 
the hills, we perceive the ground to be uneven, by 
round fwelling points and correfponding hollows, 
overfpread with gloomy fhade, occafioned by the taH 
and fpreading trees, fuch as live oak, morus rubra, 
zanrhoxylon, fapindus, liquidambar, t'lia, laurus 
bo-.bonia, quercus dentata, juglans cinerea, and 
others, together with orange trees of remarkable 
magnitude and very fruitful. But that which is moil 
fint2,ular, and to me unaccountable, is the infundibu- 
liform cavities, even on the top of thefe high hills, 
fome twenty, thirty, and forty yards acrofs, at their 
fuperficial rims exa6lly circular, as if ftruck with a 
compafs, Hoping gradually inwards to a point at bot- 


torn, forming an invened cone, or like the upper 
wide part of a funnel : the pei-pendiciilar depth of 
them from the common furface is various, fom^e de- 
fcending twenty feet deep, others almoft to the bed 
of rocks, which forms tlie foundation or nucleus of 
the hiils, and ind'tcd of the whole country of Eaft 
Florida: fome of them feem to be nearly filled up 
wich earth, fvvept in trom the coiv.mon fjrface, but 
retain the lame uniformity ; though fometimes fo 
clofe together as to be broken one into another. 
But as I fnall have occafion to fpeak further of theic 
fmks in the earth hereafter, I turn my obfervation 
to other objeds in view round about me. In anc] 
about the Great Sink, are to be feen incredible num- 
bers of crocodiles, fome of which arc of an enormous 
fize, and view the pailenger with incredible impu- 
dence and avidity ; and at this time they are fo abun- 
dant, that, if permitted by them, I could walk over 
any part of the bafon and the river upon their heads, 
v/hich flowly float and turn about hke knotty chunks 
or logs of wood, except v/hen they plunge or flioot 
forward to beat off their afibciates, prelling too ciofe 
to each other, or taking up filli, which continually 
crowd in upon them from die river and creeks 
dr-aining from the favanna, efpecially the great trour, 
mudfiih, catfifli, and the various ipecies of bream: 
the gar are rather too hard fjr their jaws and rough 
for their throats, efpecially here, where they have a 
fu peril uous pler^ty and variety of thofe that are every 
way preferable : beHdeSj the gar being, like them- 
felves, a warlike voracious creature, they feem to be? 
in league or confederacy together, to enflave *intl 
devour the numerous delencclefs tribes. 

It is aflonifning and incredible, perhaps, I may 
lay^ to relate what unfpeakable numbers of fifh re-. 



pair to this fatal fountain or receptacle, during the 
latter fummer feafon and autumn, when the power- 
ful fun-beams have evaporated the waters oiF the 
favanna ; where thofe who are fo fortunate as to ef- 
feft a retreat into the condudor, and efcape the de- 
vouring jaws of the fearful alligator and armed gar, 
defcend into the earth through the wells and cavities 
or vafc perforations of the rccksj and from thence 
are conduced and carried away, by fv^cret fubtcrra- 
nean conduits and gloomy vaults, to other difcant 
lakes and rivers. And it does not appear 
bable, but that in feme future day this vaft favanna 
or lake of waters in the v/inter lealon will h: difco- 
vered to he in a great meafure filled wiih its finny 
inhabitants, who are ftrangers or adventureis from 
other lakes, ponds, and rivers, by fubterranecus ri- 
vulets and communications to this rocky, daik door 
or cutler, whence they afcend to its furface, fpread 
over and people the winter lake, where they breed, 
increafe, and continue as long as it is under water, 
or during pleafure, for they are at all feafons ro be 
feen afcending and defcending through the rocks 1 
but towards the autumn, vv'hen the waters have al- 
moft left the plains, they then crowed to the fink in 
fuch multitudes, as at times to be {can prelfing on 
in great banks into the bafon, being urged by pur- 
fuing bands of alligators and gar, and when entciing 
the great bafon or fink, are fuddenly fallen upon by 
another arrry of the fame devouring cncm.ies, lying 
in wait for them. Thoufands are driven on fhorc, 
where they perilh and rot in banks, which was evi- 
dent at the time I was there, the ftench being into- 
lerable, although then early in the himmer. Ihere 
^re three great doors or vent holes through the rocks 
in the fmk, two near the centje and the ether one 
jpear the rim, much higher up than the oiher t^vo, 
? which 


which was confpiciious through the clear water. 
The beds of rocks lay in horizontal thick ftrata or 
laminse, one over the other, where the fink holes or 
outlets are. Thefe rocks are perforated by perpen- 
dicular wells or tubes, four, five, and fix feet in 
diamece'*, exactly circular as the tube of a cannon 
or a wailed well ; many of thefe are broken iato one 
another, forming a great ragged orifice, appearing 
fluted by alternate jambs and femicircular perpendi- 
cular niches or excavations. 

Having fatisfied my curiofity in viewing this ex- 
traordinary place and very wonderful work of na- 
ture, we repaired to our refting place, where we 
found our horfes and m.ounted again ; one of the 
company parted from us for the buck that we had 
lliot ami left in the fork of the tree. My friend, the 
old trader, led the iliortefb way acrofs the plain, 
after repalfing the wet morafs which had almoft 
fwum our horfes in the morning. At evening we 
arrived at the place of our deftination, where our 
affociaces foon after rejoined us with fome Indians^ 
who were merry agreeable guefts as long as they 
ftaid. They were in full drefs and painted; but 
before dark they mounted their horfes, which were 
of the true Siminole breed, fet fpurs to them, ut- 
tering all at once a fhrill whoop, and went off for 

Though the horned cattle and horfes bred in 
thefe meadows are large, fleck, fprig'itly, and as: 
fat as can be in general, yet they are fubject to mor- 
tal difeafes. I obfervcd feveral of them dreadfully, 
mortified, their thighs and haunches ulcerated, raw, 
and bleeding, which, like a mortification or flow, 
cancer, at length puts an end to their miferablc 
«xi{lence. The traders and Indians call this dif- 


20^ TRAVELS m 

eafe the water- rot or fcald, and fay it is occafioned 
by the warm waters of the favanna, during the heats 
of fummer and autumn, when thefe creatures wade 
deep to feed on the water-grafs, which they are im-- 
modera'.ely fond of; whereas the cattle which only 
feed and range in the high forcfts and pine favannas 
are clear of this diforder. A facrifice to intemper- 
ance and luxury. 

We had heavy rains during the night, and though 
very warm, yet no thunder and very little wind. It 
cleared away in the morning, and the day was very 
pleafant. Sat off for the Eaft end of die favanna, 
collefting by the way and driving before us parties of 
horfes, the property of the traders ; and next morn- 
ing fat off on our return to the lower {lore on St. 
John's, coalling the favanna yet a few miles, in ex- 
pedlation of finding the remainder of their horfes, 
though dilappointed. 

"We at laft bid adieu to the magnificent plains of 
Alachua, entered the pine forefts, and foon fell into 
the eld Spanifli highway, from St. Auguftine acrofs 
the iilhmus of Florida, to St Mark's in the bay of 
Apalache. Its courfe and diftance from E. to W. 
is, from St. Auguftine to Fort Picolata on the river 
St. Juan, twenty-feven miles; thence acrofs the 
river to the Poopoa Fort, three miles ; dience to 
the Alach'ja Savanna, forty-five miles j thence to 
Taiahafochte on the river Little St. Juan, feventy- 
five miles ; thence down this river to St. Mark's, 
thirty miles : the whole diftance from St. Auguftine 
to St. Mark's, one hundred and eighty miles. But 
this road having been unfrequented for many years 
paft, fince the Creeks fubdued the remnant tribes 
of the ancient Floridans, and drove the Spaniards 
from their fetdements in Eaft Florida into St. Au- 


^ftine, which efFeftually cut off their communica- 
tion between that garrifon and St. Mark's j this an- 
cient highway is grown up in many places with trees 
and ihrvibs ; but yet has left fo deep a track on the 
furface of the earth, that it may be traced for ages 
yet to come. 

Leaving the highway on our left hand, we afcended 
a fandy ridge, thinly planted by nature with (lately 
pines and oaks, of the latter genus particularly q. 
linuata, f. flammula, q. nigra, q. rubra. Faffed by 
an Indian village fituated on this high airy fand 
lidge, confifting of four or five habitations ; none 
of the people were at home, they were out at their 
hunting camps j we obferved plenty of corn in their 
cribs. Following a hunting path eight or nine miles, 
through a vaft pine forefl and graffy favanna, well 
timbered, the ground covered with a charming car- 
pet of various flowering plants, came tq a large 
creek of excellent water, and here we found the en- 
campment of the Indians, the inhabitants of the little 
town we had paffed ; we faw their v/omen and chil- 
dren, the men being out hunting. The women pre- 
fented themfelves to our view as we came up, at the 
door of their tents, veiled in their rnande, modcllly 
fhowing their faces, when we faluted them. Towards 
the evening we fell into the old trading path, and 
before night came to camp at the Halfway Pond. 
Next morning, after collediing together the horfes. 
Tome of which had fti-olled av^ay ara great dilhnce, 
we purfued our journey, and in the evening arrived 
at the trading houfe on St. Juan's, from a luccefsful 
and pleafant tour. 

On my return to the ftore on St. Juan's the trad- \ 
kig ichooner was there i but as (he was not to re- 

io8 TRAVELS tit 

turn to Georgia until the autumn, I found I Had 
time to purfue my travels in Florida, and might at 
leifure plan my excurfions to colled feeds and roots 
in boxes, &c. 

At this time the tilks (or meffages between the 
Indian: and white people) were perfcclly peace:^ble 
and friendly, both with the Lower Creeks and the 
Nation or Upper Creeks. Parties -f Indians were 
coming in tvery day with rhei. hunts j indeed rhe- 
Mufcogiilges or Upper Creeks very fddom difiiirb 
us. , Bnd uiks from the Nation are always very fe- 
ricus affairs, ;md to ihe ut'.rioft degree aUnniiig to 
the vhice inhabitants. 

The Mufcogulges are under a more ftri6t gcvern- 
ment or regular civilization than the Indi:ins in ge- 
neial. They lie near their potent i\rA declared 
enemy, the Chaftaws. Their country having a valt 
frontier, naturally acccfllble and open to the incur- 
fions ol their enemies on ail fidts, they find them- 
felves undei the necLfTity of J:ffociating in large po- 
pulous towns, and thcfc towns as near together as 
convenient, that they may be enabled to fuccoiir and 
defend one another in cafe of fudden invafion. This 
confequenrly occafions deer and bear to be fcarce 
and difficult to procure, which obliges them to be 
vigilant and induiirious; this naturally begets care 
and ferious attention, which we may fuppofe in foma 
degree forms their natural difpofitk n and manners, 
and gives them that air of dignified gravity, fo ftrik- 
ingly charatleriftic in their aged people, and that 
fteadinefs, jufb and cheerful reverence in the middle- 
aged and youth, which fits fo eafy upon them, and 
appears fo natural. For, however llrange it may 
appear to us, the fame inpral duties which with us 



form the amiable, virtuous chara6ler, fo difficult to 
maintain there, without compulfion or vifible re- 
(Iraint, operates like inflinft, with a furprifing har- 
mony and natural eaf-, infomuch that it feems im- 
poffible for them to aft out of the common high road 
to virtue. 

We will now take a view of the Lower Creeks or 
Siminoles, and the natural difpofition which charac- 
terifes this people ; when, from the (Iriking contrail, 
the philofopher may approve or di [approve, as he 
may th'nk proper, from the judgment and opinion 
given by different men. 

The Siminoles are but a v/eak people with relpecft 
to numbers. All of them, I fuppofe, vvould not be 
fufficient to people one of the towns in the Mufco- 
gulge ; for inftance, the Uches on the main branch 
of the Apalachucla river, which alone contains near 
two thoufand inhabitants. Yet this handful of people 
pofTefles a vaft territory ; all Eafl: Florida and the 
greateft part of Weft Florida, which b.-ing naturally 
cut and divided into thoufands of iflets, knolls, and 
eminences, by the innumerable rivers, lakes, fwamps, 
vaft favannas and ponds, form fo many ftcure re- 
treats and temporary dwelling places, that cffeclualiy 
guard them from any fuddcn invafions or attacks 
from their enemies ; and bcfing fuch a fwampy, hom- 
mocky country, furnilhes fuch a plenty and variety 
offupplies for the nourifhment of varieties of ani- 
mals, that I can venture to affert, that no part of the 
globe (b abounds with wild game or creatures fit for 
the food of man. 

Thus they enjoy a fupe^ibundance of the necef- 
faries and conveniencies of life, with the fecurity 
of perfon and property, the two great concerns of 

P mankind. 

iio TRAVELS I^r 

mankind. Tl^e hides of deer, bears, tigers and 
wolves, together with honey, wax and other pro- 
dtiftions of the country, purchafe their cloathing, 
equipage, and domeftic utenfils from the whites. 
They fcem to be free from want or defires. No 
cruel enemy to dread ; nothing to give thera dif- 
quietude, but the gradual encroachments of the 
white people. Thus contented and undifturbed, 
they appear as blithe and free as the birds of the 
air, and like them as volatile and aflivC; tuneful 
and vociferous. The vifage, a6lion, and deport- 
ment of the Siminoles, form the moil ftrikingpifture 
of happinefs in this life ; joy, contentment, love, 
and friendfhip, without guile or affeftation, feem 
inherent in them, or predominant in their vital prin- 
ciple, for it leaves them but with the laft breath of 
life. It even feems impofing a conftraint upon their 
ancient chiefs and fenators, to maintain a necefiary 
decorum and folemnity, in their pubhc councils ; 
not even the debility and decrepitude of extreme old 
age, is fufficient to erafe from their vifages this 
youthful, joyous fimplicicy ; but, like the gray eve 
of a ferene and calm day, a gladdening, cheering 
bluili remains on the Weftern horizon after the fun 
is fet. 

I doubt not but fome of my countrymen who 
may read thefe accounts of the Indians, which I have 
endeavoured to relate according to truth, at leaft as 
they appeared to me, will charge me with partiality 
or prejudice iailieir favour. 

I will, however, now endeavour to exhibit their 
vices, im.morarities, and imperfedlions, from my 
own obfervations and knowledge, as well as ac- 
counts from the white traders, who refide amongft 



The Indians make war againll:, kill, and dellroy 
their own fpecies, and their motives Ipring from 
the fame erroneous fource as they do in all odier 
nations of mankind ; that is, the amibition of exhi- 
biting to their fellows a fuperior character of pcr- 
fonal and national valour, and thereby immorta- 
lizing; themfelves, bv tranfmittinEi; their names with 
honour and luftre to poffcerity ; or revenge of 
their enemy, for public or perfonal infults ; or, laft- 
Xji to extend the borders and boundaries of their 
territories. But I cannot find, upon the ftiiilefl: in- 
quiry, that their bloody contells at this day are 
marked with deeper llains of inhumanity or favage 
cruelty, than what may be obferved amongft the 
moft civilized nations : they do indeed fcalp their 
flain enemy, but they do not kill the females or chil- 
dren of either fex : the moll ancient traders, both in 
the Lower and Upper Creeks, aflured me they ne- 
ver faw an inftance of either burning or tormenting 
their male captives ; though it is faid they ufed to 
do it formerly. I faw in every tov.'n in the Nation 
and Siminoles that 1 vifitedj more or lefs male cap- 
tives, fome extremely aged, who were free and in as 
good circumftances as their mafters ; and all flaves 
have their freedom when they marry, which is per- 
mitted and encouraged, when they and their offspring 
are every way upon an equality with their conquer- 
ors. They are given to adulteiy and fornication^ 
but, I fuppofe, in no greater excefs than other na- 
tions of men. They punifii the delinquents, male 
and female, equally alike, by taking off their ears. 
This is the punifnment for adulter/. Infamv and 
difgrace is fuppofed to be a fufHcient puniHiment for 
fornication, in either fcx. 

They are fond of games and gambling, and amufe 
P 2 themlelves 


themfelves like children, in relating extravagant fVo- 
ries, to caufe furprife and mirth. 

They wage eternal war againll deer and bear, to 
procure food and cloathing, and other necelTaries and 
conveniences ; which is indeed carried to an unrea- 
fonable and perhaps criminal excefs, fince the white 
people have dazzled their fenfes with foreign fuper- 




On my return to the trading houll^, from my 
iourney to the great favanna, I found the trading 
company for Little St. Juan's preparing for that 

My mind yet elate with the various fccnes of ru- 
ral nature, which as a lively anim.ated pitSlure had 
been prefented to my view; the deeply engraven 
impreflion, a pleafing flattering contemplation, gave 
ftrengch and agility to my fleps, anxioufly to prefs 
forward to the delightful fields and groves of Apa- 

The trading com.pany for Talahafochte being 
now in readinefs to proceed for that quarter, under 
the direftion of our chief trader, in the cool of the 
morning we fat off, each of us having a good horfe 
to ride, b(;fides having in our caravan feveral pack- 
horfes laden with provifions, camp equipage, an4 
other neceflaries. A young man from St. Auguf- 
tine, in the fervice of the governor of Eail: Florida, 
accompanied us, commiiTioned to purchafe of the 
Indians and traders fome Siminole horfes. They 
are the mod beautiful and fprightly fpecies of that 
noble creature, perhaps any where to be feen ; but 
are of a fmall breed, and as delicately formed as the 
American roe-buck, A horfc in the Creek or Muf- 
cogulge tongue is echoclucco, that is the great 
deer (echo is a deer, and clucco is big). The Simi- 
iiole horfes are faid to defcend originally from tiie 

P 3 Andalufian 


Andalufian breed, brought here by the Spaniards 
when they firil: eftabhfhed the colony of Eaft Flo- 
rida. From the forehead to their nofe is a little 
arched or aquiline, and fo are the fine Chaftaw 
horfes among the Upper Creeks, which are faid 
to have been brought thither from New-Mexico 
acrofs MiiTifippi, by thofs nations of Indians who 
emigrated from the Weft, beyond the river. Thefe 
horfes are every where like the Siminole breed, only 
k.rger, and perhaps not fo lively and capricious. 
It is a m.atter of con:e6lure and inquiry, whether 
or not the different foil and fituation of the country 
may have contributed in fome meafure, in forming 
and eftablifhing the difference in fize and other qua- 
lities betwixt them. I have obferved the horfes and 
other animals in the high hilly country of Carolina, 
Georgia, Virginia, and all along our fliores, are of 
a much larger and ilrongc r make, than thofe which 
are bred in the fiat country next the fea coaft. A 
buck-fidn of the Upper Creeks and Cherokees will 
weigh twice as heavy as thofe of the Siminoles or 
Lower Creeks, and thofe bred in the low flat coun^ 
try of Carolina. 

Our firft day's journey was along the Alachua 
roads, twenty-five m'ncs to the Half-way Pond, 
where we encamped : the mufquitoes were excef- 
lively trpublefome the whole night. 

Decamped early next morning, frill purfuing the 
road to Alachua, until within a few miles of Cufco- 
vvilla ; when the read dividing, one tor the town, anc^ 
the other for the great favanna, here our company 
feparated. One party chofe to pafs through the 
town, having fome concerns there. I kept with the 
party diat went through the ilviwnih ic being the 



befl: road, leading over a part of the favanna; when 
entering the groves on its borders, we travelled 
feveral miles over thel'e fertile eminences, and de- 
lightful Ihady fragrant forefts; then again entered 
upon the favanna, and crolled a charming exten- 
five green cove or bay of it, covered with a vivid 
green gralfy turf, when we again afcended the wood- 
land hills, through fruitful orange groves, and un- 
der fhadowy palms and magnolias. Now the pine 
forefts opened to view. We left the magnificent 
favanna and its delightful groves, paffing through 
a level, open, airy pine foreft, the ftately trees 
fcatneringly planted by nature, arifing ftraight and 
erecl from the green carpet, embellilhed with va- 
rious graffes and flowering plants ; then gradually 
afcending the fand hills, we foon came into the trading- 
path to Talahafochte ; which is generally, except- 
ing a few deviations, the old Spanifh highway to 
St Mark's. At about five miles diftance beyond the 
great favanna, we came to camp late in the even- 
ing, under a httle grove of live oaks, juft by a group 
of (helly rocks, on the banks of a beautiful litde 
lake, partly environed by meadows. The rocks, 
as ufual in thefe regions, partly encircle a ipacious 
unk or gro:to, which communicates with the waters 
of the lake : the waters of the grotto are perfe6tly 
tranfparent, cool, and ple?.fant, and well repleniihed 
with fiih. Soon after our arrival here, our compa- 
nions who pafled through Cufcowilla joined us. A 
briflc cool wind during the night kept the perfecu- 
ting mufquitoes at a diftance. 

The morning pleafant, we decamped early : pro- 
ceeding on, rifing gently for feveral miles, over 
iandy, gravelly ridges, we found ourfclves in an ele- 

P 4 vated, 


vated, hig^i, open, airy region, fomewhat rocky, 
on the backs of the ridges, which prefented to view, 
on every iide, the moil dreary, folitary, defcrt wafte 
I had ever beheld ; groups of bare rocks emerging 
out of the naked gravel and drifts of white fand ; 
the grafs thinly fcattv^red and but few trees ; the 
pines, oaks, olives, and fideroxylons, poor, mifha- 
pen, and ti'teredj fcarce an animal to be feen, or 
noifc he:rd, fiive the fymphony of the Weilern 
breeze, through the brifiiy pine leaves, or folitary 
fand-cncket's fcreech, or at beft the more focial 
converfe of the frogs, in folemn chcrus with the fwifc 
breeze>, brought from difcant fens and forefls. Next 
we joyfully entered the borders of the level pine foreft 
andfavannas which continued for many miles, never 
out of fight of little lakes or ponds, environed with 
illumined meadows, the clear waters fparkling 
through the tall pines. 

Flaving a good fpirited hcrfe under me, I gene- 
rally kept a-head of my companions, which I often 
chofe to do, as circumftances offered or invited, for 
the f^ke of retirement and obfervation. 

The high road being here open and fpacious, at 
a good diftance before me, I obferved a large hav/k 
on the ground in the middle of the road : he feem- 
cd to be in diiirels endeavouring to rife ; when, 
coming up near him, I found him c'.ofely bound up 
by a very long coach- whip fnake, that had wreath* 
ed himfelf fcveral times round the hawk's body, 
who had but one of his wings at liberty : behold- 
ing their itruggles a while, I alighted off my horfe 
v;ith an intentir.n of parting them ; when, on com- 
ing up, they mutually agreed to fcparate them- 
felvcSj each one feeking his own l^^fety, probably 




confidering me as their common enemy. The bird 
rofe alofc and fled away as Toon as he recovered 
his liberty, and the fnake as eagerly made off. I 
foon overtook him, but could not perceive that he 
was wounded. 

I fuppofe the hawk had been the aggrefibr, and 
fell upon the fnake with an intention of making 
a prey of him ; and that the fnake dexteroufly and 
luckily threw himfelf in coils round his body, and 
girded him fo clofe as to hvc iiimlelf from de- 

The coach-whip fnake is a beautiful crea- 
ture. When full grown it is fix and fevcn feet 
in length, and the largett pare of its body not fo 
thick as a cane or common walking-itick ; its 
head not larger than the end of a man's fi^igers 
its neck is very (lender, and rrom the abdomen 
tapers away in the manner o( a fmail fwirch or 
coach-whip ; the top of che head and nrck, for three 
or four inches, is as black and Ihining as a raven; 
the throat and belly as white as fnovv ; and the up- 
per fide ot the body of a chocolate colour, ex- 
cepting the tail part, almoft from the abdom'en to 
the excrcmity, wnich is black. It may be proper to 
obfcrve, however, that it varies in rclpeil to the 
colour ot the body ; fome I have feen almoft white 
or cream colour, others of a pa:e chocolate or clay 
colour, but in all, the head and neck is black, 
and the tail dark brown or black. It is extremely 
fwifr, feeming almoft to fly over the furface of 
the ground ; and that which is very fi;.gular, it 
can run fwiftiy on its tail part only, carrying 
the head and boJy upright. One very fine one ac- 
companied me along cne road fide, at a little dif- 
tance, railing himfelf ered^ now and then looking 



me in the face, although I proceeded on a good 
round trot on purpofe to obfcrve how fail they could 
proceed in that pofition. His objeft feemed mere 
curiofity or cbfervaticn j with refpect to venom 
it is as innocent as a v.ornij and leems to be familiar 
with man. It appears to be a particular inhabi- 
tant of Eaft Florida, though I have feen fome 
in the maritime parts of Carolina and Georgia, 
but in thefe regions it is neither fo large nor 

We afcended again, pafiing over fand ridges of 
gentle elevation, lavannas and open Pine forefls. 
MalTes or groups of rocks prefented to view on 
every fide, as before mentioned; and with difficulty 
we efcaped the circular infundibuliform cavities or 
finks in the furfice of the earth. Generally a group 
of rocks, fhaded by Palms, Live Oaks, and Magno- 
lias, is fituated on their limb : fom.e are partly filled 
■up v/ith earth, whilft others, and the greater num- 
ber of them, are partly filled with tranfparent cool 
water, which discovers the well or perforation 
through the rocks in the centre. This day being 
remarkably fultry, we came to camp early, hav- 
ing chofen our fituation under fome ftately Pines, 
near the verge of a fpacious favanna. 

After fome refrefliment, our hunters went out 
into the foreft, and returned towards evening. A- 
mongft other game, they brought v/ith them a fa- 
vanna crane ""'^ which they fnot in the adjoining mea- 
dows. Tliis ftately bird is about fix feet in length 
from die tecs to the extremity of the beak when 
extended, and the wings expand eight or nine feet; 
it is above five feet high when Handing erefti the 
tail is remarkably fliort, but the flag or pendant 

• Gins p. 



feathers which fall down off the rump on each n:!e, 
are very long and fharp pointed, of a delicate tex- 
ture, and filky foftnefs ; the beak is very long, ftraight 
and fharp pointed ; the crown of the head bare of 
feathers, of a reddilli rofe colour, thinly barbed 
with fhort, ftiff, black hairi the legs and thighs are 
very long, and bare of feathers a great fpace above 
the knees : the plumage of this bird is generally 
of a pale afh colour, with jfhades or clouds of pale 
brown and fi^y blue, the brown prevails on the 
Ihoulders and back ; the barrels ol the prime quill- 
feathers are long and of a large diameter, leaving 
a large cavity when extracted from the : all 
the bones of this bird have a thin fhell, and confe- 
quently a large cavity or medullary receptacle. 
When thefe birds move their wingb in flight, their 
flrokes are flow, moderate, and regular ; and even, 
when at a confiderable diftance or high above us, 
we plainly hear the quill- feathers, their fliafts and 
webo upon one another creak as the joints or 
■working of a vefTei li a tempeftuous fea. 

We had this fowl dreffed for fupper, and it made 
excellent foup J neverthelefs, as long as I can get 
any other neceffary food, I fliall prefer their feraphic 
mufic in the etiicreal fkies, and my eyes and under- 
flanding gratified in obfrrving their economy and 
focial communities, in the expanfive green favannas 
of Florida. 

Next morning we arofe early, and proceeding, 
gradually defcended again, and continued many 
miles along a fiat, level country, over delightful 
green favannas, decorated with hommocks or iflets 
of dark groves, confiding of Magnolia grandifiora, 
Morus t iia, Zanthoxylon, Laurus Borbonia, Side- 
roxylon, Quercusfempervirens,Haletiadiptera, Cal- 
hcarpa, Corypha palma, &c. There are always groups 



of whItilTi teflaceous rocks and finks where thefe 
hommocks are. We next crofled a wet favanna, 
which is the beginning of a region ftiil lower than 
that we had traverfeds here we crofled a rapid rivulet 
of exceeding cool, pleafant water, where we halt- 
ed to refrefh ourfelvcs. But it muft be remarked 
here, that this rivuler, though lively and rapid at this 
time, is not a permanent ftream, but was formed by 
a heavy rain that fell the day before, as was appa- 
rent from its bed ^ befides it is at beft but a jet or 
mere phantom of a brook, as the land around is 
rocky and hollow, abounding with wells and cavities. 
Soon after leaving the brook, wepafled off to the left 
hand, along the verge of an extenfive favanna, and 
meadows many miles in circumference, edged on one 
border with detached groves and pompous Palms, 
and embelhfhed with a beautiful fparkling lake; 
its verges decorated with tall waving grafs and 
floriferous plants; the pellucid waters gently roll- 
ing on to a dark Ihaded grotto, juft under a femi- 
circular fweliing turfy afcent or bank, fkirted uy 
groves of Magnolias, Oaks, Laurel.i, and Palms. In 
thefe expanfive and delightful m.eadows were feed- 
ing and roving troops of the fleet Siminole horfe. 
We halted a while at this grotto; and, after refrefli- 
Ing ourfeives, we mounted liorfe, and proceeded 
acrofs a charming lav/n, part of the favanna, enter- 
ing on it th.rough a dark grove. In this extenflve 
lawn were feveral troops of horfe, and our company 
had the latisfadion of obfervincr feveral belons;- 
ing to themfelves. One occurrence remarkable 
here, was a troop of horle under the controul and 
care of a Angle black dog, which feemed to difixfr 
in no refped from the wolf of Florida, except his 
being able to bark as the commion dog. He was 
very careful and induftrious in keeping them toge- 
ther J 


ther ; and if any one ftroUed from the reft at too 
o-reat a diilance, the dog would fpring up, head 
the horfe, and bring him back to the company. The 
proprietor of thefe horfes is an Indian in TaUiha- 
fochte, about ten miles diftance from this place, 
who, out of humour and experiment, trained his 
dog up from a puppy to this bufinefs : he follows 
his mafter's horfes only, keeping them in a feparatc 
company where they range ; and vvhen he is hungiy 
or wants to fee his mailer, in the evening he re- 
turns to town, but never ftays at home a night. 

The region we had journeyed through, fince we 
decamiped this morning, is of a far better foil and 
quality than we had yet feen fince v/e left Alachua; 
generally a dark grayifli, and fonietimes brown or 
black loam, on a foundation of whitifh marl, chalk, 
and teftaceous limeftone rocks, and ridges of a loofe, 
coarfe, reddilh fand, producing ftately Pines in the 
plains, and Live Oak, Mulberry, Magnolia, Palm., 
Zanthoxylon, &c. in the hommocks, and alfo in great: 
plenty the perennial Indigo; it grows here five, fix, 
and feven feet high, and as thick together as if in 
had been planted and cultivated. The higher ridges 
of hills afford great quantities of a fpecles of 
iron ore, of tha: kind found in New-Jerfey and 
Pennfylvania, and there called bog ore ; it ap- 
pears on the furface of the ground in large detach- 
ed mafTes and fmalier fragments ; it is ponderous, 
and feemed rich of that mioft ufeful miCtal ; but one 
property remarkable in thefe terrigenous ftones is, 
that they appear to be biiftered, fomewhat refcm- 
bhng cinders, or as if they had fuitered a violent 
adion of fire. 

Le .ving the charming favanna and fields of Capo-" 

la_, we palfed feveral miles through de ighLl'il plains 

5 and 


and meadows, little differing from the environs of 
Capola, divfrfified with rocky iflets or hommocks 
of dark woodland. 

We next entered a vaft foreft of the moft ftately 
Pine trees that can be imagined, planted by na- 
ture, at a moderate diftance, on a level, praffy plain, 
enamelled with a variety of flowering fhriibs, viz. 
"Viola, Ruella infundibuliforma, Amaryllis ata- 
mafco, Mimofa fenfitiva, Mimofa intfia and many 
others new to me. This fublime fortft continued 
five or fix miles, when v/e came to dark groves of 
Oaks, Magnolias, Red bays, Mulberries, &c. through 
which proceeding near a mile, we entered open 
fields, and arrived at the town of Talahafochte, on 
the banks of Little St. Juan. 

The river Little St. Juan may, with fmgular 
propriety, be termed the pellucid river. The wa- 
ters are the cleared and pureft of any river I ever 
faw, tranfmitting diftinftly the natural form and 
appearance of the objefts moving in the tranfparent 
floods, or repofing on the filvery bed, with the finny 
inhabitants fporting in its gently flowing ftream. 

The river at the town is about two hundred yards 
over, and fifteen or twenty feet in depth. The 
great fwam.p and lake Oaquaphenogaw is faid to be 
its fource, which is about one hundred miles by land 
North of this place ; which vv/ould give the river a 
courfe of near two hundred miiles from its fource 
to the fea, to follow its meanders ; as in general 
our rivers that run any confiderable difl:ance through 
the country to the fea, by their windings and rov- 
ing about to find a pafllige through the ridges and 
heights, at leaft double their diilance. 

The Indians and traders fay tliat this river has no 



branches or collateral brooks or rivers tributary to 
it, but that it is fed or augmented by great Iprings 
which break out through the banks. From the ac- 
counts given by them, and my own obfervations on 
the country round about, it leems a probable af- 
fertion ; for there was not a creek or rivulet to be 
feen, running on the furface of the ground, from 
the great Alachua Savanna to diis river, a diftance 
of above feventy miles; yet, perhaps, no part of the 
earth affords a greater plenty of pure, falubrious 
waters. The unparalleled tranfpar^ncy of thefe wa- 
ters furniflies an argument for fuch a conjefture, 
that amounts at leait to a probability, were it noc 
confirmed bv ocular demonflration ; for in all the 
t^at countries of Carolina and Florida, except this 
ifthmus, the waters of the rivers are, in fome degree, 
turgid, and have a dark hue, owing to the annual 
firing of the forefts and plains ; and afterwards the 
heavy rains wafhing the light furface of the burnt 
earth into rivulets, which rivulets running ra- 
pidly over the furface of the earth, flow into 
the rivers, and tinge tlie waters th^e colour of 
lye or beer, almoK down to the tide near the lea 
coaft. But here behold how different the appear- 
ance, and how manifeft the caufe ! for although the 
furface of the ground produces the fame vegetable 
lubfiances, the foil the fame, and fuffers in like 
manner a general conflagration, and the rains, in 
impetuous (bowers, as liberally defcend upon the 
parched furface cf the ground j yet the earth be- 
ing fo hollo v/ and porous, thefe fjperabundant wa- 
ters cannot conftitute a rivulet or brook, to conti-^ 
nue any dillance on its furface, before they are 
arrefted in their courfe and fwailowed up : thence 
defcending, tliey are filtered through the lands and 



Other pTrata of earth, to the horizontal beds of po- 
rous rocks, which bring connpofed of thin feparablc 
laminfE, lying generally in obliquely horizontal 
direftions over each other, admit thefe waters to 
pafs on by gradual but conflant percolation. Thus 
collefting and aflbciating, they augment and form 
litde rills, brooks, and even fubterraneous rivers, 
•which wander in darknefs beneath the furface of 
the earth, by innumerable doublings, windings, and 
fecret labyrinths j no doubt in fome places forming 
vafl: refervoirs and fubterranean lakes, inhabited 
by mukitudes of fifn and aquatic animals: and pof- 
fibly, when collefted into large rapid brooks, meet- 
ing irrefifiible obftrufliions in their courfc, they fud- 
denly break through thefe perforated fluted rocks, 
in high perpendicular jets, nearly to their former 
level, flooding large difl:rici:s of land. Thus by means 
of thofe fubterranean courfes, the waters are puri- 
fied and finally carried to the banks of great rivers, 
where they emerge and prefent tiicmfelves to open 
day-light, with their troops of finny inhabitants, in 
tliofe furprifing vafl: fountains near the banks of this 
river ; and likewife on and near the fliores of Great 
St. Juan, on the eafl: coafl: of the ifl:hmus, fome 
of which I have already given an account of. 

On our arrival at Talahafochte, in the evening 
we repaired to the trading houfe formerly belong- 
ing to our chief, where v\ere a family of Indians, 
who immediately and complaifantly moved out to 
accommodate us. The White King with moft: of 
the male inhabitants were out hunting or tending 
their corn plantations. 

The town is delightfully fituatcd on the elevated 
eaft banks of the river, the ground level to near 
the river, when it defccnds fuddenly to the water; 

I fuppofe 


1 fuppofe the perpendicular elevation of the ground 
may be twenty or thirty feet. There are near thirty 
habitations conftruded after the mode of Cufco- 
willa ; but here is a more fpacious and neat council- 

Thefe Indians have large handfome canoes, which 
they form out of the trunks of Cyprefs trees (Cu- 
prefllis difticha), fome of them commodious enougli 
to accommodate twenty or thirty warriors. In thefe 
large canoes they defcend the river on trading and 
hunting expeditions to the fea coaft, neighbouring 
iflands and keys, quite to the point of Florida, and 
fometimes crofs the gulph, extending their naviga- 
tions to the Bahama illands and even to Cuba : a 
crew of thefe adventurers had juft arrived, having 
returned from Cuba but a few days before our ar- 
rival, with a cargo of fpirituous liquors. Coffee, 
Sugar, and Tobacco. One of them politely prefent- 
ed me with a choice piece of Tobacco, which he told 
me he had received from the governor of Cuba. 

They deal in the way of barter, carrying with 
them deer-flcins, furs, dry fifli, bees- wax, honey, 
bear's oil, and fome other articles. They fay the 
Spaniards receive them very friendhly, and treat 
them with the beft fpirituous liquors. 

The Spaniards of Cuba likewife trade here or at 
St. Mark's, and other fea ports on the weft coalt 
of the ifthmus, in fmall (loops; particularly at the 
bay of Calos, wliere are excellent filhing banks and 
grounds ; not far from which is a confiderable town 
of the Siminoles, where they take great quantities 
of fifh, which they fait and cure on fliore, and barter 
with the Indians and traders for flvins, furs, &:c. and 
return with their cargoes to Cuba. 

(i. The 

126 TRAVELS I^f 

The trader of the town of Talahafochte informed 
me, that he had, when trading in that town, large 
fupplies of goods from thefe Spanifh trading veiTels, 
fuitable for that trade, and fome very effential ar- 
ticles, on more advantageous terms than he could 
purchafe at Indian flcres either in Georgia or St. 

Towards the evening after the fultry heats were 
paft, a young man of our company, having pre- 
vioufly procured the loan of a canoe from an Indian, 
propoled to me a fifhing excurfion for trout with 
the bob. We fet off down the river, and before 
we had pafTed two miles caught enough for our 
lioufhold : he was an excellent hand at this kind of 
diverfion : fome of the fifh were fo large and ftrong 
in their elem.ent, as to fhake his arms ftourly, and 
drao; us with the canoe over the floods before we 
got rhcm in. It is in the eddy coves, under the 
points and turnings of the river, where the fur- 
face of the waters for fome acres is covered with 
the leaves of the Nymphea, Piftia, and other am- 
phibious herbs and grafs, where the haunts and re- 
treats of this tamous fifn are^ as well as others of 
various tribes. 

Obicrvine: a fifhin;:* canoe of Indians turning a 
point below and coming tov;ards us, who hailed 
us, we waited tlieir coming up; they were cheer- 
ful merry fellows, and infilted on our accepting of 
part of their lifh ; they having a greater quantity 
and variety, cfpecially of the bream, my favourite 
fifli, we exchanged fome of our trout with them. 

Our chief ^eing engaged with the chiefs of the 
town in commercial concerns, and others of our 
company out in tire forcfts with die Indians, hunt- 


ino- up horfc^s belonging to the trading company ; 
the young intcrpreterj my companion, M'ho was 
bbliging to me, and whom our chief previoufly re- 
tommended to me as an afibciate, propofed to me 
another httle voyage down the river. This v/as 
agreeable to me, being defirous of increafing my 
obfervations during our continuance at Talahaf- 
bchtej as when the White King fliould return 
to town (which was expelled every hour) we in- 
tended after audience and treaty to leave them and 
encamp in the forefts, about fifteen miles dillance 
and nearer the ran.o;e of their horfes. 

Having fupplied ourfelves with ammunition and 
provifion, we fet off in the cool of the morning, 
and delcended pleafantly, riding on the cryftal 
flood, which flows down with an eafy, gende, yet 
nftive current, rolling over its filvery bed. How 
abundantly are the waters repleniflied with inhabit- 
ants ! the ftream almofl: as tranfparent as the air 
v/e breathe ; there is nothing done in fecret except 
on its green flowery verges,, where nature, at the 
command of the Supreme Creator, hath fpread a 
mantle, as a covering and retreat at fuitable and 
convenient times, but by no means a fecure refuge 
from the voracious enemy and purfuer. 

Behold the watery nations, in numerous bands 
roving to and fro, amidft each other j here they feem 
"all at peace ; though, incredible to relate ! but a fev/ 
yards off^, near the verge of the green mantled fliore 
there is eternal war, or rather flaughter. Near the 
banks the waters become turbid, from fubftances 
gradually diverging from each fide of the fwift chan- 
nel, and colleftions of opaque particles whirled to 
flhore by the eddies, which afix)rd a kind of nurfery for 

Q^ 2 young 


young fry, and its flimy bed is a prolific nidus for 
generating and rearing of infinite tribes and fwarnns 
of amphibious infects, which are the food of young 
fifli, who in their turn beconne a prey to the older. 
Yet when thofe different tribes of fifli are in the 
tranfparent channel, their very nature feems abfo- 
lutely changed ; for here is neither defire to deftroy 
nor perfecute, but all feems peace and friendfhip. 
Do they agree on a truce, a fufpenfion of hoftilities ? 
or by fome fecret divine influence, is defire taken 
away ? or are they otherwife rendered incapable of 
purfuing each other to deftruflion ? 

About noon we approached the admirable Manate 
Spring, three or four miles down the river. This 
charming nymphjeum is the produ6l of primitive 
nature, not to be imitated, much lefs equalled, by the 
united effort of human power and ingenuity ! As we 
approach it by water, the mind of the inquiring 
traveller is previouOy entertained, and gradually 
led on to greater difcovery ; firfl: by a view of the 
fublime dark grove, lifted up on fliore, by a range 
or curved chain of hills, at a fmall diftance from the 
lively green verge of the river, on the eaft banks ; 
as we gently defcend floating fields of the Nymphsa 
nelumbo, interfered with viftas of the yellow green 
Piftia ftratiotes, which cover a bay or cove of the 
river oppofite the circular woodland hills. 

It is amazing and almoft incredible, what troops 
and bands of filli and other watery inhabitants are 
now in fight, all peaceable; and in what variety of 
gay colours and forms, continually afcending and 
defcending, roving and figuring amongfl: one ano- 
ther, yet every tribe aflTociating feparately. We 
now afcendei the cryftal ftream j the current Avift: 
3 we 


we entered the grand fountain, the expanfive cir- 
cular bafon, the Iburce of which arifes from under 
the bafes of the high woodland hills, nearly half en- 
circling it. The ebullition is aftonifhing, and conti- 
nual, though its greateft force of fury intermits, re- 
gularly, for the fpace of thirty feconds of time: the 
waters appear of a lucid fea green colour, in fome 
meafure owing to the refledtion of the leaves above : 
the ebullition is perpendicular upwards, from a vaft 
ragged orifice through a bed of rocks, a great 
depth below the common furface of the bafon, throw- 
ing up fmall particles or pieces of white fliclls, 
which fubfide with the waters at the mioment of 
intermifiion, gently fettling down round about the 
orifice, forming a vaft funnel. At thofe moments, 
when the waters rufh upwards, the furface of the 
bafon immediately over the orifice is greatly fwollen 
or railed a confiderable height -, and then it is 
impoflible to keep the boat or any other floating 
veilel over the fountain ; but the ebullition quickly 
Hibfides; yet, before the furface becomes quite even, 
the fountain vomits up the waters again, and fo on 
perpetually. The bafon is generally circular, about 
fifty yards over ; and the perpetual ftream from it 
Into the river is twelve or fifteen yards wide, and 
ten or twelve feet in depth -, the bafon and ftream 
continually peopled v/ith prodigious numbers and 
variety of fifli and other animals ; as the alligator, 
and the manate* or fca cow, in the winter fcafon. 
Part of a fkelecon of one, which the Indians had killed 
laft winter, lay upon the banks of the fpring : the 
grinding teeth were about an inch in diameter ; the 
ribs eighteen inches in length, and tv/o inches and an 
half in thicknefs, bending Vv'ith a gentle curve. This 
bone is eftecmed equal to ivory. The tlefli of this 

* Trichecus manatvis. Sea cow. 

0^3 creature 


creature is counted wholefome and pleafant food ; 
the Indians call them by a name which fignifies the 
big beaver. My companion, who was a trader m, 
Talahafochte laft winter, faw three of them at one 
time in this fpring : they feed chiefly on aquatic 
grafs and weeds. The ground round about the head 
of the bafon is generally level, for the diftance of 
a fev/ yards -, then gradually afcends, farming mode- 
rately high hills : the foil at top is a light, grayifh, 
iandy mould, v/hich continues fome feet in depth, 
lying on a fcratum of yellowiih clay, then clay and 
gravel, then fand, and fo on, ftratum upon flratum, 
down to the general foundation of teflaceous rocks. 
In other places a deep ftratum of whitifh, chalky 
limefcone. The vegetable produftions w-hich cover 
and ornament thofe eminences, are generally Live 
Oaks, Magnolia grandiflora, in the Creek tongue 
Tolo-chlucco, which fignifies the Big Bay, Laurus 
Borbonia or Red Bay, in the Creek tongue Eto- 
mico, that is King's tree, Olea Americana and Li- 
quidambar, with other trees, flirubs, and herbace- 
ous plants common in Eaft Florida. 

The hills and groves environing this admirable 
fountain, affording amufing fubjefts of inquiry, oc- 
cafioned my ftay here a great part of the diiy i and 
towards evening we returned to the town. 

Next day, early in the morning, we croficd the 
river, landing on the other fliore oppolite the town, 
fwimming our horfes by the fide of the canoe, each 
of us holding his horfe by the bridle whilft an Indian 
paddled us over. After crolTing, we ftruck ofF 
from the river into the forefts, fometimes falling 
into, and keeping for a time, the ancient Spanifli 
high road to Penfacola, now almoll obliterated : we 
pafTcd four or five miles through old Spanifh fields. 



There are to be feen plain marks or veftiges of 
the old Spanifh plantations and dwellings ; as fence 
pofls and wooden pillars of their houses, ditclies, and 
even corn ridges and Batata hills. From the In- 
dian accounts, the Spaniards had here a rich v/ell 
cultivated and populous fettlemenr, and a ftrong 
fortified poflr, as they likewife had at the favanna 
and fields of Capola; but either of them far infe- 
rior to one they had iome miles farther fouth-weft 
towards the Apalachuchla River, now called the 
Apalachcan Old Fields, where yet remain vaft works 
and buildings, as fortifications, temples, fome brafs 
cannon, mortars, heavy church bells, &c. 

The fame groups of whidfh teftaceous rocks and 
circular finks, with natural wells, make their ap- 
pearance in thefc groves and fields, as obferved on 
the fide of the river oppofite to Capola; and the 
flime trees, llirubs, and herbage without variation. 
Having paiTed five or fix miles through thefe ancient 
fields and groves, the fcene fuddenly changes, after 
riding through a high foreft of Oak, Magnolia, 
Fraxinus, Liquidambar, Fagus fylvatica, &c. 

Now at once opens to view, perhaps, the mofl 
extenfive Cane-break * that is to be feen on the face 
of the whole earth ; right forward, about fouth- 
weft, there appears no bound but the fkies, the 
level plain, like the ocean, uniting with the firma- 
ment, and on the right and left hand, dark Ihaded 
groves, old fields, and high forefts, fuch as we 
had lately palled through. 

The alternate bold promontories and mifliy points 
advancing and retiring, at length, as it v/ere, infcnfi- 

* C-me m^dows, fo calleil by the inhabitants of Caiolina, kc. 

0.4 bly 



bly vanilliing from fightj like the two points of a 
crefcent, foftly touching the horizon, reprefent the 
moft magnificent amphitheatre or circus perhaps in 
the whole world. The ground defcends gently from 
the groves to the edge of the Cane-break, forming 
a delightful green grafly lawn. The Canes are 
ten or twelve feet in height, and as thick as an or- 
dinary walking-flafF; they grow fo clofe together, 
there is no penetrating them without previoufly cut- 
ting a road. We came up to this vaft plain where 
the ancient Spanifh highway crolTes it to Penfacola : 
there yet remain plain veftiges of the grand caufe- 
way, which is open like a magnificent avenue, and the 
Indians have a bad road or pathway on it. The 
ground or foil of the plain is a perfectly black, rich, 
Ibapy earth, like a ftifF clay or marie, wet and boggy 
near the fhore, but, further in, firm and hard enough 
in the fummer feafon, but wet and in fome places 
under water during the winter. 

This vaft plain, together with the forefts conti- 
guous to it, if permitted (by the Siminoles who arc 
ibvereigns of thefe realms) to be in poffelTion and 
under the culture of induftrious planters and me- 
chanics, would in a little time exhibit other fcenes 
than it does at prefent, delightful as it is -, for by 
the arts of agriculture and commerce, almoft every 
defirable thing in life might be produced and made 
plentiful here, and thereby eftablifh a rich, popu- 
lous, and delightful reinon ; as this foil and climate 
appears to be of a nature fa/ourable for the pro- 
diuStion of almoft all the fruits of the earth, as Corn*, 
Rice, Luligo, Sugar-cane, Flax, Cotton, Silk, Cochi- 
neal, and all the varieties of efculent vegetables; 
aiid 1 fuppofe no part of the earth affords iiich end- 

* Zca. 



lefs range and exuberant paftiire for cattle, deer, 
Hieep, Sec. : the waters every where, even in the 
holes in the earth, abound with varieties of excellent 
fifli ; and the forefts and native meadows with wild 
game, as bear, deer, turkeys, quail, and in the win- 
ter feafon geele, ducks, and other fowl : and lying 
contiguous to one of the moft beautiful navigable 
rivers in the world, and not more than thirty miles 
from St. Mark's on the great bay of Mexico, is mod 
conveniently fituated for the Weft India trade, and 
the commxcrce of all the world. 

After indulging my imagination in the contem- 
plation of thefe grand diverfified fcenes, we turned 
to the right hand, riding over the charming green 
terrace dividing the forefts from the plains, and then 
entering the groves again, continued eight or nine 
miles up the river, four or live miles diftance from 
its banks -, having continually in view, on one fide 
or other, expanfive green fields, groves and high 
forefts 5 the meadows ghttering with diftant lakes 
and ponds, alive with cattle, deer, and turkeys, and 
frequently prefenring to view remains of ancient 
Spanifn plantations. At length, towards evening, 
we turned about and came within fight of the river, 
where falling on the Indian trading path, we cond- 
nued along it to the landing-place oppofite the tov/n ; 
when hallooing and difcharging our pieces, an Indian 
with a canoe came prefently over, and condu6ted m. 
to the town before dark. 

On our arrival at the trading houfe, our chief 
v/as vifited by the head men of the town, when 
inftantly the White King's arrival in town was 
announced : a mefienger had before been fent in to 
prepare a feaft-, the king and his retinue having 
killed fevcral bears. A fire was now kindled in the 



area of the public fquare ; the royal flandard wa^ 
dilplayed, and the drum beat to give notice to the 
pown of the royal feaft. 

The ribs and the choice pieces of the three great 
fat bears, already well barbecued or broiled, were 
brought to the banqueting houfe in the fquare, with 
lict bread ; and honeyed water for drink. 

When the feaft was over in the fquare (where 
only the chiefs and warriors were admitted, with 
the white people), the chief prieft, attended by 
fiaves, came with bafkets and carried off the re- 
mainder of the vi6luals, &c. which was diftributed 
amongil the families of the town. The king then 
withdrew, repairing to the council houie in the 
fquare, whither the chiefs and v/arriors, old and 
young, and fuch of the whites as chofe, repaired 
alfo ; the king, war chief, and feveral nneient chiefs 
and warriors were feated on the royal cabins 3 the 
reft of the head inen and warriors, old and young, 
fat on the cabins on the right hand of the king's : 
the cabins or feats on the left, and on the fame ele- 
vation, are always affigncd for the white people, In- 
dians of other towns, and iijch of their own people 
as choofe. 

Our chief with the reft of the white people in 
town, took their feats according to order : tobacco 
and pipes were brought 3 d\t calumet was lighted and 
frnoaked, circulating according to the wduV forms, 
and ceremony ; and afterwards black drink con- 
clude the feaft. The king converkd, drank caf- 
fme, and afibcrated familiarly v/ith his people and 
with us. 

After the public entertainment was over, the 
young people began their miific and dancing in the 

I fquare_, 

NOilTH AMERICA, a^,§. 

fqnare, whither the young of both fexes repaired, as 
well as the old and middle-aged: this frolick conti- 
nued all night. 

The White King of Talahnfochtc is a middle-aged 
man, of moderate ftature j and though of a lofty and 
majeiliic countenance and deportment, yet I am con- 
vinced this dignity, which really feems graceful, is 
not the effeft of vain fupercilious pride, for his fmil- 
ing countenance and his cheerful familiarity befpeak 
magnanimity and benignity, 

Next a council and treaty was held. They re- 
quefted to have a trading houfe again eftabliflied in 
the town, allliring us that every poflible means fhould 
coriftantly be purfued to prevent any difturbance in 
future on their part ; they informed us that the mur- 
derers of M'Gee * and his affociates v/ere to be put 
to death ; that two of them were already iliot, and 
they were in purfuit of the other. 

Our chief trader in anfvver informed them, that 
the re-eftabliflnTientof friendlhip and trade v/as the 
chief objevfl of his vifit, and that he was happy to 
find his old friends of Talahafochtc in the fame good 
(hfpofition, as they ever were tov/ards him and the 
v/hite people j that it was his v/ifh to trade with 
them, and that he was now come to collect his pack- 
horfes to bring them goods. The king and the 
chiefs having been already acquainted with my bufi- 
nefs and purfuits amongft them, received me very 
kindly; the king in particular complimented me, 

* M'Gee u-as the lender of a family of white people from Georgin, 
deflined ncrofs the ifthmus, to the Mobile river ; they travelleil on horfeback' 
as far as this town, where they procured c.inoes of the Indians, continwing 
their travels, defcending the river andcoafling the main S. W. ; but at night, 
when on (hoie, hunting provifions, their camp was furpnfed an-l attacked 
by a predatoiy band of Indians, who flew M'Gee and the reft of the 
men, and carried off the plunder and a woman to their towns. 



faying that I was as one of his own children or peo« 
pie, and fliould be protected accordingly, while I 
remained with them ; adding, " Our whole country 
is befcre ycu, where you may range about at plea- 
fure, gather phyfic plants and flowers, and every 
other produ(^ticn :" thus the treaty terminated friend- 
Illy and peaceably. 

Next day early in the morning we left the town 
and the river, in order to fix our encampment in 
the forefts about twelve miles from the river ; our 
companions with the pack-horfes went a-head to the 
place of rendezvous, and our chief conduded me 
another way to fhow me a very curious place, call- 
ed the Alligator-Hole, which was lately formicd by 
an extraordinary eruption or jet of water. It is 
cne of thofe vaft circular finks which we beheld 
almoft every where about us as we traverfed thefe 
forefts, after we left the Alachua favanna. This 
remarkable one is on the verge of a fpacious mea- 
dow, the furface of the ground round about uneven 
by means of gentle rifing knolls : fome detached 
groups of rocks and large fpreading live oaks fliade 
it on every fide : it is about fixty yards over, and 
the furface of the water fix or feven feet below the 
rim of the funnel or bafon : the water is tranfparent, 
cool, and pleafant to drink, and well ftored with 
fifli i a very large alligator at prefent is lord or chief? 
many have been killed here, but the throne is never 
long vacant, the vaft neighbouring ponds fo abound 
with them. 

The account that this gentleman, who was an 
eye-witnefs of the laft eruption, gave me of its firft 
appearance, being very wonderful, I proceed to re- 
late what he told m.e whilft we were in town, which 
was confirmed by the Indians,, and one or more of 



our companions, who alfo faw its progrefs, as well ds 
by my own obfervations after I came to the ground. 

This trader being near the place (before it liad 
any vifible exiftence in its prefcnt appearance), 
about three years ago, as he was looking for fome 
horfes which he expelled to find in thefe parts, 
on a fudden was aftoniflied by an inexpreffible 
rufhing noife, like a mighty hurricane or thunder 
ftorm ; and looking round, he faw the earth over- 
flowed by torrents of water, which came, wave 
after wave, rufhing down a vale or plain very near 
him, which ir filled with water, and loon began to 
overwhelm the higher grounds, attended with a ter- 
rific noife and tremor of the earth. Recovering 
from his firfl: furprife, he immediately refolved to 
proceed for the place from whence the noife feem- 
ed to come ; and foon came in fight of the incom- 
parable fountain, and law, with amazement, the 
floods rufliing upwards many feet high, and the ex- 
panding waters, which prevailed every way, fpread- 
ing themfelves far and near. He at length conclud- 
ed (he faid) that the fountains of the deep were 
again broken up, and that an univerfal deluge had 
commenced ; and inftantly turned about and fled 
to alarm the town, about nine nniles diiiiance : but 
before he coulci reach it, he met feveral of the 
inhabitants, who, already alarmed by ths unufual 
noife, were hurrying on towards tlie place ; upon 
which he returned with the Indians, taking their 
ftand on an eminence to watch its progrefs and the 
event. It continued to jet and flow in this manner 
for feveral days, forming a large, rapid creek or 
river, defcending and following the various courfes 
and windings of the valley, for the dillance of feven 
or eight miles, emptying itfelf into % vafl: favanna, 



where was a lake and fink which received and gave 
vent to its waters. 

The fountain, however, gradually ceafed to over- 
flow, and finally withdrew itlelf beneath the com- 
mon furface of the earth, leaving this capacious ba- 
ibn of waters, which, though continually near full, 
hath never fince overflowed. There yet remains,, 
and will, 1 fuppofe, remain for ages, the dry bed of 
the river or canal, generally four, five, and fix feet 
below the natural furface of the land ; the perpendi- 
cular, ragged banks of which, on each fide, fhow 
the different ftrata of the earth j and at places, where 
ridges or a fwelling bank crolfed and oppofcd its 
courfe and fury, are vaft heaps of fragments of 
rocks, white chalk, ftones, and pebbles, which were 
colle6led and throv/n into the lateral vallies, until 
the main ftream prevailed over and forced them 
afide, overflowing the levels and meadows, for fomc 
miles diftance from the principal fl:ream, on either 
fide. We continued down the great vale, along its 
banks, quite to the favanna and lake where it vent- 
td itfelf, while its ancient fubterranean channel was 
gradually opening, whicii, I imagine, trom Ibme hid- 
den event or caufe had been choaked up, and which, 
we may fuppofe^ was the immediate caiife of the 

In the evening, having gained our encampment;, 
on a grafly knoll or eniinence, under the cover ©f 
fpreadnig oaks, jufl: bv the grotto or fink of the lake; 
which lay as a fparkling gem on the flowery bo- 
fom of tl:e ample favanna ; our lOving aflbciates 
Ibon came in from langing the forefls. Vv'e conti- 
nued our encampment at this place for feveral days^ 
ranging around the delightful country to a great dif- 



tance, every day's excurfion prefentlng new fcenes 
of wonder and delight. 

Early in the morning our chief invited me with 
him on a vifit to the town, to take a final leave of 
the White King. We were gracioufly received, 
and treated with tlie iitmoft civility and liofpita- 
iity : there was a noble entertainment and repaft 
provided againil our arrival, confifting of bears ribs, 
veniion, varieties of filli, roafted turkies (which 
they call the white man's difh), hot corn cakes, and 
a very agreeable cooling fort of jelly, which they 
call conte : this is prepared from the root of the 
China briar (Smilax pfeudo-China j Smilax afpcra, 
fruAu nigro, radice nodofa, magna, Isevi, farinacea ; 
Sloan, torn. i. p. 31. t. 143. f. i. habit. Jamaica, 
Virginia, CaroHna, and Florida) : they chop the 
roots in pieces, which are afterwards well pounded 
in a wooden mortar, then being mixed with clean 
water, in a tray or trough, they ftrain it through^ 
bafkets -, the fediment, which fettles to the bottom 
of the fecond vefTel, is afterwards dried in the open 
air, and is then a very fine reddilli flour or meal : a 
fmall quantity of this mixed with warm water and 
fvveetened with honey, when cool, becomes a beau- 
tiful, delicious jelly, very nourilliing and v/holefome. 
They alfo mix it with fine corn flour, which being 
fried in frelh bear's oil makes very good hot cakes 
or fritters. 

On our taking leave of the king and head men, 
they entreated our chief to reprefent to the white 
people, their unfeigned defire to bury in oblivion 
the late breach of amity and intermiffion of com- 
merce, which they trufted would never be refled:ed 
on the people of Talahaibchte i and, lafl:ly, tliat we 


24C> TRAVELS in 

Would fpeedily return with merchandize as hetttb* 
fore J all which was cheerfully conftnted to, alluring 
tliem their wifnes and fcntiments fully coincided with 

The chief trader, intending to fhow me fome re- 
markable barren plains, on our return to our en^ 
Campment, about noon we fat off: when we came 
within fight of them, I was ftruck with aftonifh- 
ment at their dreaiy appearance -, the view South- 
erly feemed endlefs waftes, prefenting rocky, gra- 
velly and fandy barren plains, producing fcarcely 
any vegetable fubflances, except a few fhrubby 
crooked Pine trees, growing out of heaps of white 
rocks, which reprefented ruins of villages, planted 
over the plains ; with clumps of mean flirubs, which 
ferved only to perpetuate the perfecuting power 
and rage of fire, and to teftify the aridity of the 
foil. The Ihrubs I obferved were chiefly the fol- 
lowing ; Myrica cerifera, two or three varieties, one 
of which is very dwarfilli, the leaves fmall, yet 
toothed or finuated, of a yellowifli green colour, 
owing to a farinaceous pubefcence or veficula which 
covers their furfices ; Prinos, varieties, Andromeda 
ferruginea, Andr. nitida, varieties, Rhamnus fran- 
gula, Sideroxylon fericium, Ilex aquifolium. Ilex 
myrtifolium, Empetrum, Kalmia ciliata, Cadine, and 
a great variety of ilirub Oaks, evergreen and deci- 
duous, fome of them Angularly beautiful ; Cory-^ 
pha repens j with a great variety of herbage, par- 
ticularly Cacalia, Prenanthus, Chryfocoma, Pleli- 
anthus, Silphium, Lobelia, Globularia, Helenium, 
Polygala, varieties, Clinopodium, Caftus, various 
fpecies, Euphorbia, various fpecies, Afclepias car- 
nofa, very beautiful and Angular, Sophora, Dian- 
thus, Ciflus, Sifymbrium, Pedicularis, Gerardia, 



Lccheaj Gnaphalium, Smilax farfaparina, Smilax 
pumih. Solidago, After, Liipinus filifolius, Galega, 
Hedylarum, &rc. with various fpccies of grafTes. 
But there appeared vaft fpaces of gravel and pl-'ins 
of flat rocks, juft even with the furface of the earth, 
which feemed entirely deftitute of any vegetation, 
unlefs we may except fome different kinds of mofles 
of the cruftaceous forts, as lichen, alga, &c. and 
coralloides. After paffing leveral miles on the 
borders of thefe deferts, frequently alighting on 
thciii for obfervation, and making collections, they 
at length gradually united or joined with infinite 
favannas and ponds ilretching beyond the fight 
foutherly, parallel with tlie rocky barrens ; being 
feparated only by a narrow, low, rocky ridge of 
open groves, confifling of low, fpreading Live 
Oaks, Zanthoxylon, Ilex, Sideroxylon, &c. ; and 
here and there, ftanding either in groups or alone, the 
pompous Palm tree, glorioufly ere6t or gracefully 
bowing tov/ards the earth i exhibiting a moft pleaf- 
ing contraft and wild Indian fcene of primitive un- 
modified nature, ample and magnificent. We at 
length came abreaft of the expanfive, glittering 
lake, which divided the ample meadows, one end 
of which Ilretching towards a verdant eminence, 
formed a little bay, which was partly encircled by 
groups of white chalky rocks, fliaded with Live Oaks, 
Bays, Zanthoxylon and Palm trees. We turned our 
horfes to graze in the green lawns, whilft we tra- 
verfed the groves and meadows. Here the palmated 
Convolvulus trailed over the rocks, with the He- 
dera carnofa (fol. quinatis incifo-ferratis, perennen- 
tibus), and the fantaftic Clitoria, decorating the 
fhrubs with garlands (Clit. caule volubili fol. terna- 
tis pennatifque, flor. majore cjeruleo, vexillo rotun- 
diore, filiquis longiflimis comprefTis). 

R Soon 


Soon after entering the forefts, we were met irt 
the path by a fmall company of Indians, fmiling 
and beckoning to us long before we joined them. 
This was a family of Talahafochte who had been 
out on a hunt, and were returning home loaded 
with barbecued meat, hides and honey. Their com- 
pany confifted of the man, his wife and children, 
well mounted on fine horfes, with a number of 
pack-horfes. The man prefently offered us a fawn- 
ikin of honey, which we gladly accepted, and at 
parting I preiented him with fome fifh-hooks, few- 
ing needles, &c. ; for in my travels amongft the In- 
dians, I always furnifned myfelf with fuch ufeful 
and acceptable little articles of light carriage, for 
prefents. We parted, and before night rejoined 
our companion at the Long Pond. 

On our return to camp in the evening, we were 
fainted by a party of young Indian warriors, who 
had pitched their camp on a green eminence near 
the lake, and at a fm.all diftance from our camp, 
under a litde grove of Oaks and Palms. This 
company confifted of feven young Siminoles, under 
the condud: of a young prince or chief of Talaha- 
fochte, a town foudivv'ard on the ifthmus. They were 
all dreffed and painted with fmgular elegance, and 
richly ornamented wieh filver plates, chains, &c. 
after the Siminole mode, with waving plumes of 
feathers on their crells. On our coming up to 
them, they arofe and fhook hands; we alighted and 
fit a while with them by their cheerful fire. 

The young prince informed our chief that he 
was in purfuit of a young fellow, who had fled 
from the town, carrying off with him one of his fa- 
vourite young wives or concubines. He faid mer- 
rily, he would have the ears of both of them before 



he returned. He was rather above the middle fta- 
ture, and the mod perfeft human figure I ever 
faw; of an amiable engaging countenance, air and 
deportment; free and familiar in converfation, yet 
retaining a becoming gracefulnefs and dignity. We 
arofe, took leave of them, and crofied a litde vale 
covered with a charming green turf, already illu- 
minated by the foft light of the full moon. 

Soon after joining our companions at camp, our 
neighbours, the prince and his affociates, paid us a 
vifit. We treated them with the bed fare we had, 
having till this time preferved Ibme of our fpiritu- 
ous liquors. They left us with perfed; cordiality and 
cheerfulnefs, wifliing us a good repofe, and retired 
to their own camp. Having a band of mufic with 
them, confifting of a drum, flutes, and a rattle 
gourd, they entertained us during the night with 
their mufic, vocal and inftrumental. 

There is a languifhing foftnefs and melancholy 
air in the Indian convivial fongs, efpecially of the 
amorous clafs, irrefiftibly moving, attraftive, and 
exquifitdy pleafing, efpecially in thefe folitary re- 
celTes, when all nature is fiient. 

Behold how gracious and beneficent fhines the 
rofeate morn ! N ow the fun arifes and fills the plains 
with light; his glories appear on the forefts, encom- 
pafTing the meadows, and gild the top of the tere- 

• binthine Pine and exalted Palms, now gently ruf- 
tling by the prefTure of the waking breezes : the 

■ mufic of the feraphic cranes refounds in the fkies ; 

• in feparate fquadrons they fail, encircling their pre- 

■ cinfts, fiowly defcend beating the denfe air, and 
•ahght on the green dewy verge of the expanfive 

lakei its furface yet fmoking with the gray af- 

R 2 cending 

i44 ttravels in 

cending inifts, which, condenfed aloft in clouds (yf 
vapour, are born awny by the morning breezes, and 
at lafl gradually vanilh on the diftant horizon. All 
nature awakes to life and a6livity. 

The ground, during our progrefs this morning, 
every where about us prefented to view thofe fun- 
nels, finks and wells in groups of rocks, amidft the 
groves, as already recited. 

Near our next encampment, one more confpicuous 
than I had elfewhere obferved prefenting itfelf, I 
took occafion from this favourable circumftance of 
obferving them in all their variety of appearances. 
Its outer fuperficial margin was fifty or fixty yards 
over, which equally and uniformly on every fide 
floped downwards towards the center: on one fide 
of it v/as a confiderable path-way or road leading 
down to the water, worn by the frequent refort of 
wild creatures for drink, when the waters were 
rifen even or above the rocky bed, but at this time 
they were funk many yards below the furface of the 
earth. We defcended firft to the bed of rocks, 
which was perforated with perpendicular tubes, ex- 
aftly like a walled well, four, five, or fix feet in di- 
ameter, and may be compared to cells in an honey- 
comb, through which appeared the water at bot- 
tom : many of thefe were broken or worn one into 
another, forming. one valt well with uneven walls, 
confif!:ing of projecting jams, pilaflres, or buttrefifes, 
and excavated femicircular niches, as if a piece 
were taken out of a honey-comb : the bed of rocks 
is from fifteen to twenty feet deep or in thicknefs, 
though not of one iblid mafs, but of many, gener- 
ally horizontal, laminae, or ftrata, of various thick- 
nefs, from eighteen inches to two or three feet ; 
"ftiiich admit water to weep through, trickling down, 
2 drop 


drop after drop, or chafing e:ich odier in winding 
litde rills down to the bottom. One fide of the 
vaft cool grotto was fo fhattered and broken in, I 
thought it pofTible to defcend down to the water at 
bottom J and my companion afluring me that the 
Indians and traders frequently go down for drink, 
encouraged me to make the attempt, as he agreed 
to accompany me. 

Having provided oiirfelvcs with a long fnagged 
fapling, called an Indian ladder, and each of us a 
pole, by the affiftance of thefe we both defcended 
fafely to the bottom, which we found nearly level, 
and not quite covered over with water j on one fide 
was a bed of gravel and fragments of rocks or ftones, 
and on the other a pool of water near two feet deep, 
which moved with a flow current under the walls on 
a bed of clay and gravel. 

After our return to the furflice of the earth, I 
again ranged about the groves and grottos, examin- 
ing a multitude of them. Being on the margin of 
one in the open foreft, and obferving fome curious 
vegetable productions growing on the fide of the 
doping funnel towards its center, the furface of the 
ground covered with grafs and herbage j unappre- 
henfive of danger, I defcended precipitately towards 
the group of fhrubs; when I was furprifed, and 
providentially flopped in my career, at the ground 
founding hollow under my feet; and obferving 
chafms through the ground, I quickly drew back, 
and returning again with a pole with which I beat 
in the earth, to my aftonifliment and dread ap- 
peared the mouth of a well through the rocks, and 
I cbferved the water glimmering at the bottom. 
Being wearied with excurfions, we returned to our 
pleafant fituation on the verge of the lawn. 

H 3 Next; 


Next day we fet off on our return to the lower 
trading-houfe, propofing to encamp at a favanna, 
about twelve miles diftance from this, where we 
were to halt again and ftay a day or two, in order 
to colleft together another party of horfes, which 
had been flationed about that range. The young 
wild horfes often breaking from the company, ren- 
dered our progrefs flow and troublefome ^ we how- 
ever arrived at the appointed place long before 

I had an opportunity this day of collefting a va- 
riety of fpecimens and feeds of vegetables, fome of 
which appeared new to me, particularly Sophora, 
Ciftus, Tradefcantia, Hypoxis, latropa, Gerardia, 
Pedicularis, Mimofa fenfitiva, Helonias, Melan- 
diium, Lilium, Aletris, Agave, Cadus, Zamla, 
Empetrum, Erythryna, Echium, &c. 

Next day, the people being again engaged in 
their bufinefs of ranging the forefts and plains, in 
fearch of their horfes, I accompanied them, and in 
our rambles v/e again vifited the great favanna and 
lake, called the Long Pond : the lake is nearly in 
the middle of the fpacious lawn, of an oblong form; 
above two miles wide and feven in length ; one end 
approaching the high green banks adjoining the fo- 
relts, where there is an enchanting grove and grot- 
to of pellucid waters, inhabited with multitudes of 
fjfn, continually afcending and defcending through 
the clean, white rocks, Hoping from the green 
Verged fliore, by gradual ileps, from fmooth, flat 
pavements wafhed by the fweliing undulations of 
the waters. 

Arrived in the evening at camp, where we found 
the rcfb of our companions bufily employed in fe- 



during the young freakifli horfes. The next diy 
was employed in like manner, breaking and tutor- 
ing the young fleeds to their duty. The day fol- 
lowing we took a final leave of this land of mea- 
dows, lakes, groves and grottos, direfting our courfe 
fbr the trading path. Having traverled a country, 
in appearance, httle differing from the region ly- 
ing upon Little St. Juan, we gained about twelve 
miles on our way ; and in the evening encamped on 
a narrow ridge, dividing two favannas from each 
other, near the edge of a deep pond; here our peo- 
ple made a large pen or pound to fecure their wild 
horfes during the night. There was a little hom- 
mock or iflet containing a few acres of high ground, 
at fome diftance from the fhore, in the drowned 
favanna, almofl every tree of which was loaded with 
nefts of various tribes of water fowl, as ardea alba, 
ar. violacea, ar. cerulea, ar. ftellaris criftata, ar. 
ftellaris maxima, ar. virefcens, colymbus, tantalus, 
mergus and otiiers ; thefe nefts were all alive with 
young, generally almoft full grov/n, not yet fledg- 
ed, but covered with whitifh or cream-coloured 
foft down. We vifited this bird ifle, and fome of 
our people taking fticks or poles with them, foon 
beat down and loaded themfelves with thefe fquabs, 
and returned to camp ; they were almoft a lump of 
fat, and made us a rich fupper^ fome we roafted, 
and made others into a pilloe with rice : moft of 
them, except the bitterns and tantali, were fo ex- 
ceffively fiihy in tafte and fmell, I could not relifh 
them. It is incredible what prodigious numbers 
there were, old and young, on this little iflet; and 
the confufed noife which they kept up continually, 
the young crying for food inceflantly, even whilft 
in their throats, and the old alarmed and difpleafed 
at our near refidence, and the depredations we had 

R 4 made 


made upon them; their various languages, cries, 
and fluttering, caufed an inexpreffible uproar, like a 
public fair or market in a populous trading city> 
when luddenly furprifed by fome unexpected cala- 
mitous event. 

About midnight, having fallen afleep, I was 
av/akened and greatly furprifed at finding moft of 
miy companions up in arms, and furioufly engaged 
with a large alligator but a few yards from me. 
One of our company, it feems, awoke in the 
night, and perceived the monfter within a few 
paces of the camp; when giving the alarm to the 
reft, they readily came to his afiiftance, for it was 
a rare piece of fport. Some took fire-brands and 
call them at his head, whilft others formed javelins 
of faplings, pointed and hardened with fire ; thefe 
they thruft down his throat into his bowels, which 
caufed the monfter to roar and bellow hideoufly ; 
but his ftrength and fury were lb great, that he eafily 
Vv'renched or twifted them out of their hands, and 
wielding and brandilhing them about, kept his ene- 
mies at a diftance for a time. Some were for put- 
ting an end to his life and fufferings with a rifle 
ball, but the majority thought this would too foon 
deprive them of the diverfion and pleaiure of ex- 
cercifing their various inventions of torture: they 
at length however grew tired, and agreed in one 
opinion, that he had fuflered fufficiencly; and put 
an end to his exiftence. This crocodile was about 
twelve ftet in length : we fuppofed that he had 
been allured by the fifliy fcent of our birds, and 
encouraged to undertake and purfue this hazardous 
adventure which coft him his life. This, with 
other inftances already recited, may be fufficient to 
prove the intrepidity and fubtilty of thofe voracious, 
formidable animals. 



We fat off early next morning, and fbon afcer 
falling into tlie trading path, accompliHied about 
twenty miles of our journey ; and in the evening 
encamped as iifual, near the banks of favannas and 
ponds, for the benefit of water and accommodations 
of paRure for our creatures. Next day we pafled 
over part of the g'-eat and beautiful Alachua Savan- 
na, whofe exuberant green meado-.vs, with the fer- 
tile hills which immediately encircle it, would, if 
peopled and cultivated after the manner of the ci- 
vihzed countries of Europe, v/ithout crowding or 
incommoding families, at a moderate eftimationj 
accommodate in the happieft manner above one 
hundred thoufand human inhabitants, befides mil- 
lions of domeftic animals ; and I make no doubt 
this place will at ibme future day be one of the mofb 
populous and delightful feats on earth. 

We came to camp in the evening, on the banks 
of a creek but a few miles diftance from Cufcowil- 
la ; and two days more moderate travelling brought 
us fafe back again to the lower trading- houfe, on 
St. Juan, having been blefied with health and a 
profperous journey. 

On my arrival at the ftores, I was happy to find 
all well as we had left them ; and our bringing with 
us friendly talks from the Siminole towns, and the 
Nation likewife, completed the hopes and wifhes 
of the trading company, with refpect to their com- 
mercial concerns with the Indians, which, as the 
cheering light of the fun-beams after a dark tem- 
pefluous night, diffufed joy and conviviality through- 
out the little community, where were a number of 
men with their famihes, who had been put out of 
employment and fubfiftence, anxioufly waiting the 
happy event. 




As a loading could not be procured until late in 
the autumn, for the fchooner that was to return to 
Georgia, this circumilance allowed me time and 
opportunity to continue my excurfions in this land 
of flowers, as well as at the fame time to augment 
my coUedions of feeds, growing roots, &c. 

I refolved upon another litde voyage up the 
river ; and after refting a few days and refitting my 
bark, I got on board the neceffary ftores, and fur- 
nifliing myfelf with boxes to plant roots in, with 
z-ny fuzee, ammunition and fifhing tackle, I fet fail, 
and in the evening arrived at Mount Royal. Next 
morning, being moderately calm and ferene, I fet 
fail with a gentle leading breeze, which delight- 
folly wafted me acrofs the lake to the weft coaft, 
landing on an airy, fandy beach, a pleafant, cool 
fituation, where I paiTed the night, but not without 
frequent attacks from the mufquitoes ; and next day 
vifited the Great Springs, where I remained until 
the fucceeding day, increafing my collections of fpe- 
cimens, feeds and roots ; and then recroifed the lake 
to the eaftern fhore. This fhore is generally bolder 
and more rocky than the weftern, it being expofed 
to the lalh of the furf, occafioned by the W. and 
N. W. winds, which are briik and conftant from 
nine or ten o'clock in the morning till towards mid- 
night, almoft the year round; though the S. winds 
are confidcrable in the fpring, and by fhort inter- 
vals during the fummer and winter j and the N. E. 
though fometimes very yiolent in the fpring and 



autumn, does not continue long. The day was 
employed in coafling flowly, and making collec- 
tions. In the evening I made an harbour under co- 
ver of a long point of flat rocks, which defended 
the mole from the furf. Having lafcly moored my 
bark, and chofen my camping ground juft by, dur- 
ing the fine evening I reconnoitred the adjacent 
groves and lawns. Here is a dcfcrted plantation, 
the property of Dr. Stork, where he once refided. 
I obferved many lovely fhrubs and plants in the old 
fields and Orange groves, particularly feveral fpe- 
cies of Convolvulus and Ipomea, the former having 
very large, white, fweet fcented flowers : they are 
great ramblers, climbing and flrolling on the flirubs 
and hedges. Next morning 1 re- embarked, and 
continued traverfmg the bold coaft north-eaflward, 
and fearching the Ihores at all convenient landings, 
where I was amply rewarded for my afllduity in the 
fociety of beauties in the blooming realms of Flo- 
rida. Came to agann, at an old deferred planta- 
tion, the property of a Britifh gentleman, but fome 
years fince vacated. A very fpacious frame build- 
ing v/as fettling to the ground and mouldering to 
earth. Here are very extenfive old fields, where 
were growing the Wefl:-Indian or perennial Cotton 
and Indigo, which had been cultivated here, and 
fome fcattered remains of the ancient orange groves, 
which had been left Handing at the clearing of the 

I have often been affe6ted with extreme regret, 
at beholding the deftrucftion and devaflation which 
has been committed or indifcreetly excrcifed on 
thofe extenfive fruitful Orange groves, on the banks 
of St. Juan, by the new planters under the Britifh 
government, fome hundred acres of which, at a 


25^' TRAVELS l^ 

fingle plantation, have been entirely deftroyed, to 
make room for the Indigo, Cotton, Corn, Batatas, 
&c. or, as they fay, to extirpate the mufquitoes, al- 
ledging that groves near the dwellings are haunts 
and fhelters for thole perfecuting infefts. Some plan- 
tations have not a fingle tree (landing ; and where 
any have been left, it is only a fmall coppice or clump, 
nakedly expofed and deftiture j perhaps fifty or an 
hundred trees {landing near the dwelling-houfe, hav- 
ing no lofty cool grove of expanfive Live Oaks, 
Laurel Magnolias, and Palms, to fhade and protedt 
them, exhibiting a mournful, fallow countenance j 
their native perfe6lly formed and gloffy green fo- 
liage as if violated, defaced, and torn to pieces by 
the bleak winds, fcorched by the burning fun-beams 
in fummer, and chilled by the winter frofls. 

In the evening I took up my quarters in the beau- 
tiful ifle in fight of Mount Royal. Next day, af- 
ter collecting what was new and worthy of particu- 
lar notice, I fet fail again, and called by the way at 
Mount Royal. In the evening arrived fafe at the 
stores, bringing along with me valuable colledions.^ 




At the trading- houfe I found a very large party 
of the Lower Creeks encamped in a grove, juft 
without the pallifadoes. This was a predatory band 
of the Siminoles, confifting of about forty warriors 
deftined againftthe Cha6laws of Weft Florida. They 
had juft arrived here from St. Auguftine, where 
they had been with a large troop of horfes for fale, 
and furni/lied themfelves with a very liberal fup~ 
ply of fpiriruous liquors, about twenty kegs, each 
containing five gallons. 

Thefe fons of Mars had the continence and for- 
titude to withfland the temptation of even tafting 
a drop of it until their arrival here, where they 
purpofed to Jupply themfelves with necefiary arti- 
cles to equip them for the expedition, and pro- 
ceed on diredly; but here meeting with our young 
traders and pack-horfe men, they were foon pre- 
vailed on to broach their beloved neftar ; which in 
the end caufed fome difturbance, and the confump- 
tion of moft of their liquor -, for after they had once 
got a fmack of it, they never were fober for ten 
days, and by that time there was but little left. 

In a few days this feftival exhibited one of the 
moft ludicrous bacchanalian fcenes that is poffible 
to be conceived. White and red men and wo- 
men without diftindion, palled the day merrily with 
thefe jovial, amorous topers, and the nights in con- 
vivial fongs, dances, and facrifices to Venus, as long 
as they could ftand or move j for in thefe frolicks 
both fexes take fuch liberties with each other, and 


254 TRAVELS tn 

a(5b, without conflraint or fhame, fuch fcenes as they 
would abhor when fober or in their fenfes ; and 
would endanger their ears and even their lives : 
but at laft their liquor running low, and being 
moft of them fick through intoxication, they be- 
came more fober; and now the dejefted lifelels 
fots would pawn every thing they were in pof- 
felTion of, for a mouthful of fpirits to fettle their 
ftomachs, as they term^ it. This was the time 
for the wenches to make their market, as they had 
the fortitude and fubtilty by difTimulacion and arti- 
fice to fave their Ihare of the liquor during the 
frolick, and that by a very fingular ftratagemi for, 
at thefe riots, every fellow who joins in the club, 
has his own quart bottle of rum in his hand, hold- 
ing it by the neck fo fure, that he never loofes hold 
of it day or night, drunk or fober, as long as the 
frolick continues ; and with this, his beloved friend, 
he roves about continually, finging, roaring, and reel- 
ing to and fro, either alone, or arm in arm with a 
brother toper, prefenting his bottle to every one, 
offering a drink ; and is fure to meet his beloved 
female if he can, whom he complaifantly begs to 
drink with him. But the modeft fair, veiling her 
face in a mantle, refufes, at the beginning of the 
frolick J but he prefies and at lafl infills. She being 
furnifhed with an empty bottle, concealed in her 
mantle, at lafh confents, and taking a good long 
draught, blufhes, drops her pretty face on her bo- 
fom, and artfully difcharges the rum into her bot- 
tle, and by repeating this artifice foon lills it : 
this flie privately conveys to her fecret flore, and 
then returns to the jovial game, and fo on during 
the feitival ; and when the comic farce is over, 
the wench retails this precious cordial to them at her 
own price. 



There were a few of the chiefs, particularly the 
Long Warrior their leader, who had the prudence 
and fortitude to refift the alluring temptation during 
the whole farce ; but though he was a powerful chief, 
a king, and a very cunning man, he was not able 
to controul thefe madmen, although he was ac- 
knowledged by the Indians to have communion 
with powerful invifible beings or fpirics, and on 
that account efteemed worthy of homage and great 

After the Indians became fober, they began to 
prepare for their departure. In the morning early 
the Long Warrior and chiefs fent a meflenger to 
Mr. M^Latche, defiring to have a talk with him 
upon matters of moment ; accordingly, about noon 
they arrived. The conference was held in the piazza 
of the council houfe : the Long Warrior and chiefs 
who attended him took their feats upon a long 
bench adjoining the fide or front of the houfe, reach- 
ing the whole length of it, on one hand ; and the 
principal white traders on the other, all on the 
fame feat. I was admitted at this conference j Mr. 
M'Latche and the Long Warrior fat next to each 
other; my late comipanion, the old trader, and my* 
felf fat next to him. 

The Long Warrior fpake, faying, that he and 
his companions were going to fight their ene- 
mies the Chaftaws ; and that fome of his affociates 
being in want of blankets, fhirts, and fome other 
ardcles, they declined fupplying themfclves with 
them at St. Auguftine, becaufe they had rather (lick 
clofe to their old friend Mr. Spalding, and bring 
their buck-lkins, furs, and other produce of their 
country (which they knew were acceptable) to 



his trading-houfe, to purchafe what they wanted* 
Buc not having the fkins, &c. with them to pay for 
fuch things as they had occafion for, they doubt- 
ed not, Dut that on their return they fhould bring 
with them fufficient not only to pay their debts, 
about to be contrafted, but be able to make other 
confiderable purchafes, as the principal object of 
this expedition was hunting on the plentiful borders 
of the Chadlaws. Mr. M'Latche hefitating, and 
expreffing fome diflatisfaftion at his requell, par- 
ticularly at the length of time and great uncer- 
tainty of obtaining pay for the goods ; and moreover 
his being only an agent for Meflrs. Spalding and Co. 
and the magnitude and unprecedented terms of the 
Long Warrior's demands -, required the company's 
affent and diredions before he could comply with 
their requefl. 

This anfwer difpleafed the Indian chief, and I 
obferved great agitation and tumult in his paffions, 
from his adions, hurry and rapidity of fpeech and 
expreflion. The old interpreter who fat by afked 
me if I fully underftood the debate ; I anfwered that 
I apprehended the Long Warrior was difpleafed j 
he told me he was fo, and then recapitulated what 
had been faid refpe6ling his queftions, and Mr, 
M'Latche's anfwer i adding, that upon his hefitation 
he immediately replied, in feeming difgufl and 
great exprefTions of anger, " Do you prefume to 
refufe me credit? certainly you know who I am, 
and what power I have : but perhaps you do not 
krtow, that if the matter required, and I pleafed, 
I could command and caufe the terrible thun- 
der* now rolling in tUe flcies above, to defcend 

• It tliuiitltreil, lightened, aiul rained ia a violent manner ilurins thefe 



Upon your head, in rapid fiery fhafts, and lay you 
proftrate at my feet, and conlume your ftores, 
turning them inftantly into dud and allies." Mr. 
M'Latche calmly . replied, that he was fully fenfi- 
ble that the Long Warrior was a great man, a 
powerful chief of the bands of the refpedable Si- 
minoles, that his name was terrible to his ene- 
mies, but ilill he doubted if any man upon earth 
had fuch power, but rather believed that thunder 
and lightning were under the direftion of the Great 
Spirit ; but however, fince we are not difpofed to 
deny your power, fupernatural influence and inter- 
courfe with the elements and fpiritual agents, or 
withhold the refpe6l and hom.age due to fo great a 
prince of the Siminoles, friends and allies to the 
white people ; if you think fit now, in the prefence 
of us all here, command and caufe yon terrible 
thunder, with its rapid fiery fliafts, to defcend upon 
the top of that Live Oak* in front of us, rend it ia 
pieces, fcatter his brawny limbs on the earth and 
confume them to afhes before our eyes, we will 
then own your fupernatural power, and dread your 

After fome filence the prince became more calm 
and eafy j and returned for anfvver, that recolleding 
the former friendfhip and good underftanding which 
had ever fubfifted betwixt the white people and red 
people of the Siminole bands, and in particular, the 
many a(fts of friendfhip and kindnefs received from 
Mr. M*Latche, he would overlook this affront j he 
acknowledged his reafoning and expoftulations to be 
juft and manly, that he fhould fupprefs his refentment, 
and withhold his power and vengeance at prefent. 
Mr. M'Latche concluded by faying, that he was not 

* A large ancient Live Oak flood in the yard about fifty yards dill.nce. 


i55l TRAVELS If? 

in the leafl: intimidated by his threats of deftroying 
him with thunder and lightning, neither was he 
•difpofed in any manner to difpleafe the Simiooles, 
and fhoiild certainly comply with his requifitions, 
as far as he could proceed without the advice and 
dircftions of the company ; and finally agreed to 
fupply him and his followers with fuch things as they 
flood mofl in need of, fuch as Ihirts, blankets, and 
fome paints, one half to be paid for direftly, and 
the remainder to ftand on credit until their return 
from the expedition. This determination entirely 
fatislied the Indians. We broke up the confer- 
ence in perfeft amity and good humour, and they 
returned to their camp, and in the evening, ratified 
it with feafting and dancing, which continued all 
next day with tolerable decorum. An occurrence 
happened this day, by which I had an opportunity 
of obferving their extraordinary veneration or dread 
of the rattle fnake. I was in the forenoon bufy in 
my apartment in the council-houfe, drawing fom© 
curious flowers ; when, on a fudden, my attention 
was taken off by a tumult without, at the Indian 
cam.p. I ftepped to the door opening to the piazza, 
where I met my friend the old interpreter, who 
informed me that there was a very large rattle 
fnake in the Indian camp, which had taken pofTefTion 
of it, having driven the men, women and children 
out, and he heard them faying that they would fend 
for Puc-Puggy (for that was the name which they 
had given me, fignifying the Flower Hunter) to 
kill him or take him out of their camp. I anfwer- 
ed, that I defired to have nothing to do with him,' 
apprehending fome difagreeable confequences j and 
defired that the Indians might be acquainted that I 
■was engaged in bufinefs that required application 
and quiet, and was determined Co avoid it if 
6 poffible. 


pofTible. My old friend turned about to carry my 
anfwer to the Indians. I prefently heard them ap- 
proaching and calling for Puc-Piiggy. Starting up 
to efcape from their fight by a back door, a par- 
ty confiding of three young fellows^ richly drefled 
and ornamented, fi:epped in, and with a countenance 
and action of noble fimplicity, amity and complai- 
fance, requefted me to accompany them to their 
encampment. I defircd them to excufe me at this 
time; they pleaded and entreated me to go with 
them, in order to free them from a great rattle 
fnake which had entered their camp ; that none of 
them had freedom or courage to expel him ; and 
underftanding that it was my pleafure to colledl all 
their animals and other natural produ6lions of their 
land, defired that I would come with them and take 
him away, that I was welcome to him. I at length 
confented, and attended on them to their encamp- 
ment, where I beheld the Indians greatly diflurbed 
indeed ; the men with flicks and tomahawks, and 
the women and children colledted together at a 
diftance in affright and trepidation, whillt the dread- 
ed and revered ferpent leifurely traverfed their 
camp, vifiting the fire-places from one to another^ 
picking up fragments of their provifions, and licking 
their platters. Tlie men gathered around me, ex- 
citing me to remove him : being armed with a 
lightwood knot, I approached the reptile, who in- 
ftantly collected himfelf in a vaft coil (dieir attitude 
of defence) I caft my miffile weapon at him, which 
luckily taking his head, difpatchcd him inftant- 
ly, and laid him trembling at my feet. I took out 
my knife, fevered his head from his body, then tu fil- 
ing about, the Indians complimented me with every 
demonftration of fatisfa6tion and approbation for 
my heroifm, and friendfhip fqr them. I carried ofJ 
S ■s ' ihc 


the head of the ferpent bleeding In my hand as a 
trophy of victory ; and taking out the mortal fangs, 
depofited them carefully amongft my colle6lions. I 
had not been long retired to my apartment, before 
I was again roufed from it by a tumult in the yard; 
and hearing Puc-Puggy called on, 1 ftarted up, 
when inftantly the old interpreter met me again, 
and told me the Indians were approaching in order 
to fcratch me. I aflced him for what ? he anfwer- 
ed for killing the rattle fnake within their camp. 
Before I could make any reply or efFeft my efcape, 
three young fellows finging, arm in arm, came up 
to me. I obferved one of the three was a young 
prince who had, on my firft interview with him, de- 
clared himfelf my friend and proteftor, when he 
told me that if ever occafion fhould offer in his pre- 
kncCy he would rifk his life to defend mine or my 
property. This young champion ftood by his two 
afTociates, one on each fide of him : the two affect- 
ing a countenance and air of difpleafure and impor- 
tance, inftantly prefenting their fcratching inftru- 
ments, and flourifhing them, fpoke boldly, and faid 
that I was too heroic and violent, that it would be 
good for me to lole fome of my blood to make me 
more mild and tame, and for that purpofe they were 
come to fcratch me. They gave me no time to ex- 
poftulate or reply, but attempted to lay hold on 
me, which I refifted ; and my friend, the young 
prince, interpofed and puilied them off", faying that 
I was a brave warrior and his friend ; that they 
Ihould not infuk me; when inftantly they altered 
their countenance and behaviour : they all whoop- 
ed in chorus, took me friendly by the hand, clapped 
me on the flioulder, and laid their hands on their 
breafts in token of fmcere friendfhip, and laughing 
aloud, feid I was a fincere friend to the Siminoles, 
3 a wor- 


a worthy and brave warrior, and that no one Ihould 
hereafter attempt to injure me. T.iey then all three 
joined arm in arm again and went off, (houting and 
proclaiming Puc-Puggy was their friend, &c. Thus 
it Teemed that the whole was a ludicrous farce to 
fatisfy their people, and appeafe the manes * of the 
dead rattle Inake. 

The next day was employed by the Indians in 
preparations for their departure, fuch as taking up 
their goods from the trading houfe, coUeding to- 
gether their horfes, making up their packs. Sec. 
and the evening joyfully fpent in fongs and dances. 
The fucceeding morning, after exhibiting the war 
farce, they decamped, proceeding on their expedi- 
tion againft their enemy. 

• Thefe people never kill the rattle fnake or any other ferpent, faying if 
they do fo, the fpirit of the killed funke will excite or influence his living; 
kindred or relatives to revenge the injury or violence done to him when 




But let us again refume the fubjefl of the rat- 
tle fnake j a wonderful creature, when we confider 
his fornn, nature, and dirpofition. It is Certain 
that he is capable by a punfture or fcratch of one 
of his fangs, not only to kill the largeft animal in 
America, and that in a few minutes time, but to 
turn the whole body into corruption ; but fuch is 
the nature of this dreadful reptile, that he cannot 
run or creeo falter than a man or child can walk, 
and he is never known to ftrike until he is firrt 
affauked or fears himfelf in danger, and even then 
always gives the earlieft warning by the rattles at 
the extremity of the tail. I have in the courfe of 
my travels in the Southern ftates (where they are the 
largeft, moft numerous and fuppofed to be the moft 
venomous and vindiclive) ft-ept unknowingly fo clofe 
as almoft to touch one of them with my feet, and 
when I perceived him he was already drawn up in 
circular coils ready for a blow. But, however in- 
credible it may appear, the generous, I may fay 
magnanimous creature lay as ftill and motionlefs as if 
inanimate, his head crouched in, his eyes almoft 
fhut. I precipitately withdrew, unlefs when I have 
been fo Ihocked with furprife and horror as to be in 
a manner rivetted to the fpot, for a iTiort time not 
having ftrength to go away ; when he often flowly 
extends himfelf and quietly moves off in a direct 
line, unlefs purfued, when he ereds his tail as far as 
the rattles extend, and gives the warning alarm by 
intervals. But if you purfue and overtake him with 
ji lliew of enmity, he inftantly throws himfelf into 



the fpiral coil ; his tail by the rapidity of its mo- 
tion appears like a vapour, making a quick tremu- 
lous found ; his whole body fwells through rage, 
continually rifing and falling as a bellows ; his beau- 
tiful particoloured fkin becomes fpeckled and rough 
by dilatation ; his head and neck are flattened, his 
cheeks fwollen and his lips conftridcd, difcover- 
ing his mortal fangs ; his eyes red as burning coals, 
and his brandifhing forked tongue of the colour of 
the hottefl: flame, continually menaces death and 
deftrudion, yet never ftrikes unlefs fure of his 

The rattle fnake is the largefl: ferpent yet known 
to exift in North America. I have heard of their 
having been feen formerly, at the firft fettling of 
Georgia, feven, eight, and even ten feet in length, 
and fix or eight inches diameter ; but there are none 
of that fize now to be feen ; yet I have {cen them 
above fix feet in length, and above fix inches in. 
thicknefs, or as large as a man's leg ; but their ge- 
neral fize is four, five, and fix feet in length. 
They are fuppofed to have the power of fafci- 
nation in an eminent degree, fo as to inthral their 
prey. It is generally believed that they charm 
birds, rabbits, fquirrels and other animals, and by 
fl:edfafl:ly looking at diem poflTefs them with infa- 
tuation : be the caufe what it may, the miferable 
creatures undoubtedly ilrive by every polTible 
means to efcape, but alas ! their endeavours are in 
vain, they at lafb lofe the power of refift:ance, and 
flutter or move flowly, but reluilantly, towards the 
yawning jaws of their devourers, and creep into 
their mouths, or lie down and fufler themfclves to 
be takrn and fwallowed. 

S 4, Since, 


Since, within the circle of my acquaintance, I 
am known to be an advocate or vindicator of the 
benevolent and peaceable difpofition of animal 
creation in general, not only towards mankind, 
whom they feem to venerate, but always towards one 
another, except where hunger or the rational and 
uecefTary provocations of the fenfual appetite inter- 
fere, I fhall mention a few inftances, amongft 
many, which I have had an opportunity of remark- 
ing during my travels, particularly with regard to 
the animal I have been treating of I Ihall ftridly 
connne myfelf to fa6ts. 

When on the fea-coafl of Georgia, I confented, 
with a few friends, to make a party of amufement 
at filhing and fowling on Sapello, one of the fea 
coaft iflands. We accordingly defcended the Alata- 
maha, crofiTed the found and landed on the North 
end of the ifland, near the inlet, fixing our encamp- 
ment at a pleafant fituation, under the fhade of a 
grove of Live Oaks, and Laurels *, on the high banks 
of a creek which we afcended, winding through a 
fait marfh, which had its fource from a fwamp and 
favanna in the illand: our fituation elevated and 
open, commanded a comprehenfive landfcape ; 
the great ocean, the foaming furf breaking on the 
fandy beach, the fnowy breakers on the bar, the 
cndlefs chain of iflands, checkered found and high 
continent all appearing before us. The diverting 
toils of the day were not fruitlefs, affording us op- 
po! tunides of furnifhing ourfelves plentifully with a 
variety of game, fifh and oyfters for our fupper. 

About two hundred yards from our camp was a 
cool fpring, amidit a giuve of the odoriferous My- 

* Magnolia gi andifloia, callea by the inhabitants the Laurel. 

rica s 


rica: the winding path to this faliibrious fountain led 
through a grafTy favanna. I vifited the fpring fevc- 
ral times in the night, but little did I know, or any 
of my carelefs drowfy companions, that every 
time we vifited the fountain we were in imminent 
danger, as I am going to relate. Early in the 
morning, excited bv unconquerable third, I a- 
rofe and went to the fpring ; and having, thought- 
lefs of harm or danger, nearly half paft the dewy 
vale, along the ferpentinc fo ;t-path, m.y hafty fteps 
were fuddenly flopped by the f ght of a hideous fer- 
pcnt, the formidable rattle fnake, in a high Ipiral 
coil, forming a circular mound half the height of 
my knees, within fix inches of the narrow path. 
As foon as I recovered my fcnfes and flrength from 
fo fudden a furprife, I ftarted back out of his reach, 
where I flood to view him : he lay quiet whiUl I 
furveyed him, appearing no way furprifed or dif- 
lurbed, but kept his half-fliut eyes fixed on me. 
My imagination and Ipirits were in a tumult, almofl 
equally divided betwixt thanklgiving to the fupremc 
Creator and Preferver, and the dignified nature of 
the generous though terrible creature, who had fuf- 
fered us all to pafo many times by him during the 
night, without injuring us in the leafl, although we 
mufl have touched him, or our fleps guided there- 
from by a fupreme guardian fpirit. I haflened back 
to acquaint my allociates, but with a determina- 
tion to prote6l the life of the generous ferpent. I 
prefently brought my companions to the place, who 
were, beyond exprefTion, lurpriied and terrified at 
the fiL'.ht of the animal, and in a moment acknow- 
ledged their efcape from deflrutlion to be miracu- 
lous ; and I am proud to afTert, tliat all of us, except 
one perlbn, agreed to let him lie undiflurbed, and 


266 TRAVELS Iff 

that perfon was at length prevailed upon to fuffer 
him to efcape. 

Again, when in my youth, attending my father 
on a journey to the Catfkill Mountains, in the go- 
vernment of New-York ; having nearly afcended 
the peak of Giliad, being youthful and vigorous in 
the purfuit of botanical and novel objefts, I had 
gained the fummit of a deep rocky precipice, a-head 
of our guide j when juft entering a fhady vale, I 
faw, at the root of a fmall flirub, a fingular and 
beautiful appearance, which. I remember to have 
inftantly apprehended to be a large kind of Fungus 
which we call Jews ears, and was juil drawing back 
my foot to kick it over ; when at the inilant, my 
father being near, cried out, "A rattle fnake, my 
fon ! " and jerked me back, which probably faved my 
life. I had never before feen one. This was of the 
kind which our guide called a yellow one, it was 
very beautiful, fpeckJed and clouded. My father 
pleaded for his life, but our guide was inexorable, 
laying he never fpared the life of a rattle fnake, 
and killed him j my father took his fldn and fangs. 

Some years after this, when again in company 
with my father on a journey into Eaft Florida, on 
the banks of St. Juan, at Fort Picolata, attending 
the congrefs at a treaty between that government 
and the Creek Nation, for obtaining a territory 
from that people to annex to the new government; 
after the Indians and a detachment from the gar- 
jifon of St. Auguftine had arrived and encamped 
ftparatciy, near the fort, fome days elapfed before 
the bufinefs of the treaty came on, waiting the ar- 
rival of a veffel from St. Auguftine, on board of 
which were the prefents for the Indians. My fa- 
ther employed this time of leifurc in little excur- 



Rons round about the fort ; and one mornings 
being the day the treaty commenced, I attended 
him on a botanical excurfion. Some time after we 
had been rambUng in a fvvamp about a quarter of 
a mile from the camp, I being a-head a few paces, 
my father bid me obferve the rattle fnake before 
and juft at my feet. I flopped and faw the monfter 
formed in a high fpiral coil, not half his length from 
my feet : another ftep forward would have put my 
life in his power, as I muft have touched if not 
itumbled over him. The fright and perturbation of 
my fpirits at once excited refentment ; at that tims 
I was entirely infenfible to gratitude or mercy. I 
inftai^tly cut off a little fapling, and foon difpatched 
him : this ferpent was about fix feet in length, and 
as thick, as an ordinary man's leg. The rencoun- 
ter deterred us from proceeding on our refearches 
for that day. So I cut off a long tough withe or 
vine, which faftening round the neck of the flain 
ferpent, I dragged him after me, his fcaly body 
founding over the ground, and entering the camp 
with him in triumph, was foon furrounded by the 
amazed multitude, both Indians and my country- 
:men. The adventure foon reached the ears of the 
commander, who fent an officer to requeft that, 
if the fnake had not bit himfeif, he might have 
him ferved up for his dinner. I readily delivered 
up the body of the fnake to the cooks, and being 
that day invited to dine at the governor's table, faw 
the fnake ferved up in feveral diflies; governor 
Grant being fond of the fiefh of the rattle fnake. 
I tailed of it, but could not fwallow it. I, however^ 
was forry after killing the ferpent, when coolly re- 
collecting every circumllance. He certainly had it 
in his power to kill me almoft inftantly, and I make 
fiQ doubt but that he was confcious of it. I pro- 



mifcd myfelf that I would never again be acceflary 
to the death of a rattle fnake, which promife I have 
jiDvariably kept to. This dreaded animal is eafily 
^xHled ; a flick no thicker than a man's thumb is fuf- 
ficient to kill the largeft at one ftroke, if well di- 
refted, either on the head or acrofs the back ; nor 
can they make their efcape by running off, nor in- 
deed do they attempt it when attacked. 

The moccafin fnake is a large and horrid ferpent 
to all appearance, and there are very terrifying 
ftories related of him by the inhabitants of the 
Southern ftates, where they greatly abound, par- 
ticularly in Eafl Florida : that their bite is always 
incurable, the fiefli for a confiderable fpace about 
the wound rotting to the bone, which then becomes 
carious and a general mortification enfues, which 
infallibly deftroys the patient j the members of the 
body rotting and dying by piecemeal : and that there 
is no remedy to prevent a lingering miferable death 
but by immediately cutting away the flefh to the 
bone, for fome diftance round about the wound. 
In fhape and proportion of parts they much refem- 
ble the rattle fnake, and are marked or clouded 
much after the fame manner, but the colours more 
dull and obfcurej and in their difpofition feem to 
agree with that dreadful reptile, being flow of pro- 
grefllon, and throwing themfelves in a fpiral coil 
ready for a blow when attacked. They have one pe- 
culiar quality, which is this, when difcovered, and 
obferving their enemy to take notice of them, after 
throwing themfelves in a coil, they gradually raife 
their upper mandible or jaw until it falls back near- 
ly touching their neck, at the fame time flowly vi- 
brating their long purple forked tongue, their crooked 
poifonous fangs directed right at you, which gives the 



creature a moft terrifying appearance. They are 
from three to four and even five feet in length- 
and as thick as a man's leg; they are not numerou'?, 
yet too common, and a fufficient terror to the n.i- 
ierable naked flaves, who are compelled to labour 
in the fwamps and low lands where only they abound. 

I never could find any that knew an inflance of 
any perfon's lofing their life from the bite of them, 
only by hearfay. Yet I am convinced it is highly 
prudent for every perfon to be on their guard a- 
gainft them. They~ appear to be of the viper tribe, 
from their fwelling of their body, and flattening their 
neck when provoked, and from their large poifon- 
ous fangs : their Iiead, mouth and eyes are remark- 
ably large. 

There is another fnake in Carolina and Florida 
called the moccafin, very different from this j which 
is a very beautiful creature, and I believe not of a 
deftru^live or vindiftive nature. Thefe when grown 
to their greateft fize are about five feet in length, 
and near as thick as a man's arm ; their fkin fcaly 
but fmooth and fiiining, of a pale grey and flcy co- 
lour ground, marked with tranfverfe un- 
dulatory ringlets or blotches of a deep nut brown, 
edged with red or bright Spanilh brown. They ap- 
pear innocent, very active and fv/ift, endeavouring 
to efcape from one ; they have no poifonous fangs. 
Thefe are feen in high foreft lands, about rotten 
logs or decayed fallen limbs of trees, and they har- 
bour about old log buildings. They feem^ to be a 
fpecies, if not the very fame fnake, which in Pcnnfyl- 
vania and Virginia is called the wampom fnake ; but 
here in warmer Southern climes they grow to a much 
larger fize, and from the fame accident their colour 
may be more variable and deeper. They are by 



the inhabitants aflerted to be dangeroufly venomous, 
their bite incurable, &c. But as I could never learn 
an inftance of their bite being mortal, or attended 
with any dangerous confequence, and have had 
frequent opportunities of obferving dieir nature and 
dilpofition, I am inclined to pronounce them an 
innocent creature, with refpe6t to mankind. 

The baftard rattle fnake, by feme called ground 
rattle fnake, is a dangerous little creature : their 
bite is certainly mortal if prefent medical relief is 
not adminiftered : they feem to be much of the na- 
ture of the afp or adder of the old world. 

This little viper is in form and colour much like 
the rattle fnake, but not fo bright and uniformly 
marked : their head is broader and fhorter in pro- 
portion to the other parts of their body : their 
nofe prominent and turned upwards : their tail be- 
comes fuddenly fmall from the vent to the extremi- 
ty, which terminates with three minute articula- 
tions, refembling ratdes : when irritated they turn 
up their tail, v/hich vibrates fo quick as to appear 
like a mill or vapour, but caufes little or no found 
or noife; yet it is the common report of the inha- 
bitants, that they caufe that remarkable vehe- 
ment noife, fo frequendy obferved in foreils in the 
heat of fummer and autumn, very tcrifying to 
ftrangers, which is, probably, caufed by a very fa- 
ble fmall infeft of the genus cicadae, or which are 
called locufts in America ; yet it is pofllble I may 
be miftaken in this conjecture. This dangerous vi- 
per is from eight to ten inches in length, and of 
proportionable thicknefs. They are fpiteful, fnap- 
pifli creatures ; and throwing themfelves into a little 
coil, they fwell and flatten themfelves, continually 
darting out their headj and they feem capable of 



rpringing beyond their length. They feem deftitutc 
of the pacific dilpoiition and magnanimity of the 
rattle fnakc, and are unworthy of an alliance with 
him. No man ever laves their lives, yet they remain 
too numerous, even in the oldeft fettled parts of 
the country. 

The green fnake is a beautiful innocent creature : 
they are from two to three feet in length, but not 
fo thick as a perfon's little finger; of the finell greea 
colour. They are very abundant, commonly feen 
on the limbs of trees and fnrubs : they prey upon 
infefts and repdles, particularly the little green 
chameleon : and the forked tailed hawk or kite 
feeds on both of them, fnatching them off tl\c 
boughs -of die trees. 

The ribband fnake is anodier vciy beautiful in- 
nocent ferpcnt: they are eighteen inches in length, 
and about the thicknefs of a man's litde finger i 
the head is very fmall ; the ground colour of a full, 
clear vermilion, variegated with tranverfe bars or 
zones of a dark brown, which people fancy repre- 
fents a ribband wound round die creature's body: 
they are altogether inoffenfive to man, and are in a 
manner domeflic, frequenting okl wooden buildings 
open grounds and plantations. 

The chicken fnake is a large, fcrong and fvvifc 
ferpent, fix or fcvcn feet in length, but fcarcely 
fo thick as a man's wrift -, they are of a cinereous, 
earthy colour, and ftriped longitudinally with broad 
lines or lifts, of a duf}s.y or blacki(h colour. They 
are a domeftic fnake, haunting about houfes and 
plantations ; and would be ufeful to man if tamed 
and properly tutored, being great devourers of rats, 



but they are apt to diflurb hen-roofts and prey 
upon chickens. They are as innocent as a worm 
with refpeft to venom, are eafily tamed, and foon 
become very familiar. 

The pine or bull fnake is very large and inoffen- 
five wiih refpeft to mankind, but devours fquirrels, 
birds, rabbits, and every other creature it can 
take as food. They are the largeft fnake yet known 
in North America, except the rattle fnake, and per- 
haps exceed him in length : they are pied black and 
white : tlicy utter a terrible loud hifllng noife, 
founding very hollow and like diftant thunder, when 
irritated, or at the time of incubation, when the 
males contend with each other for the defired fe- 
male. Thefe ferpents are alfo called horn fnakes, 
from their tail terminating with a hard, horny fpur, 
which they vibrate very quick when difturbed, but 
they never attempt to flrike with itj they have 
dens in the earth, whither they retreat precipitately 
when apprehenfive of danger. 

There are many other fpecies of fnakes in the 
regions of Florida and Carolina; as the water 
fnake, black fnake, garter fnake, copper belly, ring 
neck, and two or three varieties of vipers, befides 
thofe already noticed in my journal. Since I have 
begun to mention the animals of thefe regions, this 
may be a proper place to enumerate the other tribes 
which I obferved during my peregrinations. I fliall 
begin with the frogs (ranae.) 

(i) The largeft frog known in Florida and on 
the fea coaft of Carolina, is about eight or nine 
inches in length from the nofe to the extremity of 
the toes : they are of a dufky brown or black co- 
lour on the upper fide, and their belly or under fide 



Nvhlte, fpotted and clouded with dufky fpOts of va- 
rious fize and figure; their legs and thighs alfo arc 
variegated with tranfverie ringlets, of dark brown 
or black; and they are yellow and green about 
their mouth and lips. They live in wet fwamps and 
marihes, on the fliores of large rivers and lakes ; 
their voice is loud ind hideous, gready refembling 
the o-runtincr of a fwine; but not near as loud as the 
voice of tht^ bull frog of Virginia and Pcnnfylvania : 
neither do they arrive to half dieir fize, the bull frog 
being frequendy eighteen inches in length, and 
their roaring as loud as that of a bull. 

(2) The bell frog, fo called becaufe their voice 
is fancied to be exaftly like the found of a loud 
cow bell. This tribe being very numerous, and 
uttering their voices in companies or by large dif- 
tritlsj when one begins another anf"wers j thus the 
found is caught and repeated from one to another, 
to a great diftance round about, caufing a furprif- 
ing noife for a few minutes, riling and finking ac- 
cording as the wind fits, when it nearly dies away, 
or is foftly kept up by diftant diftrifts or commu- 
nities: thus the noife is repeated continually, and 
as one becomes familiarifed to it, is not unmufical, 
though at firft, to flrangers, it feems clamorous and 

(3) A beautiful green frog inhabits the grafTv) 
marlhy fliores of thefe large rivers. They are very 
numerous, and their noife exactly refcmblcs the 
barking of little dogs, or the yelping of puppies : 
thefe likewife make a great clamour, but as their 
notes are fine, and uttered in chorus, by feparate 
bands or communities, far and near, rifing and 
falhng with the gentle breezes, atfords a pleafing 
kind of mufic. 

T (4) There 

^74 TRAVELS T5i 

(4) There is befides this a lefs green frog,, 
which is very common abo^it houfes : their notes 
are remarkably like that of young chickens : thefc' 
raife their chorus immediately preceding a Ihower 
©f rain, with which they feem delighted. 

(5) A little grey fpeckled frog is in prodigi- 
ous numbers in and about the ponds and favannas 
on high land, particularly in Pine forefts : their lan- 
guage or noife is alfo uttered in chorus, by large 
communities or feparate bands ; each particular 
note refembles the noife made by ftriking two peb- 
bles together under the furface of the water, whicli. 
when thoufands near you utter their notes at the 
fame time, and is wafted to your ears by a 
fudden flow of wind, is very furprifing, and does 
not ill refem.ble the rufhing noife made by a vaft . 
quantity of gravel and pebbles together, at once 
precipitated from a great height. 

(6) There is yet an extreme diminutive fpecles 
of frogs, which inhabits the graffy verges of ponds 
in favannas : thefe are called favanna crickets, are 
of a dark afh or dufky colour, and have a very- 
picked nofe. At the times of very great rains, in 
the autumn, when the favannas are in a manner 
inundated, they are to be feen in incredible multi- 
tudes clambering up the tall grafs, weed, &c. round 
the verges of the favannas, bordering on the higher 
ground; and by an inattentive perfon might be ta- 
ken for fpiders or other infedts. Their note is very 
feeble, not unlike the chattering of young birds or 

(7) The i}\id frog, fo called in Pennfylvania from 
their appearing and croaking in the fpring feafon^ 
at the time the people tiih for Hiad: this is a 



beautiful fpotted frog, of a flcnder fonn, five or fix 
inches in length from the nofe to tlie extremities ; 
of a dark olive green, blotched with clouds and 
ringlets of a dufky colour: thefe are remarkable 
jumpers and cnterprifing hunters, leaving their 
ponds to a great difiance in fearch of prey. Thcy 
abound in rivers, fvvamps and marfiies, in the Sou- 
thern regions; in the evening and fukry fumiTicr 
days, particularly in times of drought, are very 
noifyi and at fome diftance one would be alm.oll 
perfuaded that there were afft^mblies of men in fe- 
tious debate. Thefe have alfo a flicking Or cluck- 
ing noife, like that which is made by fucking in the 
tongue under the roof of the mouth. Thefe ard 
the kinds of water frogs that have come under my 
obfervation ; yet T am perfuaded that there are yet 
remaining feveral other fpecies. 

(81 The high land frogs, commonly called toads^ 
are of two fpecies, the red and black. The for- 
tner, which is of a reddifli brown or brick colour^ 
is the largeft, and may weigh upwards of one pound 
when full grown : they have a difagreeable lookj 
and when irritated, they fwell and raife themfelves 
iip on their four legs and croak, but are no ways 
venomous or hurtful to man. The other fpecies 
are one third lefs, and of a black and darkdufl^y co- 
lour. The legs and thighs of both are marked with 
blotches and ringlets of a darker colour, which ap- 
pear more confpicuous when provoked : the fmaller 
black fpecies are the mod numerous. Early in the 
fpring feafon, they alTemble by numberlefs multi- 
tudes in the drains and ponds, when their univerfal 
croaking and fhouts are great indeed, yet in fijm.e 
degree not unharmonious. Afcer this breeding ti;re 
thev crawl out of the water aad fpread then.felves 

T 2 all 


all over the coiintiy. Their fpawn being hatche:^ 
in the warm water, the larva is there nouriflied, 
palling through the like metamorphofes as the 
water frogs j and as foon as they obtain four feet, 
whilft yec no larger than crickets, they leave the 
fluid nurfery-bed, and hop over the dry land after 
their parents. , 

The food of thefe amphibious creatures, when 
out of the water, is every kind of infeft, reptile, 
&c. they can take, even ants and fpiders; nature 
having furniilied them with an extreme long tongue, 
which exudes a vifcid or glutinous liquid, they be- 
ing fecreted under covert, fpring fuddenly upon 
their prey, or dart forth their tongue as quick as 
lightning, and inftantly drag into their devouring 
jav/s the unwary infeft. But whether they prey up- 
on one another, as the water frogs do, I know not. 

There are feveral fpecies of the lizard kind bc- 
fides the alligator, which is by naturalifts allowed 
to be a fpecies of that genus. 

The green lizard or little green chameleon is a 
pretty innocent creature: the kurgeft I have ktv\ 
were not more than (cvtn inches in length : they 
appear comimonly of a fine green colour, having a 
large red gill under their throat: they have the fa- 
culty of changing colour, which, notvvithllanding 
the fpccious reafcning of phyfiologifts, is a very 
iurprifing phenomenon. Tlie ftripcd lizard, cnlled 
fcorpion, and the blue bellied fquamous lizards 1 
have already mentioned. Hiere is a large copper 
coloured lizard, and a very flender one of a fine 
blue colour, and very fwiftj the tail of this laft, 
which is very long and flender, is as fubjedt to be 
broken off as that of the glafs fnake. 1 hefc two 



laft are become very fcarce, and when fecn are dif- 
covered about old log buildings. 

Here are feveral Ipecics of the tortoife, befides 
thofe already mentioned ; as the fmall land tor- 
toife, already defcribed by every traveller. Therci 
is a good figure and defcription of him in G. 
Edwards's Gl. Nat. Mill. vol. II. p. 2.05. There 
are two fpecies of frefh- water tortoifes inhabiting 
the tide water rivers ; one of which is large, weigh- 
ing ten or twelve pounds, the back fliell of nearly 
iin oval form, and raifed very high, the belly 
fliell flat and entire, but deeply fcolloped oppofite 
the legs. The other fpecies are fmall, com- 
paratively, and the back fhell lightly raifed : both 
fpecies are food for mankind, and elleemed deli- 

Of beafls, the otter (lutra) is common, but more 
fo in Weft Florida, towards the mountains. The 
feveral fpecies of m.uftela are con^imoii ; as the 
mink, weafel and polecat (puLorius). Racoons and 
opofTums are in great abundance 3 thefe animals 
are efteemed delicious and healthy food. There 
are two fpecies of wild-rats ; but neither of them 
near as large as the European houfe rat, which are 
common enough in the fettlements of rlie white 
people. Here are very few mice -, yet I have feen 
fome, particularly in Charlcfton. I law two in a 
little wire cage, at a gentleman's houfe, which were 
as white as fnow, and their eyes red. Ihere are 
yet a few beavers in Eaft-Florida and Georgia, but 
they abound moft in the north of Georgia, and in 
Weft- Florida, near the mountains. But the muf!:- 
cat (caftor cauda lanceolara) is never feen in Ca- 
rolina, Georgia or Florida, within one hundred 
jT)iles of the fea coaft, and very few in the moft 

T 3 northern 


northern parts of thefc regions ; which muft be 
confidered as a nioft favourable circumftancej by 
the people in countries where there is fo much 
banking and draining of the land, they being the 
moft dellructive creatures to dykes. 

The roe-buck I have already mentioned. The 
bears are yet too numerous : they are a ftrong crea- 
ture, and prey on the fruits of the country, and will 
likev/ife devour young calves, fwine and fheep ; but 
I never cculd learn a well attefced inftance of their 
attacking mankind. They weigh from five hundred 
to fix hundred weight when full grown and fat : dicir 
f^Ltfh is greatly efteemed as food by the natives. 

The ■v^ild car, felis cauda truncata, (lynx) is 
common enough: it is a fierce and bold little 
animal, preying on young pigs, fawns, turkeys, d-zc. 
Th?y are not half the fize of a commiOn cur dog, 
are generally of a greyilh colour, and fomewhat 
tabbied ; iheir fides bordering on the belly are va- 
ried with ycllov/iili brown Ipors, and almoft black- 
waving ftreaks, and brindled. I have been credibly 
informed that the wolves here are frequently feen 
pied, black and white, and of other mixed colours. 
They alfemble in comp:inies in the night time, 
howl and bark all together, efpecially in cold winter 
nights, which is tci Haying to the wandering be- 
v/iidtrred trav-ji:er. 

The foxt^s of Carolina and Florida are of the 
fmaller red fpecies : they bark in the night round 
about plantudons, but do not bark twice in the 
Ihme place ; t!iey move precipirately, and in a few 
minutes are heard on the oppofite fide of the plan- 
tation, or L.t a great diitance : it is laid that dogs 
are terrified at the noife, and cannot be perfuaded 

■ or 


\->r compelled to piirfu.e tliem. They commit 
depredations on yDung pigs, lambs, poultry, 

The mole is not Co common here as in the 
northern eftates. 

The bats of Florida fcem to Le the fame fpe- 
cies of thofe in Pennfylvania and Virginia, and very 
Jittle different from the European. 

Here are feveral fpecies of fquirrels, (fciurus) 
peculiar to the lower countries, or maritime pares 
of Carolina and the Floridas, and fom.e of them 
are very beautiful creatures. 

The great black fox fquirrel is above two feet 
in length from the nofe to the end of the tail, 
which for about two inches is milk white, as are 
the ears and nofe. The red fox fquirrel is of the 
fame fize and form, of a light reddifn brown upper 
fide, and white under fide, the ears and tip end of 
the tail white. 

The grey fox fquirrel is rather larger than 
•either of the foregoing ; their belly white, as are 
the ears, nofe, and tip of the tail. Thefe three 
feem to be varieties of the fame fpecies. 

The common grey fquirrel is about half the fize 
of the preceding. 

The black fquirrel is about the fame fize, and all 
-over of a fliining jet black. 

The little grey fquirrel is much Icfs than either 
■of the preceding fpecies ; it is of a brovvnifh grey 
upper fide, and white belly. 

T 4 The 


The ground fquirrel, or little flriped fquirrel o{ 
Pennfylvania and the northern regions, is never 
feen here, and very rarely in the mountains north- 
weft of thefe territories ; but the flying fquirrel 
(fciurus volans) is very common. 

The rabbit (lepus minor, cauda abrupta, pupil- 
lis atris) is pretty common, and no ways differing 
from thofe of Pennfylvania and the northern ftates. 

Having mentioned moft of the animals in thefe 
parts of America, which are moft remarkable oj 
lifeful, there remains, however, yet fome obferva- 
tions on birds, which by fome may be thought not 

There are but few that have fallen under my 
obfervation, but have been mentioned by the zoo- 
]oc;ift3, and moft of them very well figured in 

CatefDy's, or Edwards's works. 

But thefe authors have done very little towards 
elucidating the fubjedl of the migration of birda, 
q: accounting for the annual appearance and dif- 
appearance, and vanifning of thefe beautiful and 
entertaining beings, who vifit us at certain ftated 
feafons. Catefbyhas faid very little on this curious 
fubject ; but Edwsrds more, and perhaps all, or as 
much as could be faid in truth, by the moft able and 
ingenious, who had not the advantage and oppor- 
tunity of ocular obfervation ; wh\ch can only be 
acquired by travelling, and re'iding a whole year 
at leaft in the various climates from north to fouth, 
to the full extent of their peregrinations j or mi- 
nutely examining the trafts and oblervations of cu- 
rious and induftrious travellers who have publiilied 
their memoirs on this fubjecl. There may perhaps 
be fome perfons who confidcr this enquiry not to 



be produftive of any real benefit to mankind, and 
pronounce fuch attention to natural hiitory merely 
fpeculative, and only fit to amufe and entertain the 
idle virtuoi'o ; however the ancients thought other- 
wife : for, with them, the knowledge of the pafiage 
of birds was the ftudy ot their priefts and philofo- 
phers, and was confidered a matter of real and in- 
difpenfible ufe to the Hate, next to aftronomy j as 
we find their fyilem and practice of agriculture was 
in a great degree regulated by the arrival and dif- 
appearance of birds of pailage; and perhaps a ca»- 
lendar under fuch a regulation at this time, might 
be ufefui to the huilaandman and gardener. 

But however attentive and obfervant the an- 
cients were on this branch of fcience, they feem to 
have been very ignorant or erroneous in their con- 
jectures concerning what became of birds, after 
their difappearance, until their return again. In 
the fouthern and temperate climates fome imagin- 
ed they went to the moon : in the northern regions 
they fuppofed that they retired to caves and hollow- 
trees, for fhelter and fecurity, where they remained 
in a dormant flate during the coid feafons : and 
even at this day, very celebrated men have alferted 
that fwallows (hirundo) at the approach of winter, 
voluntarily plunge into lakes and rivers, defcend 
to the bottom, and there creep into the mud and 
flime, where they continue overwhelmed by ice In 
a torpid (late, until the returning fummer warmsS 
them again into life ; when they rife, return to the 
furface of the water, immediately take vv'ing, and 
again people the air. This notion, though the latefr, 
feems the moil difficult to reconcile to reafon and 
common fenfe, refpeding a bird fo fwift of flight 
that it can with eafe and pleafure move through the 



air even fwifter than the winds, and in a fcvr 
hours time fhift twenty degrees from north to 
foiith, even from frozen regions to climes where 
froil is never {ocn, and where the air and plains 
are replenifhed with flying infefts of infinite va- 
riety, ics favourite and only food. 

rVnnlylvania and Virginia appear to me to be 
the ciixiates in North-America, where the greateft 
•yariety and abundance of thefe winged emigrants 
.choofe to cejebrate their nuptials, and rear their 
o/Tspring, which they annually return with, to their 
winter habitations, in the foutiiern regions of N. 
America ; and moft of thofe beautiful creatures, 
which annually people and harmonife our forefts and 
gTOves, in the fpring and fummer fcafons, are birds 
of paffage from the fouthward- The eagle, i. e. 
taico kucocephalus, or bald eagle, falco maximus, 
or gi-eat grey eagle, falco major cauda ferruginea, 
falco piillarius, falco columbarius, ftrix pythaulis, 
Ihix acclamatus,. ftiix affio, tetrao tympanus, or 
phcafant of Pennfylvania, tetrao urogailus, or 
mountain cock or grous of Pennfylvania, tetrao 
minor five cocurnix, or partridge of Pennfylvania, 
picus, or woodpeckers of feveral fpecies, corvus 
carnivorus, . or raven, corvus frugivora, or crow, 
corvus glandarius f. corvus criftatus, or blue jay, 
alaiida m.axima, regulus atrofufcus minor, or marlli 
VvTcn, fitta, or nuthatch, meleagris, are perhaps 
nearly all the land birds which continue the year 
round in Pennfylvania. I might add to thefe the 
hkic bird, motacilla fialis, mock bird, turdus poly- 
gtottos, and ibmetimies the robin redbreaft, turdus 
nrigratcrius, in extraordinary warm winters ; and 
akhoush I do not pretend to afllrt as a known 
!ru:h, ^et it may be found on future; obfervation 
8 that 


(dmt moft of thefe above mentioned are ftrangers; 
or not really bred where they wintered ; but arc 
more northern families, or fojourners, bound fou- 
therly to more temperate habitations ; thus pufli- 
jng each other foutherly, and policfling their va- 
cated places, and then back agaiii at tlie return Oi 

Very, few tribes of birds build, or rear dicir 
young, in the f:^uth or maritime parts of Virginia 
and Carolina, Georgia and Florida ; yet all tliclc 
numerous tribes, particularly of the foft billed 
kinds, which breed in Pennfylvania, pals in the 
ipring feafon through thefe regions in a few weeks 
time, making but very fliort ftagcs by the way : 
and again, but few of them winter there, on their 
return foutherly; and as I have never travelled 
the continent fouth of New Orleans, or the point 
of Florida, where few or none of them are to be 
feen in the winter, I am entirely ignorant how far 
ibuthward they condnue their route, during their 
abfence from Pennfylvania ; but perhaps none of 
them pafs the tropic. 

When in my refidence in Carolina and Florida, 
I have feen yaft flights of the houfe fwallov/ (hirun- 
do pelafgia) and bank martin (hirundo riparia) paf- 
fing onward north toward Pennfylvania, where they 
breed in the fpring, about the middle of Majxh, 
and likewife in the autumn in September or Ofto- 
ber, and large flights on their return ibuthward. 
And it is obfervable that they always avail thcni- 
felves of the advantage of Ingh and favourable, 
winds, which li];ewilc do all birds of paflage. The 
pewit, or black cap flycatcher, of Catefbv, is the 
Brfl; bird of paflFage which appears in the fpring in 
Pennfylvania, which is generally about the flril-, or 



middle of March ; and then wherever they appear, 
we may plant peas and beans in the open grounds, 
(vicia fativa) French beans (phafeolus) fow rad- 
difhes, (raphanus) lettuce, (laduca) onions, (cepa) 
paftinaca, daucus, and almoft every kind of ej- 
culenc garden feeds, without fear or danger from 
frofts ; for although we have fometimes frofts af- 
rer their firft appearances for a night or two, yet not 
fo fevere as to injure the young plants. 

In the fpring of the year the fmall birds of paf- 
fage appear very fuddenly in Pennfylvania, which 
is not a little furprifing, and no lefs pleafing : at 
once tie woods, the groves, and meads, are filled 
with their melody, as if they dropped down from 
the fi<;ies. The reafon or probable caufe is their 
fetting off v/ith high and fair winds from the fouth- 
ward ; for a ftrong fouth and fouth-weft wind abouc 
the beginning of April never fails bringing millions 
of thefe welcome vifitors. 

Being willing to contribute my mite towards 
illuftrating the fubjed of the peregrination of the 
tribes of birds of N. America, 1 fliall fubjoin a 
nomenclature of the birds of pafTage, agreeable to 
my obfervation, when on my travels from New 
England to New-Orleans, on the Mifliflippi, and 
point of Florida. 

Land birds which are feen in Pennfylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, from S. Carolina, Georgia, 
and Florida, N. and the fea coaft Weftward, to the 
Apalachian mountains, viz. 

■* These arrive in Pennfylvania in the fpring 
feafon from the South, and after building nefts, 
nnd rearing their young, return again Southerly in 
the auLun^n. 

I Thes£; 


f These arrive in Pennfylvania in the autumn, 
from the North, where they continue during the 
winter, and return again the fpring following, I 
fiippofe to breed and rear their young j and thefe 
kinds continue their journies as far as South Caro- 
h'na and Florida. 

J Thefe arrive in the fpring in Carolina and 
Florida from the South, breed and rear their young, 
and return South again at the approach of win- 
ter, but never reach Pennfylvania, or the Northern 

II These are natives of Carolina and Florida, 
where they breed and continue the year round. 

^ These breed and continue the year round in 

Strix. The Owl. 

f Strix ardicus, capite levi, corporc toto niveo; 

the o-reat white ovrl. 
^ Strix pythaules, capite aurito, corpore rufb ; 

the great horned owl. 
•}■ Strix maximus, capite aurito, corpore niveo ; 

the great horned white owl. 
^ Strix acclamator, capite levi, corpore grifeo ; 

the whooting owl. 
f Strix peregrinator, capite aurito, corpore ver- 

ficolore , the fharp winged owl. 
<|[ Strix aflio, capite aurito, corpore ferrugineoi 

the little fcrtech owl. 


II Vultur aura ; the turkey-buzzard. ' 

il Vultur facra ; the white-tailed vulture. 

il Vultur atratus ; black vulture, or carrion crow. 


.^5 TRAVELS ipr 

Falco. Eagle and Hawkv 


^ Falco regalis ; the great grey eagle. 
lj[ F. leucocephalusi the bald eagle. 

* F. pifcatorius ; the fidiing eagle. 

^ F. Aquilinus, cauda ferrug. ; great eagle hawk, 
«[[ F. gallinarius ; the hen hawk. 
^' F. piillarius j the chicken hawk. 

* F. columbarius ; the pigeon hawk. 
€| F. niger ; the black hawk. 

* F. ranivorus ; the marfh hawk. 

* F. fparveriiis j the leafthawk or fparrow fparko 

a MiLvus. Kite Hawk. 

[[ Falco furcatus ; the forked tall hawk, or kite. 
II F. glaucus J the Iharp winged hawk of a pale 

fl-iy-blue colour, the tip of the wings black. 
[I F. fubceruleus ; the fharp winged hawk, of a 

dark or dufl^y blue colour. 
I Pfittacus Carolinienfis ; the parrot of Carolina^ 

or parrakeet. 

CoRvus. The Crow kind. 

* Corvus carnivorus ; the raven. 

[[ C. maritimus ; the great fea-fide crow, or rooki 
^ C. frugivorus ; the common crow. 
^ C. criftatus, f. pica glandaria j the blue jay. 
^ C. Floridanus, pica glandaria minor i the little; 

jay of Florida. 
^ Gracula qulfcula ; the purple jackdaw of thei 
fca coail. 

a Kitc^ h.iwks. Thefe are cliarrifl'erifed by having long (hnrp pointed 
ivinj'', being of fwift rtip,ht, Iniling without flapping their wings, lean lighc 
bodies, anil fe(.'din2 out of chtir claws on the wing, as they gently fail round 
and ruund. 

Pica>;lamlar'a cernlca non crifta'a, the little jay of fall Florida. 

* G.acub 


* Gracula purpurea ; the lelTcr purple jackdaw, 

or crow blackbird. 

* Guculus Carolinieniis ; the ciickoo of Carolina, 

Picus. Woodpeckers. 

iJ PIcus principalis ; the greatcfl: crefted wood- 
pecker, having a white back. 

* P. pellacus i the great red crefted black wood- 


* P. erythrocephalus ; red headed woodpecker* 

* P. auratus ; the gold winged woodpecker. 
<([ P. Carolinus ; the red bellied woodpecker. 

C[ P. pubelcens ; the leafl ipotted woodpecker. 
«[ P. viliofus ; the hairy, fpeckled and crefted 

^ P. varius ; yellow bellied woodpecker., 
«^ Sitta Europeii grey black capped nuthatch. 
-{■ S. varla, ventre rubro j the black capped, red 

bellied nuthatch. 
j- Certhia rufa ; little brown variegated creeper, 

* C. pinus 5 the pine creeper. 

* C. pi6la ; blue and white ftriped or pied creeper, 

* Alcedo alcyon ; the great crefted king-fifher. 

* Trochilus colubris ; the humming bird. 

* Lanius grifcus ; the little grey butcher-bird of 


* L. garrulus ; the little black capped or butcher 

bird of Florida. 

* L. tyrannus ; the king bird. 

* Mufcicapa nunciola j the pewit, or black cap 


* M. criftata ; the great crefted yellow bellied 


* M. rapax j the lefler pewit, or brown and 

greenifti flycatcher. 

* M. fubviridis ; the little olive col'^- flycatcher. 

* Mufcicapa 

ft88 tRAV£tS tl^ 

* Mufclcapa cantatrix ; the little domeflic fly« 

catcher, or green wren. 

* M. fylvicola ; the little red eyed fiycatchen 

* Columba Carolinienfis, the turtle dove. 
[{ C. paflerinaj the dove. 

jj C. migratoria; the pigeon of pafTage or Vi'ild 

* Alauda magna ; the great meadow lark. 

f A. campeftris, gutture flavo ; the fky lark. 

^ A. migratoria, ccrpore toto ferrugineo; the 

little brown lark. 
^ Turdus migratorius ; the fieldfare, or robirl 


* T. rufus ; the great, or fox coloured thruHi. 

* T. polyglottos J the mocking bird. 

* T. meiodes ; the wood thrufh. 

* T. minimus, vertice auro j the leaft poldcn 

crown thrufh. 

* Oriolus Baltimore ; Baltimore bird or hang neft* 

* O. fpurius ; the goldfinch or idterus minor. 

* Merula flammula ; fand-hill red bird of Carolina. 

* M. Marilandica ; the fummer red bird. 

* Garrulis auftralis ; the yellow breaited chat. 

* Lucar lividus, apice nigr^. j the cat bird, or 

chicken bird. 
^ Ampelis garrulus j crown bird, or cedar bird. 

Granivorous Tribes. 

^ Meleagrls Americanos ; the wild turkey. 
% Tetrao lagopus ; the mountain cock, or groilB. 
% T. rympanus ; the pheafant of Pennfylvania. 
^ T. minor, f. coturnix i the quail or partridge. 
^ Loxia cardinalis j the red bird, or Virginia 

t L. roliro forficato ; the crofs beak. 
* L. ccrulea ^ the blue crofs beak* 

1 * Emberlza 


^ Emberiza oryzivora ; ( i ) the rice bird.* 

-j- E. lividaj the blue or Hate coloured rice bird. 

* E. varia; (2) the pied rice bird. 

if Linaria ciris ; the painted finch, or nonpareil. 

* L. cyanea ; the blue linnet. 

^ Carduelis Americanus ; the goldfinch, 
f C. minus; the leffer goldfinch. 
f C. pufilus; the leaft finch. 

* Fringilla erythrophthalma ; the towhe bird, 
•f F. purpurea ; the purple finch. 

f F. cannabina ; the hemp bird. 

-j- F. rufaj the red, or fox-coloured ground or 

hedge fparrow. 
t F. Fufca ; the large brown white throat fparrow. 

* Pafler domefticusj the little houfe fparrow or 

chipping bird. 

* P. paluftris ; the reed fparrow. 

* P. agrcftis ; the little field fparrow, 
j" P. nivalis j the fnow bird. 

* Calandra pratenfis; the May bird. 

* Sturnus prsdatoriusj the red winged ftarlingj 

or corn thief. 

* S. ftercorarius ; the cowpen bird. 

^ Motaclila fialis ; the blue bird. (Rubicula Ame- 
ricana, Cat.) 

* M. fluviatilis ; the water wagtail. 

* M. domeftica (regulus rufus) ; the houfe wren. 
«[ * M. paluftris ; (reg. minor) the marfh wren. 

* Nl. Caroliniana -, (reg. magniis) the great wrefl 

of Carolina, the body of a dark brown, the 
throat and breaft of a pale clay colour. 

* Regulus grifeus ; the little bluiih grey wren. 
f R. criftatus -, the golden crown wren. 

* (1,2) Are generally fwppofed to he male and female of ihe fame fpecies 
(i).or the pLed rice bird, the male, and { i) or Che yellow, Che female. 


j- R. criftatus alter vertice rubini coloris] the ruby 
crown wren. (G. Edwards.) 

* R. peregrinus, gutture flavo i the olive coloured 

yellow throated wren. 

* Ruticilla Americana ; the redftart. 

* Lufcinia, f. philomela Americana; the yelloW 

hooded titmoufe. 

* Parus criftatus j bluifh grey crefted titmoufe. 
^ P. Europxus, the black cap titmoufe. 

* P. luteus ; the fummer yellow bird. 

* P. cedrus uropygio fiavo ; the yellow rump. 

* P. varius ; various coloured little finch creeper. 

* P. peregrinus j little chocolate breaft titmoufe, 

* P. aureus vertice rubro ; the yellow red pole. 

* P. aurco vertice ; the golden crown flycatcher. 

* P. viridis gutture nigroj the green black 

throated flycatcher. 

* P. alis aureis; the golden winged flycatcher. 

* P. aureus alis ceruleisj the blue winged yellow 

*- P. giifeus gutture luteo j the yellow throated 

* Hirundo pelafgia cauda aculesrta j the houfe 


* H. purpurea ; the great purple martin. 

* H. riparia vertice purpurea ; the bank martin. 

* H. cerdo j the chimney fwallow. 

J Caprimulgus lucifugus j the great bat, or chuck 
wills widow. 

* "C. Americanus ; night hawk, or whip poor will, 

. Amphibious, or A(iyATic Birds, 
Or fuch as obtain their food, and refide, iii and 
near the water. 

Grus. The Crane. 
Ij Grus clamator, vertice papillofo, corpore ni- 
4 veo 


Veo remlglbiis nigtis ; the great whooping 
J G'. pratenfis ; corpore cinereo, vertice papillofo ; 
the great favanna crane. 

Ardea. The Heron. 
<l[ Ardea Herodias ; the great bluifli grey crefted 

* A. immaculata j the great white river heron, 

* A. alba minor ; the Httle white heron. 

J A. purpurea criftata ; the little crefted purple or 
blue heron. 

* A. varia criftata ; the grey white crefted heron. 

if A. maculata criftata; the fpeckled crefted heron, 
or crabcatcher. 

* A. mugitans j the marfti bittern, or Indian hen. 

* A. clamator, corpore fubcjeruleo j the quaw 

bird, or frogcatcher. 
J A. fubfulca ftiilataj the little btownifti fpotted 

^, A. violacea ; the crefted blue bittern, (called 

poor Job.) 

* A. virifcens ; the green bittern or poke. 

* A. virifcens minor; the lefter green bittern. 

* A. parva; the leaft brown and ftriped bittern- 

* Platalea ajaja ; the Ipoonbill, {cen as far North 

as Alatamaha river in Geors-la. 

Tantalus. The wood Pelican. 
;J; Tantalus loculator ; the wood Pelican. 
jl T. albus ; the white Spanifli curlew. 
j^ T. fufcus; the dulky and white Spanifti curlew. 
H T. pidtus ; (Ephou{l<;yka Indian) the crying bird, 

beaudfully fpeckled. 
I T. Ichthyophagus ; the gannet ; perhaps little 

different from the Ibis, 
ij Numenius alba varia ; the white godwit. 
f N. peftore rufo ; the great red breafted godwir. 

U 2 ^ K. 

Q.^2 TRAVELS 1?^ 

f N. Americana ; the greater godwit. 

^ N. fluvlalis ; the redfliank or pool fnipe. 

^ N. magnus riifus ; the great fea coaft curlew, 

* N. minor campeftris ; the lefTer field curlew. 
^ N. cine reus ; the feafide lefler curlew. 

* Scolopax Americana rufa ; great red woodcock, 

* S. minor arvenfis ; the meadow fnipe. 

* Tringa rufa j the red cootfooted tringa. 

T. cinerea, gutture albo; the white throated 

cootfooted tringa. 
T. vertice nigro ; black cap cootfooted tringa. 
% T. maculata ; the fpotted tringa. 
% T. grifea ; the litde pond fnipe. 
^ T. fufca ; the little brown or alh coloured 

pool fnipe. 
f T. parva ; the little tringa of the fea fhore, 
called fand bird. 

* Morinclla Americana ; the turnftone or dotrel. 
■f Cygnus ferus ; the wild fwan. 

f Anfer Canadenfis ; the Canadian goofe. 

f A. alis cjErulis ; the blue winged goofe. 

i A. fufcus maculatus ; the laughing goofe. 

I A. branta, corpore albo, remigibus nigris ; the 
white brant goofe. 

f A. branta grifea maculata; the great parti- 
coloured brant, or grey goofe. 

f Anas fera torquata major, caput et collum 
viridi fplendentia, dorfum grifeo fufcum, 
peftore rufefcentc, fpeculum violaceum; the 
great wild duck, called duck and mallard. 

■\ A. nigra maxima j the great black duck. 

-j- A. bucephala ; the bull-neck and buffaloe head. 

f A. fubcasrulea ; the blue bill. 

f A. Icucoccphala ; th^ black white faced duck. 

f A. caudacuta ; the fprig tail duck. 

■j- A. ruftica ; the little brown and white duck. 

t A. 


f A. principalis, maculata; the various coloured 
duck, his neck and bread as though orna- 
mented with chains of beads. 

j- A. minor pidla; the little black and white 
duck called butterback. 


* Anas fponfaj the fummer duck. 
t A. difcors ; the blue winged teal. 

f A. migratoria -, the leafl green winged teal. 

* A. fiftulofa i whiftling duck. 

f Mergus major peclore rufo; great fifhing duck,. 
■)• M. cucLillatus ; the round crefted duck. 

* Colymbus migratorius ; the eel crow. 

II C. Floridanus; the great black cormorant of 

Florida, having a red beak. 
f C. colubrinus, cauda elongatai the fnake bird 

of Florida. 
<f C. muficus i the great black and white pied 

diver or loon, 
■j" Colymbus ardlicus j the great fpeckled diver, 
^ C. auritus et cornutus; the little eared brown 

^ C. minor fufcus j little crefted brown dobchick, 
j Phaxthon aethereus ; the tropic bird, 
^ Larus albus -, the great white gull, 
^ L grifeusj the great grey gull. 
j L. albus minor ; the little white river gull. 
i Onocrotalus Americanusj the American fea 

li Petrella pintada j the plntada bird, 
^ Rynchops niger ; the fliearwater or razor bill. 
J Pelicanus aquilus j the frigate, or man of v/ar 

i p. fula i the booby, 
t Sterna ftolidaj the fea fwallow, or noddy. 

U ,7 Charadrus, 

494 trav:evs in 

Charadrus. The Plover kind. 

* Charadrus vocifcrus j the kiklea or chatteniig 

plover. .1 

* C. maculatus ; the great field fpotted plover. 

* C. minor ; the little Tea fide ring necked plover. 

* Hismai-opus ofti-ealegus ; the will willtt or oy-- 

fter catcner. ' ' 

II Fulica Floridanaj the great bjue or flate co- 
loured coot of Florida. 

* Rallus Virginianus ;■ the foree bird or little 

brown rail, aifo called widgeon in Pennfyl. 
J R. aquaticus rninorj the little dark blue water 
rail. ' 

* R. rafus Amerlcanus ; the greater brown rail. 

II R. major fubcaeruleus ; the blue ' or flate co- 
■ loured water rail of Florida. 

* Phoenicopteru'; ruberj the flamingo, feen about 

the point of Florida, rarely as far N, as St; 
Auguftine. . 

I am convinced there are yet feveral kinds of 
land birds, and a great number of aquatic fowl, that 
have not come under my particular notice j there- 
fore fliall leave them to ti e inveftigation of future 
travelling naturalifts of greater ability and induf- 

There yet remain fome obfervations on the paf- 
fage, and breeding of birds, &c. which may be pro- 
per to notice in this place. 

I fhall firft mention the rice bird, (embcriza 
oryzivora.) It is the commonly received opinion 
that they are male and female of the fime fpecies, 
i. e. the black pied rice bird the male, and a yel- 
lowifli clay colou.ed one the female: the laftmen- 
tioned appearing only in the autumn, when the 
- -A orvza 


oryza zizania are about ripening ; yet in my opinion 
there are fome ftrong circumftances which feem to 
operate againft fuch a conje6lure, though generally 

In the fpring, about the middle of May, the 
black pied rice bird (which is called the male) ap- 
pears in Pennfylvania ; at that time the great yel- 
low ephemera, called May fly, and a fpccies of lo- 
cufta appear in incredible multitudes, the favorite 
delicious food of thefe birds, when they are fpright- 
ly, vociferous, and pleafingly tuneful. 

When I was at St. Auguftine, in E. Florida, in 
the beginning of April, the fame fpecies of grafsr- 
hoppers were in multitudes on the fields and com- 
mons about the town j when great flights of thele 
male rice birds fuddenly arrived froiu the South, 
which by feeedingon thefe inie<5ts became extremely 
fat and delicious : they continued here two or three 
weeks, until their food became fcarce, when they 
difappeared, I fuppofe purfuing their journey North 
after the locufta and ephemera; there were a few 
of the yellow kind, or true rice bird, to be ken 
amongft them. Now thefe pied rice birds feem 
to obferve the fame order and time in their migra- 
tions Northerly, with the other fpring birds of paf- 
fage, and are undoubtedly on their way to their 
breeding place; but then there are no females with 
them, at leafb not one to ten thoufand of the male 
colour, which cannot be fuppofed to be a fufficient 
number to pair and breed by. Being in Charlefton 
in the month of June, I obferved at a gentleman's 
door, a cage full of rice birds, that is of the yellow 
or female colour, who were very merry and vo-. 
ciferous, having the fame variable mufic with . the 

U ^ ■ pied 


pied or male kind, which I thought extraordinary ^ 
and obferving it to the gentleman, he afTured me 
that they were all of the male kind, taken the pre- 
ceding fpring, but had changed their colour, and 
would be next fpring of the colour of the pied, 
thus changing colour with the feaf ;ns of the year. 
If this is really the cafe, it appears they are both of 
the fame fpecies intermixed, fpring and fali. In the 
ipring they are gay, vociferous and tuneful birds. 

Ampelis garrulus; crown bird or cedar bird, 
Thefe birds feed on various forts of fucculent fruit 
and berries, affociating in little flocks or flights, 
and are to be feen in all the regions from Canada 
to New Orleans on the MiflifTippi, and how much 
farther South and South- Weft I know not. The/ 
obferve no fixed time of appearance in Pennfyl- 
vania, but are to be feen a few days in every month 
of the year; fo that it is difficult to determine at 
what feafon they breeds, or where. The longeft 
period of their appearance in Peqnfyivania is in the 
ipring and fii ft of June, at the time the early cher- 
ries are ripe, when they are numerous ; and in the 
autumn when the Cedar berries are ripe (Juniperus 
Americana) they arrive in large flights, and, widi 
the robins (turdus migratorius) and yellow rump 
(parus cfcdrus) foon ftrip thofe trees of their berries, 
after which they dilappear again ; but in November 
and December they appear in fmaller flights, feed- 
ing on the fruit of the Perfimpn (Dyofperos Vir- 
giniana ;) and fome ;ire feen till March, fubfifting 
upon Smilax berries. Privet (Liguftrum vulgare) 
and other pennanent fruits j after which they dif- 
appear until May and June;. I have been informed 
by fome people in Pennfylvania, that they have 
found their ncfts at thef^ feafons in Pennfylvania. 

■~ Linaria 


Linarta ciris (emberiza ciris Linn.) or painte4 
finch, or nonpareil of Cutefbv, is not f-^ n .^Jorth 
of Cape Fear, in North Caiolina, and fciclom ten 
miles from the fea coaft, or perhaps twenty or 
thirty miles, near the banks of great rivei- , in 
fragrant groves of the Orange (Citrus aurantium) 
Zanthoxylon, Laurus Borbonia, Cafline, Sider- 
oxylon, &:c. 

Linaria cyanea (tanagra Linn.) the bkie linnet^ 
is fuppofed by fome to be the nonpareil, in an early 
ftage of life, not being yet arrived t > his brilliancy 
and variety of colours j but this is certainly a mif- 
take, for the blue linnet is longer and of a flenderer 
configuration, and their notes m >re variable, vehe- 
ment and fonorous. And they inhabit the condnent 
and fea coaft iflands from Mexico to r^oya Scoda, 
from the fea coaft, Weft beyond the Apalachean 
and Cherokee mountains. The fongs of the non- 
pareil are remarkably low, foft and warbling, ex- 
ceedingly tender and foothing. 

Cat:eft)y, ^n his hiftory of Carolina, fpeaking of 
the cat-bird (mufcicapa verrice nigro) fays, " They 
have but one note, which refembles the mewing 
of a cat;" a miftake very injurious to the fame of 
that bird ; he, in reality, being one of our moft 
eminent fongfters, litde inferior to the philomela 
or moclc-bird ; and, in. fome remarkable inftances, 
perhaps, exceeds them both, in particular as a buf- 
foon or mimick. He endeavours to imitate every 
bird and animal, and in many attempts does not ill 
fucceed, even in rehearfing the fongs, which he at- 
tentively liftens to, from the lliepherdefs and rural 
fwain i and will endeavour and fucceed to admira- 
tion, in repeating the melodious and variable airs 
from inftrumental mufic, and this in his wild ftate 



of nature. They are a kind of domeftic bird 
during dieir fpring and fummer refidence in Pennfyl* 
yania, building dieir nefts in gardens and fheltering 
themfelves in groves near the houfes. They caufe 
great trouble and vexation to hens that have broods 
of chickens, by imitating their diftrefiing cries, in 
ivhich they fecm to enjoy much delight, and caufe 
fome amufement to perfons who are diverted at 
fuch incidents. They are the firft bird heard fing- 
ing in the morning, even before break of day. 

They feem to be a tribe of birds feparated by 
nature from the motacillae, with which the zoologifts 
have clafied them, and appear allied to a tribe pe- 
culiar to Apierica, to which Edwards has given the 
pame of manakin. In their nature they feem to 
take place between the thruih (turdus) and mota- 
cilla, their beak being longer, (Ironger, and ftraighter 
than the motacilla, and formed for eating fruit, 
"which is their chief food ; yet they will feed on rep- 
tile infefts, but never attempt to take their prey on 
the wing. 

Catefby is chargeable with the like miftake with 
refped to the little thrulli (t. minor) and the fox 
coloured thrufh (t. rufus) both eminent fingers, and 
the latter little inferior to the mock-bird. The 
former for his llirill, fonorous and elevated llrains 
in the high, fliady forefts ; and the latter for va- 
riety, foftnefs and conftant refponfes in the hedges 
and groves near houfes. 

But yet Catefby has fome right of claim to our 
excufe and juftificiuion, for his detradion of the 
fame due to thefe eminent muficians of the groves 
and forefts, when we confider that he refided and 
made his collcftions and obfervations, in the regi- 


ons which are the winter retreats and refidence of 
thefe birds, where tluy rarely fing; as it is oblerva- 
ble and moft true, that it is only at the time of in- 
cubation, that birds fing in their wild (late of nature. 
The cat bird, great and lefs thruOi and fieldfare, 
feldom or never build in Carolina beneath the moun- 
tains, cxrept the great or fox coloured thrufli in a 
few inftances ; but all tlieie breed in Fennfylvania. 

The parakeets (pficaciis Carolinienfis) never 
reach fo far North as Pennfylvania, wnich to me is 
Unaccountable, confidering they arc a bird of fuch 
fingularly rapid flight, chat they could eafily perform 
the journey in ten or twelve hours from North Caro- 
lina, where they are very numerous, and we abound 
with all the fruits which they delight in. 

I was afllued in Carolina, that thefe birds, for a 
month or two in the coldeft winter weather, houfe 
themfelves in hollow Cyprefs trees, clinging faft to 
each other like bees in a hive, where they continue 
in a torpid Hate until the warmth of the returning 
Ipring reanimates them, when they ilTue forth from 
their late dark, cold winter cloilters. But I lived 
feveral years in North Carolina, and never was wit- 
hefs to an inftance of itj yet I do not at all doubt 
but there have been inftances of belated flocks thus 
furprifed by fudden fevere cold, and forced into fuch 
fhelter, and the extraordinary feverity and perfe- 
verance of the feafon might have benumbed them 
into a torpid fleepy ftate ; but that they all wil- 
lingly fliould yield to fo difagreeable and hazard- 
ous a fituation d^e^. not feem reafonable or natural, 
when we confider that they are a bird of the fwifceft 
flight, and impatient of fevere cold. They are eafily 
tamed, when they become docile and familiar, but 
never learn to imitate the human lano-uaw. 



Both fpecies of the Baltimore bird (orlolus, Linn, 
ifterus, Cat.) are ipring birds of paflage and breed, 
in Pennfylvania; they have loud and mufical notes. 

The yellow breafted chat (oenanthe. Cat. mota- 
cilla trcchil'js, Linn.) is in many inftances a very 
lingular bird -, the variablenefs and mimickry of his 
notes or fpeech, imitating various creatures j and a 
furprifing faculty of uttering a coarfe, hollow found- 
ing noife in their throats or crops, which at times 
feems to be at a great diftance, though uttered by a 
bird very near, and vice verfa. They arrive in 
Pennfylvania from the South, late in the month of 
May, breed and return again early in autumn. 

It is a matter of enquiry, what fliould have induc- 
ed the zoologifts to clafs this bird with the motacillae, 
when they difcover no one charafleriftic to induce 
fuch an alliance j this bird having a remarkable 
thick, ftrong bill, more like the frugivorous tribes : 
and in my opinion they are guilty ot the like over- 
lisht in claffinsc the fummer red-bird with the muf- 
cicapa, this bird having a thick, ftrong bill, ap- 
proaching nearer the ftarhng (fturnus.) 

Thefe hiftorical obfervations being noted, we will 
again refume the fubjed of our journey. 

C9 AP. 



After the predatory band of SIminoles, uiK^er 
the condu6l of the Long Warrior, had decamped, 
Mr. M'Latche invited me with hiin on a vilit to aa 
Indian town, about twelve miles diftance from the 
trading- houfe, to regale ciirfelves at a feaft of 
Water Melons and Oranges, the Indians having 
brought a canoe load of them to the trading-houfe 
the day preceding, which they difpofed ot to the 
traders. This was a circumllance pretty extraor- 
dinary to me, it being late in September, a feafon 
of the year when the Citruels are ripe and gone In 
Georgia and Carolina; but here the weather yet 
continued hot and fultry, and confequently this 
cool, exhilarating fruit was flill in high relifh and 

After breakfafting, having each of us a Siminolc 
horfe completely equipped, we fat off: the ride 
was agreeable and varioufiy entertaining. We 
kept no road or pathway conftantly, but as Indian 
hunting tracks by chance fuited our courle, riding 
through high open, pine forefts, green lawns and 
flowery favannas in youthful verdure and gaity, 
having been lately burnt,' but now overrun with a 
green enamelled carpet, chequered with hommocks 
of trees of dark green foliage, interfered with fer- 
pentine rivulets, their banks adorned with Ihrub- 
beries of various tribes, as Andromeda formofiffimja. 
And. nitida. And. viridis, And. calyculata. And. 
axillaris, Kalmia fpuria, Annona alba, &c. About 
noon we arrived at the town, the fame little village 

I paffe^ 

30-2 TRAVELS l^ 

I paflf! J by on my afcent of the river, on the banks 
of the little lake below Charlotia. 

We were received aiid entertained friendlily by 
the Indians, the chief of the village conducing us 
to a grand, airy pavilion in the center of the vil- 
lage. It was four fquare; a range of pillars or pofts 
on Cvich fiJe llipporting a canopy compoled of 
Palmetto leaves,> woven or thatched together, which 
iliaded a level platform in the center, that was af- 
cended to from each fide by two fteps dr flights, 
each aDout twelve inches high, and i'cven or eight 
fecL in breadth, all covered with carpets or mats, 
curioufly woven, of fplit canes dyed of various co- 
lours. Here being feated or reclining ourfelves, 
after fmoaking tobacco, bafl^ets of the choicell 
fruits were brought and fet before us. 

The fields furrounding the tov/ns and groves were 
plentifully ftored Vv'ith Corn, Citruels, Pumkins, 
Stnuaihes, Beans, Peas, Potatoes, Peaches, Figs, 
Oranges, &c. 

Towards evening we took our leave, and arrived 
at the (lores before night, having in the courfe of 
the day collefter^ a variety of curious fpecimens of 
vegetables, feeds, and roots. 

Tlie company being bufily employed in forming 
their packs of leather and loading the veflel, and I 
being eager to augment my collections during my 
fiay here, I crolTed the river with a gang of our 
people, who were tranfporting a party of horfes 
to" range in the meade)ws and plains on the fide oppo- 
fite to the tradinsi-houfe : we carried them over in 
a large flat or fcow. The river was here above a 
mile wide, but divided into a number of ftreams by 
• -• . numerous 


finmerous Iflands, which occafioned the voyage to 
be vtfry troiiblefonic, as moil of* the liorfes were 
lately taken wild out of" their ranges, and many of 
them young and untutored. Being under the necei- 
fity of parting near the points of the iflands, they 
grew refliefs and impatient to land, and it was with 
great difficulty we kept them on board; and at lafl, 
when within a quarter of a mile of the oppofite 
fhore, palTing between two illands, the horfes be- 
came ungovernable, and moll of them plunged into 
the river and forced overboard one of our people. 
I being a pretty good fwimmer, in the midfl of the 
buflle, and to avoid being beat over and perhaps 
wounded, leapt out, and caught hold of the dock 
of one of the horfes. We all landed fafe on one of 
the iflands, about one hundred and fifty yards dif- 
tance, and the flat followed us. After a deal of 
trouble and lofs of time, we got the horfes again 
into the Icow, where lecuring them by withs and 
vines, we again iat off, and foon landed fafe on the 
main, at a high bluff' or bank of the river, where, 
after turning the horfes to paflure, and refting our- 
felves, we Iat off on a vifit to a plantation on the 
river, fix or eight miles difl:ance. On the way thither 
we difcovered a bee tree, which we cut down, and 
regaled ourfelves on the delicious honey ; leaving 
one of our companions to protedl the remainder 
until our return with a tub, to colledl it and carry it 
with US; and in the evening we all returned fafe 
with our fweet booty to the trading-houfe. 

The veflTel being loaded and ready to depart, I 
got all my colle6lions on board. My truily and 
fortunate bark I prefented to the old interpreter. 
Job Wiggensj often iny travelling coinpanio;i, 


304 TRAVELS ^^f 

{vitnd and benefaftor; and taking an affe^lionat^ 
and final leave of the worthy C. M'Latche and the 
whole trading company, we fet fail in a neat little 
fchooner for Frederica in Georgia, about the laft of 
September. We had a pleafant and profperous 
voyage down the grand river St. Juan's, frequently 
vifiting the plantations on the banks of the river, 
efpecially at fuch times as oppofed by contrary 
winds ; and according to promife did not negleft 
calling on the generous and friendly Mr. Marlhal). 
who received me fo politely, and treated me witK 
fuch unparalleled friendfnip and hofpitality, whert 
afcending the river alone laft fpring. 

We never once went out to fea during the 
voyage j for when we had defcended the river be- 
low the Cow-ford, we entered the found by a chan- 
nel between Fort George iiland and the main^ 
through which we pafied, and continued failing be- 
tween the fea ccaft iflands and the main to Frede- 
rica on Ht. Simon's, 

On rr.y arri^^al at Frederica, I was again, as ufual., 
friend] iiy received and accommodated by the excel- 
lent John S' Iding, Efq; and here learning that the 
honourabk- .■ lenry Lawrens, Efq; had a large fhip 
loading a': ounbury for Liverpool, I determined to 
embrace fo favourable an offer for conveying my 
coUedions to Europe ; and hearing at the fame time 
that Mr. Lawrens was daily expeded in a velTel of 
his own, at his plantations on Broton Ifland and 
New Flope, in order to take a loading of rice for 
the cargo of the ftiip at Sunbury, I tranfported my 
colle(5lions to Broton ; where meeting with Mr.- 
I-awrens, he gcneroufly permitted me to put my 
things on board his veiiel, and gave me room with 



himfelfin the cabin j and the merchant In Liverpool, 
to whom the fhip was confignedj being his friend 
and correfpondent, and a friend of Dr. Fothergill's, 
Mr. Lawrens propofed to recommend my collec- 
tions and letters to his care. 

Thefe favourable circumftances thus co-operating, 
after bidding adieu to my friends and liberal patrons 
in thefe parts, I embarked on board this vefTel, and 
after a iliort and pleafant palTage through the found, 
arrived at Sunbury, from v/hence, after flipping my 
colled ions, I fat fail again for Charlellon, South 
Carolina ; where being arrived, I fpent the feaibn 
in fhort excurfions until next fpring; and during 
this time of my recefs I had leifure ta plan my fu- 
ture travels, agreeably to Dr. Fothergill's inftruc- 
tions, and the council and advice of Dr. Chalmers 
of Charlefton, with other gentlemen of that city, 
eminent for the promotion of fcience and encou- 
raging merit and induflry. 

It was agreed that my future rout fhould be di- 
refted Weft and South-Weft, into the Cherokee 
country and the regions of the Mufcogulges or 







C II A P. I. 

ApKIL 22c1, 1776, I fat off from Charlefton 
for the Cherokee nation, and after riding this day 
about twenty-five miles, arrived in the evening at 
Jackfonfburg, a village on Ponpon river. The next 
day's journey wns about the fame diftance, to a 
public houfe or inn on the road. 

The next day, early in the morning, I fat off 
again, and about noon flopped at a public houfe to 
dine. After the meridian heats were abated, pro- 
ceeding on till evening, I obtained good quarters at 
a private houfe, having rode this day about thirty 
miles. At this plantation I obferved a large orchard 
of the European Mulberry tree (Morus alba) fomc 
of \\hich were grafted on flocks of tlie native Mul- 
berry (Morus rubra); thefe trees v/cre cultivated 
for the purpofe. of feeding filk worms (phalaena 
bombyx). llaving breakfufled, I fr.t forward again. 

- • I foon 


I foon entered a high foreft, continuing the fpace 
of fifteen miles to the Three Sifters, a public ferry 
on Savanna river : the counrry generally very 
level; the foil a dark, loofe, fertile mould, on a 
ftratum of cinereous-coloured tenacious clay ; the 
ground fhaded with its native forefts, confifting of 
the great Black Oak, Quercus tinftoria, Q^ rubra, 
Q^ phellos, Q^ prinos, Q. hemifphenca, Juglans 
nigra, J. rufticj, J. exaltata, Magnolia grandiflora, 
Fraxinus excelfior, Acer rubrum, Liriodendron 
tulipifera, Populus heterophylla, Morus rubra, 
Nyfla fylvatica, Platanus occidentalis, Tilia, Ulmus 
campeftris, U. fubifer, Laurus faflafras, L. Borbo- 
nia, Ilex aquifolium, Fagus lylvatica, Cornus Flo- 
rida, Halefia, /Efculus pavia, Sambucus, Callicar- 
pa, and Stewartia malachodendron, with a variety 
of other trees and fhrubs. This ancient fublime 
foreft, frequently interltifted with extenfive ave- 
nues, viftas and green lawns, opening to extenfive 
favannas and far diftant Rice plantations, agreeably 
employs the imagination, and captivates the fenfes 
by Icenes of magnificence and grandeur. 

The gay mock bird, vocal and joyous, mounts 
aloft on filvered wings, rolls over and over, then 
gently dcfcends, and prelides in the choir of the 
tuneful tribes. 

Having dined at the ferry, I croiTed the river 
into Georgia : on landing and afccnding the bank, 
wliich was here a North profpeCt, 1 obferved the 
Dirca paluftris, growing fix or fcvcn feet high. I 
rode about tv/elve miles further throu'::i i.*ine 
Forefts and favannas. In the evening 1 xook up my 
quarters at a delightful habitation, though n^t a 
common tavern. Having ordered my horle a ILible 
and provender, and retrefned my fpiiits with a 

X 2 dnuic^ht 

503 TRAVELS !ir 

draught of cooling Hqiior, I betook myfelf to con- 
templation in the groves and lawnS. Directing my 
Heps towards the river, I obferved in, a high Pine 
forefl en the border of a favanna, a great number 
of cattle herded together, and on my nearer ap- 
proach difcovered it to be a cow pen : on my com- 
ing up I was kindly faluted by my holt and his 
vi'ife, who I found were fuperintending a number 
of fiaves, wcmcn, boys and girls, that were milk- 
ing the cows. Here were about forty milgh cows 
and as many young calves j for in thefe Southern 
countries the calves run with the cows a whole 
year, the people milking them at the fame time. 
The pen, including two or three acres of ground, 
more or Itfs, according to the ftock, adjoining a 
livukt or run of water, is enclofed by a fence : in 
this cnCiofure the calves are kept while the cows 
are out at range : a fmalj part of this pen is par- 
titioned oft to receive the covv's, when they come 
up at evening : here are feverai ftakes drove into 
the ground, and there is a gate in the partition 
fence for a communication between the two pens. 
When the milkmaid has taken her fhare of milk, 
ilie loofes the calf^ Vv'ho ftrips the cow, which is next 
morning turned out again to range. 

I found thefe people, contrary to what a travel- 
ler might, perhaps, reafonably expecb, from tkeir 
occupation and remote fituation from the capital or 
any commercial town, to be civil and courteous: 
and though educated as it were in the woods, no 
ftrangers to fc-nfibiiity, and thofe moral virtues 
v.hich grace and ornament the m.oil approved and 
admired characters in civil fociety. 

After the vdVels were filled v;ith milk, the daily 
and ribcral fupply of the friendly kinej and the 



good wife, with her maids and fervants, were re- 
turning with it to the dairy ; th-j gentleman was ac 
leifnre to attend to my enquiries and obierv -.tions, 
which he did with complaifance, and apparent p]ea- 
fure. On my obferving to him that his ftock of 
horned cattle muft be very confiderable to afford 
fb many milch cows at one time, he anfwered, that 
he had about fifteen hundred head : " my flock is 
but young, having lately removed from ibme dif- 
tance to this place ; I found it convenient to part 
with moil: of my old flock and begin here anew ; 
Heaven is pleafed to blefs my endeavours and in- 
duftry with fuccefs even beyond my own expefta- 
tions." Yet continuing my interrogatories on this 
fubjeft: your ftock I apprehend mutl be very pro- 
fitable, being lb convenient to the capital and fea 
port, in affording a vafl quantity of beef, butter and 
cheefe, for the niarket, and mull thereby contribute 
greatly towards your emolument : "yes, I find my 
flock of cattle very profitable, r^d I conllantly con- 
tribute towards lupplying the m.arkets with beef; 
but as to the articles of butter and chccfc, I make 
no more than what is expended in my own houf- 
hold, and I have a confiderable family of black 
people, who, though they are flaves, mufl be fed, 
and cared for : thole I have, were either chofen for 
their good qualities, or born in the family, and I 
find from long experience and obfervation, that the 
better they are fed, clothed and treated, the more 
fervice and profit we may expe6l to derive from 
their labour : in fhort, I find my flock produces no 
more milk, or any article of food or nourifhment, 
than what is expended to the befl advahtage a- 
rnongft my family and flaves." 

He added, come along with me towards the ri- 
ver bank, where I have fome men at work fquaring 

X 3 Pine 


Pine and Cyprefs timber for the Weft India market ; 
I will {how you their day's work, when you will rea- 
dily grant that I have reafon to acknowledge niy- 
felf fufficiently gratified for the little attention be- 
flowed towards them. At yonder little new habi- 
tation near the bluff on the banks of the river, I 
have letulcd my eideft fon ; it is but a few days fince 
he was married to a deferving young woman. 

Havi-^g at length arrived near the high banks of 
the majeftic Savanna, we ftood at the timber land- 
ing : aimioft every objed: in our progrefs contri- 
bu:cd to demonfbrate this good man's fyftem of 
economy to be not only practicable but eligible ; 
anJ the (laves appeared on all fides a^ a crowd of 
wicnei'ics to juilify his indudry, huaianity, and libe- 
ral fpirit. 

The ilaves comparatively of a gigantic ftature, 
fat and rnuf-ular, were mounted on the mafTive 
timber logs ; the regular heavy ftrokes of their 
gleaming axes re-echoed, in the deep forefts; at the 
lame time, contented and joyful, the footy fons of 
Afric f(/rgetLing their bondage, in chorus fung the 
virtue^ and beneficence of their mafter in fongs of 
their ov/n compofition. 

The log or timber landing is a capacious open 
area, the lofty pines* having been felled and clear- 
ed away for a confiderable diftance round about, 
near an almoft perpendicular bluff or fteep bank 
oi the river, rifing up immediately from the water 
to the licight of fixty or feventy feet. The logs 
being dragged tiy timber wheels to this yard, and 

••-•■ Pinus paluftris, Linn, the Ion- leaved Pitch Pine, or yellow Pins. 



landed as near the brink of this high bank as pof- 
fible with fafety, and laid by the fide of each other, 
are rolled off, and precipitated down the bank into 
the river, where being formed into rafts, they are 
cond'jfted by flaves down to Savanna, about fifty 
miles below this place. 

Having contemplated thefe fcenes of art and in- 
dulby, my venerable holt, in company with his fon, 
conduLted me to the neat habitation, v/hich is fitu- 
nted in a fpacious airy foreft, a little diftance from 
the river bank, commanding a comprehenfive and 
varied profpe6l ; an extenfive reach of the river in 
front ; on the right hand a fpacious lawn or favan- 
na ; on the left the timber yard ; the vail ferule 
low lands and forefts on the river upwards ; and the 
plantations adjoining. A cool evening arrived after 
a fultry day. As we approach the door, conducted 
by the young man, his lovely bride arrayed in na- 
tive innocence and becoming modelly, with an air 
and fmile of grace and benignity, meets and falutes 
us ! what a Venus ! what an Adonis ! faid I in filent 
tranfport j every a6lion and feem to re- 
veal the celeftial endowments of the mind : though 
a native fprightlinefs and fenfibilicy appear, yet 
virtue and difcretion direft and rule. The drefs of 
this beauteous fylvan queen was plain but clean, 
neat and elegant, all of cotton, and of her own , 
fpinning and weaving. 

Next morning early I fat forward profecuting 
my tour. I purfued the high road leading from 
Savanna to Auguda for the dillance of one hundred 
miles or more, and then re-crofied the river at Sil- 
ver Blufi-', a pleafant villa, the property and feat of 
G. Golphinj efquire, a gentleman of very diilin- 
X 4 guiilied 


gulilied talents and great liberality, who pofiefied 
the moft extenfive trade, connexions and influence, 
aniongft the South and South-Weft Indian' tribes, 
particularly with the Creeks and Chadtaws ; of 
whom I fortunately obtained letters of recommen- 
dation and credit to the principal traders refiding 
in the Indian towns. 

Silver Bluff is a very celebrated place. It is a 
confjderable height upon the Carolina fhore of the 
Savanna river, perhaps thirty feet higher than the 
low lands on the oppofite fhore, which are fubjetft 
to be overflowed in the Ipring and fall. This fteep 
bank rifcs perpendicularly out of the river, difcover- 
ing various ftrata of earth ; the furface for a confi- 
derable depth is a loofe fandy loam, with a mixture 
of fea fhells, efpecially oftreae j the next ftratum is 
clay, then fand, next marl, then clays again of vari- 
ous colours and qualities, which laft infenfibly mix 
or unite with a deep ftratum of blackifh or dark 
Hate coloured faline and fulphureous earth, which 
feems to be of an aluminous or vitriolic quality, 
and lies in nearly horizontal lamina or ftrata of va- 
rious thicknefs. We difcovered bellemnitc^s, pyrites, 
marcafites and fulphureous nodules, fliining like 
bra s, fjme fingle of various forms, and others con- 
glomerated, lying in this black flaty-like micaceous 
earth ; as alfo, fticks, limbs and trunks of trees, 
leaves, acorns, and their cups, all tranfmuted or 
changed black, hard and Ihining as charcoal : we 
alfo fee animal fubftances, as if petrified, or what 
are called ftiarks' teeth, (dentes carchariai) ; but 
thefe heterogeneous fubftances or petrifidions are 
the moft abundant and confpicuous where there is a 
lool'er kind of earth, either immediately upon this 
vaft ftratum of black earth, or in the divifions of 



the laminae. The furface of che ground upon this 
bluff, extends a mile and a halt" or two niik-s 
on the river, and Is from an half mile to a mile in 
breadth, nearly level, and a good fertile foil ; as is 
evident from the vail Oaks, liickory, Mulberry, 
Black walnut and other trees and llirubs, which iire 
left {landing in the old fields which are fpread 
abroad to a great diftance ; and difcovers various 
monuments and veftiges of the refidcnce of the 
ancients ; as Indian conical mounts, terraces, areas, 
&c. as well as remains or traces oi fortrelTes of re- 
gular formation, as if conftrudled after the modes of 
European military architedls, which are fuppofed 
to be ancient camps of the Spaniards who formerly 
fixed themfelves at this place in hopes of finding 

But perhaps Mr. Golphin's buildings and inn- 
pro vements will prove to be the foundation of mo- 
numents of infinitely greater cekbrity and perma-- 
nency than either of the preceding eitablilhmcnts. 

The place which at this day is called fort Moore, 
is a ftupendous bluff, or high pej»pendicular bank, 
of earth, riling out of the river on the Carolina 
ihore, perhaps ninety or one hundred feet above the 
common furface of the water ; and exhihits a fingu- 
lar and plcafing fpetlacle to a ftrangcr, efpeciaily 
from the oppofice Ihore, or as we pafs up or down 
the river, prefencing a view of prodigious walls of 
party-coloured earths, chiefly clays and marl of va- 
rious colours, as brown, red, yellow, blue, purple, 
white^ i^c. in horizontal ftrata, one ovxr the o- 

Waiting for the ferry boat to carry me over, 
I walked alm.oft round the under fide of the bluff, 
tetwixt its iteep wall and the water of the river, 



whicli glided rapidly under my feet. I came to the 
carcafe of a calf, which the people , told me had 
fallen down horn the edge of the precipice above, 
being invited too far by grafs and fweet herbs, 
•which they iay frequently happens at this place. In 
early times, the Carolinians had a fort, and kept a 
good garrifon here as a frontier and Indian trading 
poft ; but Augufta fuperfeding it, this place was dif- 
mantled : and lince that time, which probably can- 
not exceed thirty years, the river hath fo much en- 
croached upon the Carolina fliore, that its bed now 
lies where tlie fite of the fort then was : indeed 
fome told me that .the oppofite Georgia fhcre, 
where there is now a fine houfe and corn field, 
occupies the place. 

The fite of Augufta is perhaps the moft delight- 
ful and eligible of any in Georgia for a city. An ex- 
tenfive level plain oii the banks ot a fine navigable 
river, which has its numerous fources in the Chero- 
kee mountains, a fruitful and temperate region, 
whence, after roving and winding about thofe fertile 
heights, they meander through a fertile hilly coun- 
try, and one after another combine 'in forming the 
Tugilo and Broad rivers, and then the famous Sa- 
vanna river ; thence they continue near an hundred 
miles more, foUov/ing its meanders and falls over 
the cararacls at Augufta, \Nhich crofs the river at 
the upper end of the tovvU. Thefe tails are four or 
five feet perpendicular height in die fummer feafon 
when rhe river is low. h'rom thefe cataracts up- 
wards, tliis river with all its tributaries, as Broad 
river. Little river, Tugilo, <5cC. is one continued 
rapid, with fome fliort intervals of ftill water, na- 
vio;able for canoes. But from Auiiufta downwards to 
the ocean, a diftance of jiear three hundred miles 



by water, the Savanna uninterruptedly flows with 
a o-entle meandring courfe, and is navigable for 
veflels of tventy or thirty tons burthen to Savanna, 
vhere fliips oi" three hundjcd tons lie in a capacious 
and fecure harbour. 

Auguila thus feated at the head of navigation, 
and jud be] v he conflux of feveral of its molt 
confiderabie bran:hes, without a con'pc:itor, conn- 
mands the trttuc and commerce of vaft fruitful 
regions above it, and from c\e!y fjde to a great 
diltance -, and 1 do not hefitate to pronounce as my 
opinion, will very loon become the metropolis of 

I chofe to take this route up Savanna river, In 
prefe, nee to the ftraight and fliorter road from 
Chanefton to the Cherokee country by f';rt Ninety 
3ix, becaufe by keeping near this great river, 1 had 
fjequent opportunities of vifuing its deep banks, 
vaft fwamps and low grounds ; and had the advan- 
tage, withou: great delay, or deviating from the 
main high road, of obferving the various foils and 
fituations of the countries through which this fa- 
rnous river purfues its courfe, and of examining their 
various produftions, mineral, vegetable and animal : 
whereas had 1 purfued the great trading path by 
Ninety -Six, I fliould have been led over a high, dry, 
fandy and gi'aveily ridge, and a great part of the 
diftance an old fettled or reforted part of the coun- 
try, arrd confequently void of the varieties of origi- 
nal or novel produdlions of nature. 

Before I leave Augufba, I fliall recite a curious 
phenomenon, which may furnifh ample matter for 

* A few years after the above remark, the feat of government ■wai 
jremoved from Savanna to Augulta. 



philofophical difcufrion to the curious naturaliUs, 
On the Georgia fide of the river, about fifteen miles 
below Silver Bluff, the high road crofles a ridge of 
high fwelling hills of uncommon elevation, and 
perhaps fcvcnty feet higher than the furiace of the 
river. Thefe hills, from three feet below the com- 
mon vegetative furface, to the depth of twenty or 
thirty (tctj are compofed entirely of foffil oyiler 
fhells, internajly of the colour and confiftency of 
clear white marble ; the fhells are of incredible 
magnitude, generally fifteen or twenty inches in 
length, from fix to eight wide, and two to four in 
thicknefs, and their hollows fufficient to receive an 
ordinary man's foot: they appear all to have been 
opened before the period of petrifadtion, a tranfmu- 
tation they feem evidently to have fuffered ; they 
are undoubtedly very ancient or perhaps antidelu- 
vian. The adjacent inhabitants burn them to lime 
for building, for which purpofe they ferve very 
well ; and vv ould undoubtedly afford an excellent 
manure when their lands require it, thefe hills be- 
ing now remarkably fertile. The heaps of fhells lie 
upon a ftratum of a yellowiili findy mould, of fe- 
veral feet in depth, upon a foundation of foft white 
rocks, that has the outward appearance of free- ilone, 
but on ilritl examination is really a teftaceous con- 
crete or compofition of fand and pulverifed fea 
fhells : in Ihort^^ this teftaceous rock approaches 
near in quality and appearance to the Bahama or 
Bermudian white rock. 

Thefe hills are Ihaded with glorious Magnolia 
grandiflora, Morus rubra, Tilia, Quercus, Ulmus, 
Juglans, &c. with aromatic groves of fragcanc 
Callicanthus Floridus, Rhododendron ferrugineum, 
Laurus Indica, &c, jEfculus pavia, Cornus Flo- 


rida. Azalea coccinea, Philadelphus inodorus and 
others; but who would have expeded to lee the 
Dirca palultris and Dodecathcon meadea grow in 
abundance in this hot climate ! it is true ttiey are 
leen in the rich and deep fliaded vales, between 
the hills and North expoiure ; but they attain to a 
degree of magnitude and fplendour never ken la 




After conferring with gentlemen in Aii.fruda", 
converflint in Indian affairs, concerni/g nny future 
travels in thofe diftant, unexplored regions, and 
obtaining letters to their agents in the Indian t;:r- 
ritories, I fct off, proceeding for Fort Jarnes Dart- 
mouth, at the confluence of Broad River with 
Savanna, the road leading me near the banks of the 
river for the diftance of near thiny miles, croffmg 
two or three of its confiderabie branches, befides 
rivulets and fmaller brooks. The ilirface of the 
land uneven, by means of ridges or chains of fweJ- 
ing hills and correfponding vales, v/ith level downs ; 
the foil a loofe, grayifli-brown loamy mould on the 
hills, but darker and more cohefive and humid in the 
vales and downs ; this fuperficial, vegetative earth, 
covers a deep ffratum of very tenacious yellowifh 
clay : the downs afford grafs and various herbage ; 
the vales and hills, foreft trees and ffirubs of various 
tribes, i. e. Quercus tin6loria, Q^alba, Q^ rubra, Q^ 
lobata, Acer rubrum, A. Sacchurinum, A. glaucum, 
Morus rubra, Gleditfia triacanthus, Juglans hickory, 
various fpecies, Quercus phillos, Quer. dentata, f. 
hemifpherica, Quercus aquatica, or Maryland 
Water Oak, Ulmus fylvatica, Liriodendron, Li- 
quid-amber, Diofpyros, Cornus Florida, Prunus In- 
dica, Prunus padus and iEfculus pavia ; and, near 
water courfes in the vales, Stewartia malachoden- 
dron, llalefia, iEfculus fylvatica, Styrax, Carpinus, 
Magnolia acuminata, Mag. tripctala, Mag. auri- 
culata, Azalea, &c. -» The rich humid lands in the 
vales bordering on creeks and bafes of the hills, 
likewife produce various^ trees, ilirubs and plants, 
as Cercis, Corylus, Ptelca,, Philadelphus 


NORTH /MER4CA. '^jn 

Inodorus, Staphylea trifoliara, Chionahtnus, fla- 
mamclis, Callicarpa, Sambiicus, Cornus alba, Vi- 
burnum dentatum, Spirea opulifoli;i, Cornus fan- 
guinea, Cephalanthus, &:c. and of herbacca^ a vail 
variety and abundance, as Verbefina, Rudbeckia, 
Phafeolus, Tripfacum, Aconitum napellus, Delphi- 
nium, Angelica lucida, Tradefcantia, Trillium kf- 
Hie, Trillium ceinuum, Acl^a, Chelonc, Glycine 
apios, Convalliaria racemofa, Mediola, Carduus, 
Bidens frondola. Arum triphylUim, Corcopfis akcr- 
iiifolia, Circcca, C ommelina, A Her, Solidago, Eu- 
patorium, Helianthus, and Silphium, together with 
a variety of other tribes and fpecies new to me. 
In the evening I arrived at Little river, and took 
up my quarters at a public hcufe on its banks, near 
its confluence Vv'ith the Savanna. This is a beauti- 
ful rapid v/ater, about fifty yards over. On a branch 
of this river is fituated the town of Wrij^htfbcrou^'^h. 

Near the ford, on the banks of this river, I firft ' 
obferved a very curious fnrub, a beautiful ever- 
green, which appears to be allied to the Rhodo^ 
dendron, though the feed veffels feem to bear more 
the charaderifiiics of the Kalm.ia. This fhrub grows 
in copfes or little groves, in open, high ficuations, 
where trees of laro-e erowth are but fcatterincrlv 
piantea ; many fimple ftems arife together from a 
root or fource erect, four, five and i^x feet high ; 
their limbs or branches, v/hich are produced to- 
wards the top of the Hems, alfo {land nearly erecl, 
lightly diverging from the main fuems, which are 
fvirniflied with moderately large ovate pointed in- 
tire^ leaves, of a pale or yeUowifh green colour ; 
thele leaves are of a firm, compaft texture, bcth 
furfaces fmooth and fhining, and fland nearly erecl 



upon (hoTt petioles ; the b'-anches terminate "ivith 
long, loofe panicles or fpikes of white flowers, 
xyhofe fegments are five, long and narrow. 

I arofe early next morning and continued my 
journev for Fort James. This day's prcgrefs was 
agreeably entertaining, from the novelty and vari- 
ety of obj'.'6ls and views : the wild country now al- 
mofl depopulated, vaft forefts, expanfive plains and 
detached groves ; then chains of hills wliofe gra- 
velly, dry, barren fummits prefent detached piles of 
rocks, which delude and flatter the hopes and ex- 
pe6larions cf the ibiitary traveller, full fure of 
hofpitable habitations ; heaps of white, gnawecj 
bones of the ancient buffalo, elk and deer, indif- 
crim.inately mixed wirh thofe of men, l:alf grown 
ever with mofs, altogether, exhibit fcenes of un- 
cultivated nature, on iefle6i:ion, perhaps, rather 
difagreeable to a m.ind of delicare tcelings and fen- 
fibility, fince feme of thefe cbjefts recognize paft 
tranfa6lions and events, perhaps not altogether re- 
concileable to juftice and humanity. 

Hew harmonious and fweetly murmur the pur- 
ling rills and fleeting brooks, roving along the 
ihadowy vales, pafTing through dark, fubterranean 
caverns, or dafning over fteep rocky precipices, 
their cold, humid banks condenling the volatile va- 
pours, which falling coalefce in cryflalline drops, on 
the leaves and elallic twi2;s of the aromatic fhrubs 
and incarnate flowers ! In thefe cool, fequellered, 
rocky vales, we behold die following celebrated 
beauties of the hills, fragrant Calycanthus, blufli- 
ing Rhododendron ferrugineum, delicate Phila- 
deiphus inodoius, which difplays the white wavy 
mantle, with the Iky robed Dephinium, perfumed 
8 Convallarii 

K'ORtH America* 321 

Cohvallarla and fiery Azalea, flaming on the af- 
cending hills or wavy fiirface of the gliding brooks. 
The epithet fiery, I annex to this moft celebrated 
fpecies of Azalea, as being expreffive of the appear- 
ance of its flowers, which are in general of the co- 
lour of the fineft red lead, orange and bright gold, 
as well as yellow and cream colour j thefe various 
fplendid colours are not only in feparate plants, but 
frequently all the varieties and fhades are (hen in 
feparate branches on the fame plant -, and the cluf- 
ters of the bloffom.s cover the fhrubs in fuch incre- 
dible profufion on the hill fides, that fuddenly open- 
ing to view from dark Ihades, we are alarmed with 
the apprehenfion of the hill being let on fire. This 
is certainly the moft gay and brilliant flowering 
fhrub yet knov/n : it grov/s in little copfes or 
clumps, in open forefts as well as dark groves, widi 
other fhrubs, and about the bafes of hills, efpecially 
where brooks and rivulets wind about them : the 
buflies feldom rife above fix or feven feet in height, 
and generally but three, four and five, but branch 
and Ipread their tops greatly ; the young leaves are 
but very fmall whilfl: the flirubs are in bloom, from 
which circumftance the plant exhibits a greater 
fliow of fplendour. 

Towards evening I crofl!ed Broad river at a good 
ford, juft above its confluence with the Savanna, 
and arrived at Fort James, which is a four fquare 
ftockade, with faliant baft:ions at each angle, mount- 
ed with a block-houfe, where are fome fwivel guns, 
one fl:ory higher than the curtains, which are pier- 
ced with loop-holes, breafl high, and defended by 
fmall arms. The fortification enclofes about an 
acre of ground, where is the governor's or comman- 
dant's houfe, a good building, which is flanked on 
each fide by buildings for the officers and barracks 

Y foi 


for the garriron, confifting of fifty ranges, including 
officers, each having a good horfe well- eqnipt, a 
rifle, two dragoon piftols, and a hanger, befides a 
powder horn, ihot pouch and tomahawk. The fort 
ftands on an eminence in the forks between the Sa- 
vanna and Broad rivers, about one mile above Fort 
Chailotta, which is fituated near the banks of the 
Savanna, on the Carolina fide. Fort James is fitu- 
ated nearly at an equal diftance from the banks of 
the two rivers, and from the extreme point of the 
land that feparates them. The point or peninfula 
between the two rivers, for the diftance of two 
miles back from the fort, is laid out for a town, by 
the name of Dartmouth, in honour to the earl of 
Dartmouth, who, by his interefb and influence in 
the Britifh councils, obtained from the king a grant 
and powers in favour of the Indian trading company 
of Georgia, to treat with the Creeks for the ceflion 
cf a quantity of land fufficient to difcharge their 
debts to the traders, for the fecurity and defence of 
which territory this fortrefs was eftabliflied. 

This territory, called the New Purchafe, con- 
tains about two millions of acres, lying upon the 
head of Great Ogechee, between the banks of the 
Savanna and Alatamaha, touching on the Ocone, 
and taking within its precinfts all the waters of 
Broad and Little rivers; comprehending a body of 
excellent and fertile land, well watered by innume- 
rable rivers, creeks and brooks. 

I made a little excurfion up the Savanna river, 
four or five miles above the fort, with the furgeon 
of the garrifon, who was {o polite as to attend mc 
to fhow me fome remarkable Indian monuments, 
which are worthy of every traveller's notice. Thefe 
"^'ondcrful labours of the ancients fland in a level 
2 plain. 


plain, very near the bank of the river, now twenty 
or thirty yards from it. They confift of conical 
mounts of earth and four fquare terraces, Sic. Th.e 
great mount is in the form of a cone, about forty 
ot. fifty ieet high, and the circumference o( its bafe 
two or three hundred yards, entirely compoled of 
the loamy rich earth of the low grounds : the top 
or apex is fiat: a fpiral path or track leading from 
the ground up to the top is ftill vifible, where novv 
grows a large, beautiful fpreading Red Cedar (Ju- 
niperus Americana) : there appear four niches, ex- 
cavated out of the fides of this hill, at difteient 
lieights from the bafe, fronting the four cardinal 
points; thefe niches or fentry boxes are entered in- 
to from the winding path, and feem to have been 
meant for refting places or look-outs. The circilm- 
iaceni level grounds are cleared and planted witJi 
Indian Corn at prelent; and I think the proprietor 
of thefe lands who accompanied us to this place, 
faid that the mount itfelf yielded above one hun- 
dred bufhela in one feafon: the land hereabouts is 
indeed exceeding fertile and produflive. 

It is altogether unknown to us, what could have 
induced the Indians to raife fuch a heap of earth in 
this place, the ground for a great fpace around be- 
ing fubjeft to inundations, at lead once a year, 
from which circumftance we may conclude they 
had no town or fettled habitations here. Some ima- 
gine thefe tumuli were conftru6led for look-out 
towers. It is reafonable to fuppofe, however, that 
they were to ferve fome importaftt purpofe in thofe 
days, as they were public works, and would have 
required the united labour and attention of a whole 
nation, circumftanced as they were, to have con- 
H;ru(fted one of them almoft in an age. There are 
y a feveral 

324 TRAVELS rjf 

feveral lefs ones round about the great one, witfx 
fonne very large tetragon terraces on each fide, neat 
one hundred yards in length, and their furface 
four, fix, eight and ten feet above the ground on 
which they ftand. 

We may however hazard a conjedure j that as 
xhere is generally a narrow fpace or ridge in thefe 
low lands, immediately bordering on the river's 
bank, which is eight or ten feet higher than the ad- 
joining low grounds, that lie betwixt the ftream and 
the heights of the adjacent main land, which, when 
the river overflows its banks, are many feet under 
water, when, at the fame time, this ridge on the 
river bank is above water and dry^ and at fuch in- 
undations appears as an ifland in the river ; thefe 
people might have had a town on this ridge, and 
this mount railed for a retreat and refuge in cafe of 
inundations, which are unforefeen and furprife them 
very fuddenly, fpring and autumn. 

Having finifhed my colle(51:ions and obfervations, 
which were extended to a confiderable diftance in 
the environs of Dartmouth; May loth fat off a- 
gain, proceeding for Keowe ; rode fix or eight 
miles up the river above the fort ; crofTed over into 
Carolina and foon got into the high road; but had 
not proceeded far, when I was furprifed by a fudden 
very heavy fhower of rain, attended with terrific 
thunder, but luckily found prefent llielter at a farm- 
houfe, where I continued above an hour before 
its fury abated ; when I proceeded again, and not- 
withftanding this detention and obftacles in confe- 
quence of the heavy rains in raifing the creeks, tra- 
velled thirty-five miles, and arrived in the evening 
at Mr. Cameron's, deputy-commiiHiry for Indian 
affairs for the Cherokee nation, to whom I was re- 
3 commended 


commended by letters from the honourable John 
Stewart, fuptrrintendant, refiding at Charlellon, 
mentioning my bufinefs in the Cherokee country. 

The road this day had led me over an uneven 
country, its furface undulat^ed hy ridges or chains 
of hills, fometimes rough with rocks and ftones, 
yet generally produftive of foreils, with a variety 
of vegetables of inferior growth, i. e. Quercus, va- 
rious fpecies, Juglans hickory, varieties, Lirioden- 
dron, Fraxinus, Fagus fylvatica, Fagus caftanea, 
Fagus pumila, f. Chinkapin, Nyfla Sylvatica, Acer 
rubrum, jEfculus fylvatica, Magnolia acuminata. 
Magnolia tripetela, Andromeda arborea, Hopea 
dnftoria, iEfculuspavia, Viburnum, Azalea flammea 
;and other fpecies j Hydrangea, Calycanthus, &c. 

The feafon being uncommonly wet, almoU daily 
ihowers of rain, frequently attended widi tremen- 
dous thunder, rendered travelling difagrecable, 
toilfome and hazardous, through an uninhabited 
wildernefs, abounding with rivers and brooks. 1 
■was prevailed upon by Mr. Cameron to ftav at 
his houfe a few days, until the rains ceafcd and the 
rivers could be more cafily forded. 

The Angelica lucida or nondo grows here in a- 
bundance : its aromatic carminative root is in tafte 
much like that oi'the Ginfeng (Panax) though more 
of the tafte and fcent of Anife-feed : it is in high 
dlimation with the Indians as well as white inha- 
bitants, and fells at a great price to the Southern 
Indians of Florida, who dwell near the fea coaft 
where this never grows fpontancoufly. I obferved 
a charming fpecies of Malva, having panicles of 
large fplendid purple or deep blue flov/ers; and 
another fpecies of Malva, very fingujar indeed, for 

Y Ti it 


it is a climber; the leaves are broad, which, with 
the whole plant, are lioary ; the flowers are very 
fmall, and of a greenifh white. Here grows alfo in 
abundance a beautiful fpecies of Delphinium ; the 
flowers differ in no refpeft from thofe of the com- 
mon branching Larkfpur of the gardens ; they are 
of a fine deep blue colour, and difpofed in long 
fparfed fpikes ; the leaves are compound, almoft 
Jinear, but the fegments not fo fine cut as thofe of 
the garden Larkfpur. 

The weather now fettled and fair, I prepared 
to proceed for fort Prince George Keowe, having 
obtained of the agreeable and liberal Mr. Came- 
ron, ample teflimonials and letters of recommen- 
dation to the traders in the nation : this gentleman 
alfo very obligingly fent a young Negro Qave to 
afliit and pilot me as far as Sinica. 

May i5Lh I left Lough-abber, the feat of Mr. 
Cameron. In the courfe of this day's journey I 
crofled feveral rivers and brooks, all branches of the 
Savanna, now called Keowe, above its confluence 
with the Tugilo, the Weft main branch. The face 
of I he country uneven, by means of ridges of hills 
and water courfes ; the hills fomewhat rocky near 
thtir lummits and at the banks of rivers and creeks, 
but very fertile, as there is a good depth of a loofe 
dark and moft vegetative mould, on a ftratum of 
reddifh brown tenacious clay, and fometimes a deep 
ftratum of dufky brown marl. The vegetable pro- 
di.i<ftions obfcrved during this day's progrefs^ were 
generally the fame as already recited fince leaving 
Dartmouth. The flaming Azaleas abound, and il- 
luminate the hill fides J and a new and Angularly 
beautiful fpecies of iEfculus pavia, fituated above 
thciTi, towards the fummits of thefe low hills. This 



conrpicuoufly beautiful flowering fhrub, grows to 
the height of five or fix feet; many divergent crook- 
ed ftems arife together from a root or fource, which 
dividing their branches, wreath about every way, 
after a very irregular and free order -, the exterior 
fijbdivifions of thefe limbs terminate with a heavy 
duller or thyrfis of rofe or pink coloured flowers, 
fpeckled or variegated with crimfon, larger, more 
expanfive and regular in their fDrmation than thofe 
of the Pavia -, and thefe heavy fpikes of flowers, 
charged with the morning dews, bend the flender 
flexile fl:ems to the ground : the compound leaves 
are of the configuration of thofe of the Pavia, but 
broader^ and their veins more prominent. The 
Ihrubs growing about the tops of the more barren 
grafliy hills, where large trees are few and fcattered, 
fhew themfelves to great advantage, and make a 
fine appearance. 

There are abundance of Grape vines (Vitis vini- 
fera) which ramble and fpread themfelves over 
the fhrubs and low trees in thefe fituations, and I 
was afl[ured produced fruit affording an excellent 
juice : the grapes are of various colours when ripe, 
of the figure and about the fize of the European 
wine grapes. Arrived at Sinica in the evening, af- 
ter travelling forty-five miles through an uninha- 
bited wildernefs. 

The Cherokee town of Sinica is a very refpefb- 
able fetdement, fituated on the Eafl Bank of the 
Keowe river, though the greateft number of Indian 
habitations are on the oppofite fhore, where like- 
wife fl:ands the council-houfe, in a level plain, be- 
twixt the river and the range of beautiful lofty hills, 
which rife magnificently, and feem to bend over 
the green plains and the river : but the chief's houle, 
y 4 with 


with thofe of the traders, and fome Indian dwellings, 
are feated on the afcent of the heights on the op- 
pofite fhore. This fituation in point of profpe<5b 
far excels the other, as it overlooks the whole fet- 
tlement, the extenfive fruitful plains on the river 
above and below, and the plantations of the inha- 
bitants, commanding a moft comprehenfive diver- 
sified view of the oppofite elevations. 

Sinica is a new town rebuilt fince the late Indiar\ 
war, when the Cherokees were vanquifhed and com- 
pelled to fue for peace by general Middleton, com- 
xnander of the Carolinian auxiliaries a6ting againft 
them, when the lower and middle fettlements were 
broken up : the number of inhabitants are now ef- 
timated at about five hundred, and they are able to 
muller about one hundred warriors. 

Next day I left Sinica alone, and after riding 
about fixteen miles, chiefly through high forefts of 
-excellent land at a little diftance from the river, ar- 
rived in the evening at fort Prince George Keowe. 

Keowe is a moft charming fituation, and the ad- 
jacent heights are naturally fo formed and difpofed, 
as with little expence of military architecture to be 
rendered almoft impregnable. It lies in a fertile 
vale, at this feafon enamelled with the incarnate 
fragrant ftrawberries and blooming plants, through 
wiiich the beautiful river meanders, fometimes 
gendy flowing, but more frequently agitated, glid- 
ing fwiftly between the fruitful ftrav/berry banks, en- 
vironed at various diftances by high hills and moun- 
tains, fome rifing boldly almoft upright upon the 
verge of the expanfive lawn, fo as to overlook and 
fliadow it, whiiit others more lofty, fuperb, mifty 
and blue, majeftically mount far above, 



The evening ftill and calm, all filent and peace- 
able, a vivifying gentle breeze continually wafted 
from the fragrant llrawberry fields, and aromatic 
Calycanthean groves on the furrounding heights j 
the wary moor fowl thundering in the diftant echo- 
ing hills : how the groves and hills ring with the 
ihrill perpetual voice of the whip-poor-will ! 

Abandoned as my fituation now was, yet thank 
heaven many objefts met together at this time, and 
confpired to conciliate, and in fome degree com- 
pofe my mind, heretofore fomewhat dejedled and 
unharmonized : all alone in a wild Indian country, 
a thoufand miles from my native land, and a vaft 
diftance from any fettle ments of white people. It 
is true, here were fome of my own colour, yet they 
were {Grangers j and though friendly and hofpitable, 
their manners and culloms of living fo different 
from what I had been accuftomed to, adminiftered 
but little to my confolation : fome hundred miles 
yet to travel j the favage vindi<5live inhabitants late- 
ly ill-treated by the frontier Virginians ; blood be- 
ing fpilt between them, and the injury not yet wiped 
away by formal treaty : the Cherokees extreme- 
ly jealous of white people travelling about their 
mountains, efpecially if they fhould be {ten. peep- 
ing in amongft the rocks, or digging up their 

The vale of Keowe is feven or eight miles In ex- 
tent, that is, from the little town of Kulfage* about 
a mile above, thence down the river fix or icv^n 
miles, where a high ridge of hills on each fide of 
the river almoft terminates the vale, but opens again 
belQW the narrow ridge, and continues ten or twelve 

* Sugar Towni 


330 TRAVELS lli 

miles down to Sinica, and in width one and two 
miles. This fertile vale within the remembrance of 
fome old traders with whom I converfed, was one 
continued fettlement ; the fwelling fides of the ad- 
joining hills were then covered with habitations, 
and the rich level grounds beneath lying on the ri- 
ver, was cultivated and planted, which now exhi- 
bit a very different fpeftacle, humiliating indeed to 
the prefent generation, the pofterity and feeble re- 
mains of the once potent and renowned Cherokees : 
the veftiges of the ancient Indian dwellings are yet 
vifible on the feet of the hills bordering and front- 
ing on the vale, fuch as pofls or pillars of their ha-' 
bitations, &c. 

There are feveral Indian mounts or tamuli, and 
terraces, monuments of the ancients, at the old fite 
of Keowe, near the fort Prince George, but no In- 
dian habitations at prefent ; and here are feveral 
dwellings inhabited by white people concerned in 
the Indian trade : Mr. D. Homes is the principal 
trader here. 

The old fort Prince George now bears' no marks 
q( a fortrefs, but ferves for a, trading houfe. 




I waited two or three days at this poft, expeftlng 
the return of an Indian who was out hunting. This 
man was recoinmendcd to me as a fuitable perfon 
for a proteftor and guide to the Indian fettlements 
over the hills ; but upon information that he would 
not be in fhortly, and there being no other perfon 
fuitable for dir purpot'e, rather than be detained, 
and perhaps thereby ffjftrated in my purpofes, I 
determined to fet off alone and run all rifl<s. 

I crolfed the river at a good ford juft below the 
old fort. The river here is juft one hundred yards 
over. After an agreeable progrels for about two 
miles over delightful ftrawberry plains, and gently 
fwelling green hills, I began to afcend more lleep 
and rocky ridges. Having gained a very con- 
fiderable elevation, looking round, I enjoyed a 
very comprehenfive and delightful view : Keowe, 
which I had but juft loft fight off, appeared again, 
and the ferpentine river fpeeding through the lucid 
green plain apparently juft under my feet. After 
obferving this delightful landfcape, I continued on 
again three or four miles, keeping the trading path, 
which led me over uneven rocky lanci, croffing rivu- 
lets and brooks, and rapidly defcending over rocky 
precipices ; when 1 came into a charn ing vale, em- 
beiliflied with a delightful glittering river, which 
meandered through it, and croffed my road. On my 
left hand,- upon the grally bafes of the rifing hills, 
appeared the remains of a town of the ancients, as 


3j'2 travels in 

the tumuli, terraces, pofts or pillars, old Peach and 
Plumb or chards, &c. fufficiently teflify. Thefe 
vales and fwelling bafes of the lurrounding hills, 
afford vaft crops of excellent grafs and herbage fit 
for pafturage and hay , of the latter, Plantago Vir- 
ginica, Sanguiforba, Geum, Fragaria, &c. The 
Panax quinquefolium, or Ginfeng, now appears 
plentifully on the North expofure of the hill, grow- 
ing out of the rich mellow humid eardi amongft 
the ftones or fragments of rocks. 

Having croffed the vales, I began to afcend again 
the more lofty ridges of hills, dien continued about 
eight miles over more gentle pyramidal hills, nar- 
row vales and lawns, the foil exceedingly fertile, 
producing lofty forefts and odoriferous groves of 
Calycanthus, near the banks of rivers, with Halefia, 
Philadelphus inodorus, Rliododendron ferrugineum. 
Azalea, Stewartia montana,* fol. ovatis acuminatis 
ferratis, flor. niveo, ftaminum corona fulgida, peri- 
carp, pomum exfuccum, apice acuminato dehifcens, 
Cornus Florida, Styrax, all in full bloom, and de^ 
corated with the following fweet roving climbers, 
Bignonia fempervirens. Big. crucigera, Lonicera 
fempervirens, Rofa paniculata, &c. 

Now at once the mount divide; and difclofe to 
view the ample Occonne vale, encircled by a 
v/reath of uniform hills ; their fwelling bafes clad 
in cheerful verdure, over which, iffuing from be- 
tween the mountains, plays along a glittering river, 
meandering through the meadows. Crofllng thefe 
at the upper end of the vale, I began to afcend the 
Occonne mountain. On the foot of the hills are 

• This is a new fpecie? of Stevvartin, unknown to the European botanifts, 
and not mentioned in ;iny catalo^iues. 



ruins of the ancient Occonne town. The firfl ftep 
after leaving the verdant beds of the hills, was a 
very high rocky chain of pointed hills^ extremely 
well tinnbered with the following trees : Quercus 
tincftoria, Qiierc. alba, Querc. rubra, Fraxinus ex- 
celfior, Juglans hickory various fpecies, Ulnnus, 
Tilia, Acer faccharinum, Morus, Juglans nigra, 
Juglans alba, Annona glabra, Robinia pfeudacacia. 
Magnolia acuminata, iEfculus fylvatica, with many 
more, particularly a fpecies of Robinia new to me, 
tliough perhaps the iiime as figured and (lightly 
defcribed by Catefby in his Nat. Hift. Carol. This 
beautiful flowering tree grows twenty and thirty feet 
high, with a crooked leaning trunks the branches 
fpread greatly, and wreath about, fome almofl 
touching the ground ; however there appears a 
fingular pleafmg wildnefs and freedom in its man- 
ner of growths the (lender fubdivifions of the 
branches terminate widi heavy compound panicles 
of rofe or pink coloured fiov/ers, amidft a wreath 
of beautiful pinnated leaves. 

My next flight was up a very high peak, to the 
top of the Occonne mountain, where 1 refted j and 
turning about, found that I was now in a very ele- 
vated fituation, from whence I enjoyed a view in- 
exprefTibly magnificent and comprehenfive. The 
mountainous wildernefs which I had lately tra- 
verfed, down to the region of Augufla, appear- 
ing regularly undulated as the great ocean after a 
temped ; the undulations gradually deprefTing, yet 
perfe6lly regular, as the fquama of fiili, or imbri- 
cations of tile on a roof: the nearell ground to me 
of a perfeft full green ; next more glaucous ; and 
laftly almoft blue as the ether with Vi'hich the 



moft diftant curve of" the horizon feemed to be 

My imagination thus wholly engaged in the con- 
templation of this magnificent landfcape, infinitely 
varied, and without bound, I was almoft infenfible 
or regardlefs of the charming objeds more within 
my reach: a new fpecies of Rhododendron fore- 
moft in the aflembly of mountain beauties ; next 
the flaming Azalea, Kalmia latifolia, incarnate 
Robinia, fnowy mantled Philadelphus inodorus, 
perfumed Calycanthus, &C. 

This fpecies of Rhododendron grows fix or feven 
feet high j many nearly ereft ftems arife together 
from the root, forming a group or coppice. The 
leaves are three or four inches in length, of an 
oblong figure, broadeft toward the extremity, and 
terminating with an obtufe point ; their upper fur- 
face of a deep green and polifhed ; but the nether 
furface of a rufty iron colour, wliich feems to be 
efFe6le)d by innumerable minute reddifh veficles, 
beneath a fine fhort downy pubefcence ; the nu- 
merous flexile branches terminate with a loofe 
fpiked raceme, or clufter of large deep rofe co- 
loured flowers, each flower being affixed in the 
dififufed duller of a long peduncle, which, with the 
whole plant, poffeiTes an agreeable perfijme. 

After being recovered of the fadgue and labour 
in aftending the mountain, I began again to pro- 
fecute my tafk, proceeding through a fhady foreft ; 
and foon after gained the molt elevated creft of the 
Occonne mountain, and then began to defcend the 
other fide ; the winding rough road carrying me 
over rocky hills and levels, flnaded by incomparable 
forefts, the foil exceedingly rich, and of an excel- 


lent quality for the produftion of every vegetable 
iuited to the cliinate, and feeming peculiarly adapt- 
ed for the cultivation of Vines (Vitis vinifera), 
Olives (Olea Europea), the Almond tree (Amyg- 
dalus communis), Fig (Ficus carica), and perhaps 
the Pomegranate, (Punica granatum), as well as 
Peaches (Amyg. Perfica), Prunus, Pyrus, of every 
variety. I pafTed again deep rocky afcents, and 
then rich levels, where grew many trees and plants 
common in Pennfylvania, New-York and even 
Canada, as Pinus flrobus, Pin. fylveftris, Pin. abies, 
Acer faccharinum, Acer ftriatum, f. Pennfylvani- 
cum, Populus tremula, Betula nigra, Juglans alba, 
&c. ; but what feems remarkable, the yellow Jef- 
lamine (Bignonia fempervirens), which is killed by 
a very flight froft in the open air in Pennfylvania, 
here, on the fummits of the Cherokee mountains 
afTociates with the Canadian vegetables, and ap- 
pears roving with them in perfe6t bloom and gaiety; 
as likewife Halefia diptera, and Hal. tetraptera, 
mountain Stewartia, Styrax, Ptelea, i^fculus pavia; 
but all thefe bear our hardeft frofts in Pennfylvania. 
Now I enter a charming narrow vale, through 
which flows a rapid large creek, on whofe banks 
arc happily aflTociated the llirubs already recited, 
together with the following; Staphyla^a, Euoni- 
inus Americana, Hamamelis, Azalea, various fpe- 
cies, Arifliolochia frutefeens, f. odoratifiima, which 
rambles over the trees and flirubs on the prolific 
banks of thefe mountain brooks. PafTed through 
magnificent high forefts, and then came upon the 
borders of an ample meadow on the left,, embroi-- 
dered by the fliade of a high circular amphitheatre 
of hills, the circular ridges riflng magnificently one 
over the other. On the green turfy baies of thele 
afcents appear the ruins of a town of the ancients. 


33^ traVelS iN 

The upper end of this fpacious green plain is di- 
vided by a promontory or fpur of the ridges be- 
fore me, which projeds into it: my road led me 
lip into an opening of the afcents through which 
the ghttering brook which watered the meadows 
ran rapidly down, dafning and roaring ever high 
rocky fteps. Continued ye£ afcending until I 
gained the top of an eleva^d rocky ridge, when 
appeared before me a gap or opening between 
other yet more lofty afcents, through which con- 
tinued as the rough rocky road led me, clofe by 
the winding banks of a large rapid brook, v/hich at 
length turning to the left, pouring down rocky pre- 
cipices, glided off through dark groves and high 
forefts, conveying ftreams of fertiUty and pleafure 
to the fields below. 

The furface of the land now for three or four 
miles is level, yet uneven, occafioned by natural 
mounds or rocky knobs, but covered with a good 
ftaple of rich earth, which affords forefts of timber 
trees and fhrubs. After this, gently defcending 
again, I travelled fome miles over a varied fituation 
of ground, exhibiting views of grand forefts, dark 
detached groves, vales and meadows, as heretofore, 
and producing the like vegetable and other works 
of nature ; the meadows affording exuberant paf- 
turage for catde, and the bafes of the encirchng 
hills, flowering plants, and fruitful ftrawberry beds : 
obferved frequently ruins of the habitations or vil- 
lages of the ancients. CrolTed a delightful river, 
the main branch of Tugilo, when I began to afcend 
again, firft over fwelling turfy ridges, varied with 
groves of ftately foreft trees ; then afcending again 
more fteep grafTy hill fides, refted on the top of 
mount Magnolia, which appeared to me to be the 
higheft ridge of the Cherokee mountains, which 



feparate the waters of Savanna river from thofe of 
the Tanafe or greater main branch of the Cherokee 
river. This running rapidly a North-Weft coiirfc 
through the mountains, is joined from the Noith- 
Eaft by the Holftcin -, thence taking a Weft courfe 
yet amongft the mountain^., receiving into it from! 
either hand many large rivers, leaves the mountains 
immediately after being joined by a large river 
from the Eaft, becomes a mighty liver by the 
name ot Hogehege, thence meanders many hun- 
dred miles through a vaft country confifting of 
forefts, meadows, groves, expanfivc favannas, fields 
and fwelling hills, moft fertile and delightful, flows 
into the beautiful Ohio, and in conjunction with its 
tranfparent waters, becomes tributary to the fove- 
reign Miftifippi. 

This exalted peak 1 named mount Magnolia, 
from a new and beautiful fpecies of that celebrated 
family of flowering trees, which here, at the caf- 
cades of Falling Creek, grows in a high degree of 
perfection: I had, indeed, noticed this curious tree 
ieveral times before, particularly on the high ridges 
betwixt Sinica and Keowe, and on afcending the 
firft mountain after leaving Keowe, v/hen I ob- 
ferved it in flower, but here it flourifties and com- 
mands our attention. 

This tree, * or perhaps rather lllrub, rifes eigh- 
teen to thirty feet in height ; there are uraally 
many ftems from a root or fource, which lean a 
little, or flightly diverge from each other, in this 
refpeft imitaiing the Magnolia tripetalaj the 
crooked wreathing branches arifmg and fubdividing 
from the main ftem' without order or uniformity, 

f Magnolia auiicuLita. 

Z their 


their extremities turn upwards, producing a very 
large rofaceous, perfeftly white, double or polypc- 
talous flower, which is of a moft fragrant fcent; this 
fine flower fi:s in the centre of a radius of very large 
leaves, which are of a Angular figure, fotr.ewhat 
lanceolate, but broad towards their extremities, ter- 
minated with an acuminated point, and backwards 
they attenuate and become very narrow towards 
their bafes, terminating that way with two long 
narrow ears or lappets, one on each fide of the in- 
fertion of the petiole; the leaves have only fhort 
footftalks, fitting very near each other, at the ex- 
tremities of the fioriferous branches, from whence 
they fpread themfelves after a regular order, like 
the fpokes of a v.heel, their margins touching or 
lightly lapping upon each other, form an expanfive 
umbrella fuperbly crowned or crefted with the 
fragrant flower, reprefenting a v>?hite plume ; the 
bloifom is fucceeded by a very large crimfon cone 
or fl:robile, containing a great number of fcarlet 
berries, which, when ripe, fpring from their cells, 
and are for a time fufpended by a white filky v/eb 
or thread. The leaves of thofe trees whicli grow 
in a rich, light humid foil, when fully expanded 
and at maturitVj are frequently above two feet in 
ienpth, and fix or eig-ht inches where broadeft. I 
difcovered in the maritime parts of Georgia, par- 
ticularly on the banks of the Alatamaha, another 
new fpecies of Magnolia, whofe leaves were, nearly 
of the figure of thofe of this tree, but they were 
much lefs in fize, not more than fix or feven inchss 
in length, and the ftrobile very fmall, obiong, fliarp 
pointed, and of a fine deep crimfon colour; but I 
never faw the flower. Thefe trees grow fliraight and 
ereft, thirty feet or more in height, and of a fliarp 
conical form much refembling the Cucumber tree 
(Mi^g. acuminata) in figure. 



The day being remarkably warm and fulrry, 
together with the labour and ftigue of afcending 
the mountains, made me very thirfty and in fome 
degree funk my fpirits. Now paft mid-day, I 
fought a cool fliaded retreat, where was water for 
refrelhment and grazing for my horfe, my faithful 
flave and only companion. After proceeding a 
little farther, defcending the other fide of the moun- 
tain, I perceived at fome didance before me, on 
my right hand, a level plain fupporting a grand 
high forefl: and groves : the nearer I approached, my 
fteps were the more accelerated from the flattering 
profpe(5l opening to view. I now entered upon the 
verge of the dark foreft, charming folitude ! as I 
advanced through the animatin'j; fnades, obferved 
on the farther grafly verge a fnady grove ; thither 
I directed my fleps. On approaching thefe fhades, 
between the ftately columns of the fuperb foreft 
trees, prefented to view, rufliing f om rocky pre- 
cipices under the fliade of the penfile hills, the un- 
paralleled cafcade of Falling Creek, rolling and 
leaping off the rocks : the waters uniting below, 
fpread a broad glittering ibeet over a vafc convex 
elevation of plain fmooth rocks, and are immedi- 
ately received by a fpacious bafon, where trembling 
in the centre through hurry and agitation, they 
gently fubfide, encircling the painted ftill Verge; 
from whence gliding fwittly, they fcon form a de- 
lightful little river, which continuing to flow more 
moderately, is reflirained for a moment, gently un- 
dulating in a little lake : they then pafs on rapidly 
to a high perpendicular fteep of rocks, from whence 
thefe delightful waters are hurried down with irre- 
fifliible rapidity. I here feated myfelf on the mofs- 
clad rocks, under the fhade of fpreading "rees and 
fioriferous fragrant Ihrubs, in full view of the cait- 

Z 2 At 


At this rural retirement were afiembled a charm- 
ing circle of mountain vegetable beauties ; Mag- 
nolia auriculata, Rhododendron ferrngineum, Kal- 
mia latifoha, Robinia montana, Azalea flammula, 
Rofa paniculata, Calycanthus Floridus, Philadelphus 
.inodorus, perfumed Convalaria majalis. Anemone 
thalifflroidcs, Anemone hepadca, Erythronium ma- 
culatum, Leontice thaliftroides, Trillium feffile, 
Trillium cefnum, Cypripediiim, Arethufa, Ophrys, 
Sanguinaria, Viola uvularia, Epigca, Mitchella re- 
pens, Stewartia, Halefia, Styrax, Lonicera, &c. 
Some of thefe roving beauties ftroll over the 
m.ofiy, fhelving, humid rocks, or from off the ex- 
panfive wavy boughs of trees, bending over the 
Hoods, faiute their delufive fliade, playing on the 
furface ; fome plunge their pcrfum.ed heads and 
bathe their flexile limbs in the filver ftream ; whilft 
others by the mountain breezes are tolTed about, 
their blooming tufts befpangled with pearly and 
chryftaline dew-drops collefted from the falling 
mifts, glifirening in the rainbow arch. Having 
collected fome valuable fpecimens at this friendly 
retreat, I continued my lonefome pilgrimage. My 
road for a confiderable time led m.e winding; and 
turning about the fteep rocky hills j the defcent of 
fome of which were very rough and troublefome, by 
means of fragments of rocks, jlippery clay and talc : 

• but after this 1 entered a fpacious foreil, the land 
having gradually acquired a more level furface : a 
pretty graffy vale appears on my right, through 
which my wandering path led me, clofe by the 

. banks of a delightful creek, which fometimes fall- 

- ing over fteps of rocks, glides gently with ferpen- 

- tine meanders through the meadows. 


After crofTing this delightful brook and mead, 
the Und rifes again with iliblime magnificence, and 

I am 


r am led over hills and vales, groves and high 
forefts, vocal widi die melody of- the feathered 
fongftcrs; the fnow-white cafcades glittering on 
the fides of the diftanc W\IU. 

It was now afternoon ; I approached a charming 
vale, amidft fubiimely high forefts, awful ftiades ! 
Darknefs gathers around ; far diftant thunder rolls 
over the trembling iiills : the black clouds with 
auguft majefty and power, move flowly forv/ards, 
fiiading regions of towering hills, and threatening 
all the deilruftion of a thunder ftorm : all around 
is now ftill as death ; not a whifper is heard, but a 
total inaclivity and filcnce feem to pervade the 
earth ; the birds afraid to utter a chirrup, in 
low tremulous voices take leave of each other, 
feeking covert and lafety : every infe6t is filenced, 
and nothing heard but the roaring of the approach- 
ing hurricane. The mighty cloud now expands its 
fable wings, extending from North to South, and 
is drive/1 irrcfnlibly on by the tumultuous winds, 
Ipreading its livid wings around the gloomy con- 
cave, armed with terrors of thunder and fiery fhafts 
of lightning. Now the lofty forefts bend low be- 
neath its fury; their limbs and wavy boughs are 
toffed about and catch hold of each other ; the 
mountains tremble and feem to reel ab ait, and 
the ancient hills to be fhaken to their foundations : 
the furious ftorm fweeps along, fmoaking through 
the vale and over the refounding hills : the face 
of the earth is obfcured by the deluge defcending 
from the firmament, and 1 am deafened by the din 
of the thunder. The tempeftuous fcene damps my 
fpirits, and my horfe finks under me at the tre- 
mendous peals, as I haften on for the plain. 

The ftorm abating, I faw an Indian hunting 
Z 3 cabii) 


cabin on the fide of a hill, a very agreeable prof- 
pc6i, efpecially in my prefent condition ; I made 
up to it and took quiet poiTefTion, there being no 
one to difpnte it with me except a few bats and 
whip-pocr- wills, who had repaired thither for ihelter 
from die violence of the hurricane. 

Having turned out my horfe in the fweet mea- 
dows adjoining, and found forae dry wood under 
ihelter of the old cabin, I ftruck up a fire, dried my 
clothes, and comforted myfelf with a frugal repall 
of bifcuit and dried beef, Vv-hich was all the food my 
viaticum afforded me by this time, excepting a 
fmall piece of cheefe which I had furnifhed myfelf 
v/ith at Charleilon, and kept till this time. 

The night was clear, calm and cool, and I refled 
quietly. Next morning at day-break I vias awak- 
ened and fummoned to refume m.y daily tafk, by 
the fhriil cries of the facial night hawk and active 
merry mock- bird. By the time the rifing fun had 
gilded the tops of the towering hills, the mountains 
and vales rang with the harmoni(.us flipuLs of 
the pious and cheerful tenants of the groves and 

I obferved growing in great abundance in thefe 
mountain meadows, Sanguiibrba Canadenfis and 
Heracleum maximium ; the latter exhibiting a fine 
ftiow, being rendc^red confpicuous even at a great 
dift.ince, by its great ntight and fpread, vaft pen- 
natifid leaves and expanfivc umbels of fnow-white 
flowers. The fweilir.g bafes of the furrounding 
hills fronting the iTieaCtows prefented for my ac- 
cept^pte the fragrant red ftrawberry, in painted 
bed^'of many acres furface, indeed I may fafely fay, 
many hundreds. 



After pa/Tmg through this meadow, tlie road led 
me over the bafes of a ridge of hills, wnich as a bold 
promontory dividing the fields I had juft pafTcd, 
form expanfive green lawns. On thefc towering 
hills appeared the ruins of the ancient famous town 
of Sticoe. Plere was a vaft Indian mount or tu- 
mulus and great terrace, on which flood the coun- 
cil-houfe, with banks cncompafling their circus ; 
here were alio old Ptach and Plumb orchards ; 
fome of the trees appeared yet thriving and fruitful. 
Prefently after leaving thefe ruins, the vale and 
fields are divided by means of a fpur of the moun- 
tains pufliing forward : here likev/ife the road fork- 
ed ; the left-hand path continued up the mountains 
to the Overhill towns : I followed the vale to the 
right hand, and loon began again to afcend the hills, 
riding feveral miles over very rough, ftony land, 
yielding the like vegetable produftions as hereto- 
fore; and defcending again gradually, by a dubious 
winding path, leading into a narrow vale and lawn, 
through which roiled on before me a delightful 
brook, water of the Tanafe. I crofled it and con- 
tinued a mile or tv/o down the meadows ; when 
the high mountains on each fide fuddenly receding, 
difcovered the opening of the extenfive and fruit- 
ful vale of Cowe, through which meanders the head 
branch of the Tanafe, almoft from its fource, fixty 
miles, following its courfe down to Cowe. 

I left for a little while, the dream palling fwiftly 
and foaming over its rocky bed, lafning the fteep 
craggy banks, and then fuddenly funk from my 
fight, murmuring hollow and deep under the rocky 
furface of the ground. On my right hand the vale 
expands, receiving a pretty filvcry brook of water 

Z 4 which 


which came haftily down from the adjacent hills, 
and entered the river a little diftance before me. 
I now turn from the heights on my left, the road 
leading into the level lawns, to avoid the hollow 
rocky grounds, full of holes and cavities, arching 
over the river through which the waters are feen 
gliding along : but the river is foon liberated from 
thefe folirary and gloomy recefies, and appears 
waving through the green plain before mje. I con- 
tinued feveral miles, purfuing my ferpentine path, 
through and over the m.eadows and green fields, 
and crofling the river, which is here incredibly in- 
creafed in fize, by the continual acceffion of brooks 
flowing in from the hills on each fide, dividing their 
green turfy btds, forming them into parterres, viftas, 
and verdant fwelling knolls, profufely produ6live of 
Hov/ers and fragrant flrawberries, their rich juice 
dying my horfes feet and ancles. 

Thefe fwelling hills, the prolific beds on which 
the towering mountains repofe, feem to have been 
the common fituations of the towns of the ancients, 
as appears from the remaining ruins of them yet to 
be feen, and the level rich vale and meadows in 
front, their planting grounds. 

Continue yet ten or twelve miles down the vale, 
my road leading at limes clofe to the banks of the 
river, the Azalea, Kalaiia, Rhododendron, Philadel- 
phus, &c. beautifying his now elevated fhores, and 
painting the coves with a rich and cheerful fcenery, 
continually unf Iding new pro{pe6ls as I traverfe the 
Ihores : toweiing mountains feem continually in mo- 
tion as I pafs along, pompouOy raifing their fiiperb 
crefts towards the lofty fkies, traverfing the far dif- 
tant horizon. 



The Tanafc is now greatly increafed fiom the 
conflux of the multitude of rivulets and l>i-ot>ks, 
defcending from the hills on either fide, generoully 
contributing to eftablifli his future fame, already a 
fpacious rivtT. 

The mountains recede, the vale expands ; two 
beautiful rivukts fiream down through lateral vales, 
gliding in ferpentine mazes over the green turfy 
knolls, and enter the Tanafe nearly oppofie to each 
other. Straight forward the expanfivf green vale 
feems yet infinite : now on the right hand a lof:y 
pyramidal hill terminates a Ipur of the adjacent 
mountain, and advances almoft into the river ; 
but immediately after doubling this promontory, 
an expanded wirjg of the vale fpreads on my right, 
down which came precipitately a very beautiful 
creek, which flowed into the river juft before me; 
but now behold, high upon the fide of a diftanc 
mountain overlooking the vale, the fountain of this 
brifk-flowing creek ; the unparalleled waterfall ap- 
pears as a vail edifice with cryllal front, or a field 
of ice lying on the bofom of the hill. 

I now approach the river at the fording place, 
which was greatly fwollen by the floods of rain that 
fell the day before, and ran with foaming rapidity ; 
but obferving that it had fallen feveral feet per- 
pendicular, and perceiving the bottom or bed of 
the river to be level, and covered evenly with peb- 
bles, I ventured to crof> over ; however I was obli- 
ged to fwim two or three yards at the deepeft chan- 
nel of it, and landed fafcly on the banks of a fine 
meadow, which lay on the oppofite lliore, where I 
immediately alighted and fpread abroad on the turf 
my linen, books, and fpecimens of plants, &c. to diy, 
turned out my fteedto graze, and then advanced in- 


to the ftrawberry plains to regale on the fragrant^ 
delicious fruit, welcomed by communities of the 
fplendid meleagris, the capricious roe-buck, and all 
the free and happy tribes, which pollefs and inhabit 
thole prolific fields, who ai)peared to invite, and 
joined with me in the participation of the bountiful 
repaft prefented to us from the lap of nature. 

I mounted again, and followed the trading path 
about a quarter of a mile through the fields, then 
gently afcended the green beds of the hills, and e«- 
tered the forefts, being a point of a chain of hills 
projecting into the green vale or low lands of the 
rivers. This foreft continued about a mile, the 
furface of the land level but rough, being covered 
with Itones or fragments of rocks, and very large, 
fmooth pebbles of various Hiapes and fizes, fome of 
ten or fifteen pounds weight: I obferved on each 
lide of the road many vaft heaps of thefe ftones, 
ladian graves undoubtedly *. 

After I left the graves, the ample vale foon of- 
fered on my right hand, through the tall foreft trees, 
charming views, which exhibited a pleafing contraft, 
immediately out of the gloom.y (hades :ind fcenes of 
death, into expanfivc, lucid, green, flowery fields, 
expanding between retiring hills, and tufty emi- 
nences, the rapid Tanafe gliding through, as, a vaft 
ferpent rufhing after his prey. 

My winding path nov/ leads me again over the 
green fields into the meadows, Ibmecimcs vifiting 

* At tills phce was fought 3 bloody and dccifive b.-.ttlc between thefe 
Indians and the Caroruiiauf, under thccondudt of goucral Middleton,wheri 
a great tuimber of Cherokee wnrriors were fiain, wliicli fliook their 
povvci, territied ,-.;k1 humbk-d them, info.-nuch that they deferted moft uf 
their fettlements in tlie low countrsef, and betook thenifelves to the movm- 
laias as lets acceillble to the regular forces of the white people. 



the decorated banks of the river, as it meanders 
through the meadows, or boldly fweeps along the 
b.iies oi the mountains, its furface receiving the 
images reflciiled from the flowery banks above. 

Thus was m.y agreeable progrefs for about fif- 
teen miles, fmce 1 came upon tiie fources of the 
Tanafe, at the head of thih, charnung vale : in the 
evening efpving a human habitation at the foot @f 
the Hoping green hills, beneath lofty forefts of the 
mountains on the left hand, and at the fame time 
obferving a man croiring the river from the oppo- 
fite fhore in a canoe and coming towards me, I wait- 
ed his approach, who hailing me, 1 anfwered I was 
for Cowe j he entreated me very civilly to call at 
his houfe, adding, that he would prefcntly come to 

I was received and entertained here until next 
day with die moft perfect civility. After I liad 
dined, towards evening, a company of Indian gi;Is, 
inhabitants of a village in the hills at a fmali dif- 
tance, called, having bafl<;ets of ftrawben ies ; and 
this man, who kept here a trading houfe, being 
married to a Cherokee woman of fan.ily, was in- 
dulged to keep a Itock of catde, and his helpmate 
being an excellent houfe-wife, and a very agreeable 
good woman, treated us v^ath cream and ftraw- 

Next morning, after breakfafting on excellent 
coffee, relilhed with bucanned venifon, hot corn 
cake>, excellent butter and cheef;, fat forwards 
again for Cowe, which was about fifceen miles dif- 
tance, keeping the trading path which courfed 
through the low lands between the hills and the 
river, now fpacious knd well beaten by travellers^ 

I but 


but fomewhat intricate to a fcrangerj from the fre- 
quent collateral roads falling into it from villages 
or towns over the hills. After riding about four 
iniks moftly through fields and plantations, the 
foil incredibly fertile, arrived at the town of Echoc, 
confiding of many good houfes, well inhabited. I 
paifcd through, and continued three miles farther 
ro NucafTe, and tliree miles more brought me to 
Whatoga. Riding through this large town, the 
road carried me winding about through their little 
plantations of Corn, Beans, &c. up to the council- 
houfe, which was a very large dome cr rotunda, 
fiaiated on the top of an ancient artificial mount, 
and here my road terminated. All before me and 
on every fide, appeared litde plantations of young 
Corn, Beans, &c. divided from each ether by nar- 
row flrips or borders of grafs, which marked the 
bounds of each one's property, their habitation 
ftandino; in the midft. Findinc; no common high 
road to lead me through the town, I was novv at a 
ftand how to proceed farther j when obferving an 
Indian man at the door of his habitation, three or 
four hundred yards diftance from me, beckoning 
me to come to him, I ventured to ride through 
their lots, being careful to do no injury to the 
young plants, the rifing hopes of their labour and 
induftry ; crofTed a little graffy vale watered by 
a filver flream, which gently undulated through i 
then afcended a oreen hill to the houfe, where I 
was chearfully welcomed at the door, and led in by 
the chief giving the care of my horfe to two hand- 
fome youths, Ins fons. During my continuance 
here, about half im hour, I experienced the mod 
perfed and agreeable hofpitality conferred on nvc 
by thefe happy people ; 1 mean happy in their dif- 
pofitions, in their apprehenfions of reftitude with 



rccrard to our focial or moral condufl. O divine 

ninplicity and truth, friendfliip without fallacy or 

f^uile, hofpitality difintercfted, native, undefilcd, 
unmodifyed by artificial refinements ! 

My venerable hoft gracefully and with an air of 
refpei5l, led mc into an airy, cool apartment ; where 
being feated on cabins, his women brought in a re- 
frefliing repail:, confiiting of foddcn venifon, hot 
corn cakes, ike. with a pleafant cooling liquiir made 
of hommony well boiled, mixed afterwards with 
milk ; thisisferved up, either before or after eating, 
in a large bowl, with a very large ipoon or ladle to 
flip it with. 

After partaking of this fimple but healthy and 
liberal collation, and the diflies cleared off. Tobac- 
co and pipes w^ere brought; and the chief filling 
one of them, whofe ftem, about four feet long, was 
fheathed in a beautiful fpeckled fnake flvin, and 
adorned with feathers and firings of wampum, lights 
it and finoaks a few whiffs, puffing the fmoak firfl 
towards the fun, then to the four cardinal points, 
and laflly over my breaft, hands it towards me, 
which I chearfuily received from him and fmoaked; 
when we fell into converfation. He firft enquired 
if I came from Charlefton? if I knew John Stewart, 
Efq how long fince I left Charleflon ? &c. Hav- 
ing fatisficd him in my anfwers in the befl manner 
I could, he was greatly pleafed; which I w^as con- 
vinced of by his attention to me, his cheerful man- 
ners, and his ordering my horfe a plentiful bait of 
corn, which laft inftance of refpect is conferred on 
thofe only to whom they manifeft the highefl efleem, 
iaylng that corn was given by the Great Spirit only 
for food to man. 

I ac- 


I acquainted thlz ancient prince and patriai-ch 
with the nature and dcfign of my peregrinations, 
and that I was now f; r ("owe, but having loft my 
road in the town, requefted that 1 mi^ht be in- 
formed. He cheerful' y replied, he was pleafed 
1 was come in their country, where I fhouid meet 
with friendfhip and protcfaon, and that he would 
himfelf lead me into the light pach. 

After ordering my horf; to the door, we went 
forth together, he on fo )t, and I leading my hoiTe 
by the bridle ; thus walking together near two miles, 
we (liook hands and parted, he returning home, and 
I continuing mv journey for Cov/e. 

This prince is the chief of Whatoga, a man uni- 
verfally beloved, and particularly efteemed by the 
■whites for his pacific and equitable difpofition, and 
revered by all tor his exemplary virtues, juft, mo- 
derate, magnanimous and intrepid. 

Fie was tall and peifl-clly formed; his counte- 
nance cheerful and lofty, and at the fam.e time truly 
charafteriftic of the red m.en, that is, the brow 
ferocious, and the eye active, piercing or fiery, as 
an eagle. He appeared to be about fixty years of 
age, yet upright and mufcular, and his limibs adlive 
as youth. 

After leaving my princely friend, I travelled 
about five miles through old plantations, now under 
graf:,, but which appeared to have been planted the 
laft feafon ; the foil exceeding fertile, loofe, black, 
deep and fat. I arrived at Cowe about noon. This 
fettlement is efteemed the capital town : it is firu- 
ated on the bafes of the hills on both fides of the 
river, near to its bank, and here terminates the great 
* vale 


vale of Cowe, exhibiting one of the moil charming 
natural mountaneous landfcapes perhaps any wlierc 
CO be feen ; ridges of hills rifing grand and fubiimely 
one above and beyond another, ibme boldly and 
majeftically advancing into the verdant plain, their 
feet bathed with the filver flood of the Tanafe, 
vvhilft others far diftant, veiled in blue mifts, fub- 
iimely mounting aloft with yet greater majefty life 
up their pompous crefts, and overlook vaft re- 

The vale is clofed at Cowe by a ridge of mighty 
hills, called the Jore mountain, faid to be the higheil 
land in the Cherokee country, which croffes the 
Tanafe here. 

On my arrival at this town I waited on the gen- 
tlemen to whom I was recommended by letter, and 
was received with refpeft and every demonllration 
of hofpitality and friendfhip. 

I took my refidence with Mr. Galahan the 
chief trader here, an ancient refpeftable man, who 
had been many years a trader in this country, and 
is efteemed and beloved by the Indians for his hu- 
manity, probity, and equitable dealings vv^ith them; 
which, to be juft and candid I am obliged to ob- 
fervc (and blufli for my countrymen at the recital) 
is fomewhat of a prodigy ; as it is a fa6l, I am 
afraid too true, that tiie white traders in tlieir com- 
merce with the Indians, give great and i.eqvient oc- 
cafions of complaint of their difhonefty and vio- 
lence: but yet there are a few exceptions, as in the 
conduft of this gentleman, who furnifhes a living 
inftance of the truth of the old proverb, that " Ho- 
nelly is the bed policy ;" for this old honeft Hiber- 
nian has often been protefted by the Indians, when 



aii others round about him have been ruined, their 
property fcized, and thcmfelves driven out of the 
Country or flain by the injured, provoked natives. 

Next day after my arrival I crofied the river in a 
canoe, on a vifit to a trader who refided amoHgft the 
habitations on the otiier fhore. 

After dinner, on his mentioning fome curious 
icenes amongft the hills, fome miles diftance from 
the river, we agreed to fpend the afcernoon in ob- 
fervations on the mountains. 

After riding near two miles through Indian plan- 
tations of Corn, which was v/ell cultivated, kept 
clean cf weeds, and was well advanced, being near 
eighteen inches in height, and the Beans planted at 
the Corn- hills v/ere above ground j we left the 
fields on our right, turning towards the mountains, 
and afcending through a delightful green vale or 
Jawn, which conducted us in amongft the pyrami- 
dal hiils, and crolTing a brif"k flowing creek, mean- 
dering through the meads, which continued near 
two miles, dividing and branching in amongft the 
hills. We then mounred their fteep afcents, rifing 
gradually by ridges or fteps on? above another, fre- 
quently crofling narrow fertile dales as we afcend- 
ed : the air felt cool and anim.ating, being charg- 
ed with the fragrant breath of the mountain beau- 
tics, the blooming mountain clufter Rofe, blufliing 
Rhododendron, and fair Lily of the valley. Hav- 
ing now attained the fijmmit of this very elevated 
ridge, we enjoyed a fine profpe^l indeed ; the en- 
chanting Vale of Keowe, perhaps as celebrated 
for icrdlity, fruitfulnefs and beautiful profpefts, as 
the Fields of Pharfalia or tlje Vale of Tempe ; die 
towij,, cne elevated pe.dvs of the Jore mountains, a 



Very diflant profpc6l cf the Jore village in a beau- 
tiful lawn, lifted up many thoufund feet higher than 
our prefent fituation, befides a view of many other 
villages and fettlements on the fides of the moun- 
tains, at various diftances and elevations ; the filver 
rivulets gliding by them, and fnow white cataradls 
glimmering on the fides of the lofty hills ; the 
bold promontories of the Jore mountain ftepping 
into the Tanafe riverj tvhilft his foaming waters 
ruihed between them. 

After viev/ing this very entertaining fcene, wc 
began to defcend the mountain on the other fide, 
which exhibited the flime order of gradations of 
ridges and vales as on our afcent ; and at length 
refted on a very expanfive, fertile plain, amidft the 
towering hills, over which we rode a long time, 
through magnificent high forefts, cxtenfive grfeen 
fields, meadows and lawns. Here had formerly 
been a very flourifiiing fetdement ; but the Indians 
deferted it in fearch of frefh planting land, which 
they foon found in a rich vale but a few miles dif- 
tan<:e over a ridge of hills. Soon after entering on 
thefe charming, fequeftered, prolific fields, we came 
to a fine little river, whicli croffmg, and riding over 
fruitful flrawberry beds and green lawns, on the 
lides of a circular ridge* of hills in front of us, and 
going round the bafes of this promontory, came to 
a fine meadow on an arm of the vale, through which 
meandered a brook, its humid vapours bedewing tne 
fragrant ilrawberries which hung in heavy red cluf- 
ters over the grafly verge. We eroded the rivulet ; 
then rifing a Hoping, green, turfy afcent, alighted 
on the borders of a grand foreft of llately trees, 
which we penetrated on foot a little didance to a 
horfe-itamp, where was a large fquadron of thofe 

A a ufeful 


ufeful creatures, belonging to my friend and com- 
panion, the trader, on the fight cf vvhona they af- 
fembled together from all quarters ; fome at a dif- 
tance faiuted him with fhrilj neighings of gratitude, 
or came prancing up to lick the fait out of his 
hand, whilft the younger and more timorous came 
galloping onward, but coyly wheeled off, and fetch- 
ing a circuit flood aloof; but as foon as their lord 
and mafter ftrewed die cryftaline falty bait on the 
hard beaten ground, they all, old and young, docile 
and timorous, foon form.ed themfelves in ranks, and 
fell to licking up the delicious morfel. 

It was a fine fight : more beatiful creatures I 
never faw ; there were of them of all colours, fizes 
and difpofitions. Every year, as they become 
of age, he fends off a troop of them, down to 
Charlefton, where they are fold to the higheft bid- 

Having paid our attention to this ufeful part of 
the creation, who, if they are under our dominion, 
have confequently a right to our protedlion and fa- 
\^our, v/e returned to our trufty fervants that 
were regaling themfelves in the exuberant fweet 
pailures and llrawberry fields in fight, and mounted 
again. Proceeding on our return to town, conti- 
nued through part of this high foreft fkirting on the 
m.eadows: began to afcend the hills of a ridge which 
we were under the neceffity of crofTing ; and having 
gained its fummit, enjoyed a moft enchanting view ; 
'a vaft expanfe of green meadows and ftrawberry 
fields ; a meandering river gliding through, falut- 
ing in its various' turnings the fwelling, green, turfy 
knolls, embellillied with parterres of flowers and 
fruitful ftrawberry beds ; flocks of turkies ftroUing 
about them i herds of deer prancing in the meads 
I or 


or bounding over the hills ; connpanies of youno-, 
innocent Cherokee virgins, fome buly gathcrino- 
the rich fragrant fruit, others having already filled 
their bafkets, lay reclined under the fliade of flori- 
ferous and fragrant native bowers of Magnolia, A- 
zalea Philadelphus, perfumed Calycanthus, fvveec 
Yellow JeiTIimine and cerulean Glycine frutefcens, 
difclofmg their beauties to the fluttering breeze, 
and bathing their limbs in the cool fleeting ftreams; 
whilfl other partiesi more gay and libertine, were 
yet collecting fl.rawberries', or wantonly chafing their 
companions, tantalifing them, ftaining their lips 
and cheeks with the rich fruit. 

The fylvan fcene of primitive innocence was en- 
chanting, and perhaps too enticing for hearty young 
men long to condnue idle fpeftators. 

In fine, nature prevailing over reafon, we wifti- 
cd at leafl; to have a more adive part in their deli- 
cious fports. Thus precipitately refolving, we cau- 
tioufly made our approaches, yet undifcovered, al- 
moft to the joyous fcene of action. Now, although 
■we meant no other than an innocent frolic with this 
gay afl^embly of hamadryadcs, we fliail leave it to 
the perfon of feeling and fenfibility to form an idea 
to what lengths our pafllons might have hurried us, 
thus warmed and excited, had it not been for the 
vigilance and care of fome envious m.atrons who 
lay in ambufli, and efpying us, gave the alarm, time 
enough for the nymphs to rally and afiemble toge- 
ther. We however purfued and gained ground on a 
group of them, who had incautioufly ftrolled to a 
greater diftance from their guardians, and finding 
their retreat now like to be cut off^, took (helter 
under cover of a little grove j but on perceiving 
themlelves to be difcovered by us, kept their fta- 
A a 2 tioHp 


tion, peeping through the buflies ; when obferving 
our approaches, they confidently difcovered them- 
felves, and decently advanced to meet us, half un- 
veiling their blooming faces, incarnated with the 
modell maiden blufh, and with native innocence 
and cheerflilners, prefented their little bafls;ets, mer- 
rily telling us their fruit was ripe and found. 

We accepted a bafket, fat down and regaled our- 
felves on the delicious fruit, encircled by the whole 
afTembly of the innocent jocofe fylvan nymphs: 
by this tim.e the feveral parties, under the conduft 
of the elder m.a>rons, had difpofed themfelves in 
companies on the green, turfy banks. 

My young companion, the trader, by conceffions 
and fuitable apologies for die bold intrufion, hav- 
ing compromifed the matter with them, engaged 
them to bring their coUe&iuns to his houfe at a fti- 
pulated price : we parted friendly. 

And now taking leave of thefe Elyfian fields, wc 
again mounted the hills, which we crofled, and 
traverfing obliquely their flowery beds, arrived in 
town in the cool of the evening. 




After waiting two days at Cowe expe6ling a 
guide and prote(flor to the Overhill towns, and at 
laft being difappoinred, I refolved to piirfue the 
journey alone, though againft the advice of the 
traders j the Overhill Indians being in an ill humour 
with the whites, in confequence of fome late fkir- 
miilies between them and the frontier Virginians, 
mod of the Overhill traders having left the nation. 

Early in the morning I fat off attended by my 
worthy old friend Mr. Gallahan, who obligingly ac- 
companied me near fifteen miles. We paffed through 
the J ore village, which is pleafingly fituated in a 
little vale on the fide of the mountain ; a pretty ri- 
vulet or creek winds about through the vale, juft 
under the villao;e : here I obferved a little grove 
of the Cafine yapon, which was the only place where 
I had fecn it grow in the Cherokee country ; the In- 
dians call it the beloved tree, and are very careful 
to keep it pruned and cultivated: they drink a 
very ftrong infufion of the leaves, buds and tender 
branches of this plant, which is fo celebrated, in- 
deed venerated by the Creeks and all the Southern 
maritime nations of Indians. We then continued 
travelling down the vale about two miles, the road 
deviating, turning and winding about the hills, and 
through groves in lawns, watered by brooks and 
rivulets, rapidly rufliing from the towering hill on 
A a 3 every 


every fide, and flowing into the Jorc, which is a 
confiderable branch of the Tanafe. 

Began now to afcend the mountain, following a 
fmal] arm or branch of the vale, which led to a gap 
or narrow defile, compreffed by the high pending 
hills on each fide, down which came rapidly a con- 
fiderable branch of the J ore, dalTiing and roaring 
over rocky precipices. 

Now leaving Roaring creek on our right, an4 
accomplifhing two or three afcents or ridges, an- 
other branch of the trading path from the Overhills 
to Cowe came in on our right, and here my tran- 
fitory companion Mr. Galahan parted from me, 
taking this road back to Cowe ; when I was left a- 
gain wandering alone in the dreary mountains, not 
indeed totally pathlefs, nor in my prefent lituation 
entirely agreeable, although fuch fcenes of primi- 
tive unmodified nature alv/ays pleafed me. 

May we fuppofe that mankind feel In their hearts 
a predileftion for the fociety of each other j or are 
we delighted with fcenes of human arts and culti-r 
vation, where the paiTions are flattered and enter- 
tained with variety of objects for gratification ? 

I found myfelf unable, notwithflanding the at- 
ifentive admonitions and perfuafive arguments of 
reafon, entirely to erafe from my mind thofe im- 
preinons v/hich I had received from the fociety of 
the amiable and polite inhabitants of Charleflon j 
and I could not help comparing my prefent fimation 
in fome degree to Nebuchadnezzar's, when expelled 
from the fociety of men, and conftrained to roam 
in the mountains and wildernefs, there to herd and 
feed with the wild beafts of the forefls. 



After parting with my late companion, I went 
forward with all the alacrity that prudence would 
admit of, that I might as foon as pofTible fee the 
end of my toil and hazard, being determined at 
all events to crofs the Jore mountain, fiiid to be the 
higheft land in the Cherokee country. 

After a gentle defcent, I entered on an extremely 
ftony narrow vale, through v/hich coafted fwiftly a 
large creek, twelve or fifteen yards wide, roaring 
over a rocky bed, which I croffed with difficulty 
and danger, the ford being incommoded by lliel- 
ving rocks, full of holes and cliffs. After leaving 
this rocky creek, my path led me upon another 
narrow vale or glade, down which came in great 
hafte another noify brook, which I repeatedly croff- 
ed and recroffed, fometimes riding on narrow level 
grafly verges clofe to its banks ; Itill afcending, the 
vale gradually terminated, being fhut up by ftu- 
pendous rocky hills on each fide, leaving a very 
narrow gap or defile, towards which my road led 
me, afcending the fteep fides of the mountains ; 
when, after riling feveral wearifome afcents, and 
finding myfelf over-heated and tired, I halted at a 
little graffy lawn, through which meandered a fweet 
rivulet. Here I turned my horfe to graze, and fat 
down to reft on a green bank juft beneath a high 
frowning promontory, or obtufe point of a ridge 
of the mountain yet above m.e, the friendly rivulet 
making a circuit by my feet ; and now a little reft- 
cd, I took out of my wallet fome bifcuit and cheefe, 
and a piece of neat's tongue, compofing myfelf to 
eafc and refrefhment : when fuddenly appeared 
within a few yards, advancing towards me from 
behind the point, a ftout likely young Indian fellow, 
armed with a rifle gun, and two dogs attending. 
A a 4 Upon 


Upon fight of me he ftoodj and feemed a iittie furpri- 
led, as 1 was very much; but inllantly recoUefting 
himfelf and alTaming a countenance of benignity and 
cheerfulnef^, he came briikly to me and Hiook hands 
heartily, and fmilingly inquired from whence I 
came, and whither going ; but fpeaking only in the 
Cherokee tongue, our convcrfation v/as not conti- 
nued to a great length. I prefented him with fomiC 
choice Tobacco, Vv'hich was accepted with courtefy 
arid evident pleafure, and to my inquiries concern- 
ing the roads and diftance to the Overhlll towns, he 
anfwered me with perfeft cheerfulnefs and good 
temper. We then again fhook hands, and parted in 
friendfhip; he defcended the hills, finging as he went. 

Of vege'iablc produfticns obferved in this region, 
were the follcwing, viz. Acer ftiiatum, Ac. rubrum» 
Juglans nigra. Jug. alba. Jug. Hiccory, Magnolia 
acuminata, Quercus aiba, Q^ tincSloria, Q^ rubra, 
Q^prinus, wich the other varieties common in Vir- 
ginia : Panax ginfeng, Angelica lucida, Convallaria 
rr.ujalis, Halefia, Siev/artia, Styrax, Staphylea, Evo- 
nimus, Vibarnum, Cornus Florida, Betula nigra, 
Morus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Hopea tindoria, 
Annon?., Bigni nia fempervirens, Ariftolochia frute- 
fcens, Bignonia radicans, tzc. Being now refrefh- 
cd by a fii^f^ple but healihy meal, 1 began again to 
afcend the Jore mountains, which I at length ac- 
complifhed, and reilcd on the moft elevated peak; 
from whence I beheld with rapture and aftonifh- 
ment a fublimely awful fcene of power and mag- 
nificence, a world of mountains piled upon moun- 
tains. Having contemplated this amazing profpeft 
of grandeur, I defcended the pinnacles, and again 
falling' into the trading path, continued gently de- 
scending through a grafiy plain, fcatteringly planted 



with large trees, and at a diftance furrounded with 
high forefts. I was on this elevated region fenfiblc 
of an alteration in the air, from warm to cold, and 
found that vegetation was here greatly behind, in 
plants of the lanne kind of the country below -, for 
inftance, when I left Charlefton, the yellow Jafminc 
was rather pall the blooming days, and here the 
buds were jul beginning to fwell, though fome were 
in bloom. Continued more than a mile through 
this elevated plain to the pitch of the mountain, 
from whence prefented to view an expanfive pro- 
fpeft, exhibiting fcenes of mountainous landfcape, 
weftward, vaft and varied, perhaps not to be ex- 
ceeded any where. 

My firft defcent and progrefs down the weft fide 
of the mountain was remarkably gradual, eafy and 
pleafant, through grafly open forefts for the diftance 
of two or three miles ; when my changeable path 
fuddenly turned round an obtufe point of a ridge, 
and defcended precipitately down a fteep rocky hill 
for a mile or more, which was very troublefome, 
being incommoded with fhattered fragments of the 
mountains, and in other places with bog^y finks, 
occafioned by oozy fprings and rills ftagnate finking 
in micaceous earth : fome of thefe fteep foft rocky 
banks or precipices feem to be continually crum- 
bling to earth ; and in thefe mouldering cliffs I dif- 
covered veins or ftrata of moft pure and clear white 
earth^, having a faint bluifti or pearl colour gleam, 
fomewhat exhibiting the appearance of the little 
cliffs or wavy crefts of new fallen fnowdrifts: we 
likewife obferve in thefe difTolving rocky cliffs, veins 
of ifinglafs (Mica S. vitrum Mufcoviticum), fome 

• Mica nititla : fpecimens of this earth have been exported to England, 
for the purpofc of making Porcelain or China ware. 



of the flakes or laminae incredibly large, entire and 
tranfparent, and would ferve the purpofe of lights 
lor windows very well, or for lanthorns ; and here 
appeared ftrata of black lead (ftibium). 

At length, after much toil and exercife, I was a 
little relieved by a narrow grafly vale or lawn at the 
foot of this fteep dcfcent, through which courfed 
along a confiderable rapid brook, on whofe banks 
grew in great perfe6lion the glorious Magnolia 
auriculata, together with the other confpiciious 
flowering and aromatic fhrubs already mentioned -, 
and I obferved here in the rich bottoms near the 
creek, a new fpecies of Hydrailis, having very 
krge finiiated leaves and white flowers j after this 
I continued feveral miles over ridges and grafly 
vales, watered with delightful rivulets. 

Next day proceeding on eight or ten miles, 
generally through fpacious high foreils and flowery 
iawns ; the foil prolific, being of an excellent qua- 
lity for agriculture j camx near the banks of a large 
creek or river, where this high forefl ended on my 
left hand, the trees became more fcattered and in- 
ienfibly united v/ith a grafly glade or lawn border- 
ing on the river i on the oppofite bank of which 
appeared a very extenflve forefl;, conflfling entirely 
of the Hemlock fpruce (P.. abics), almofl; encircled 
hj difliant ridges of lofty hills. 

Soon after crofl!ing this large branch of the Ta- 
nafe, I obferved, defcending the heights at feme 
diflance, a company of Indians, all well mounted 
on hoife-back ; they came rapidly forward : on 
their nearer approacii, 1 obferved a chief at the head 
nf the caravan, and apprehending him to be the 
Litth Carpenter, emperor or grand chief of tht? 



Cherokees, as they came up I turned off from the 
path to make way, in token of refpeft, which com- 
pliment was accepted, and gratefully and magnani- 
moufly returned ; for his highnefs with a gracious 
and cheerful fmile came up to me, and clapping his 
hand on his breaft, offered it to me, fiying, I am 
Ata-cul-cuUa ; and heartily fliook hands with me, 
and afked me if I knew it. 1 anfwered, that the 
Good Spirit who goes before me fpoke to me, and 
faid, that is the great Ata-cul-culla ; and added, 
tkat I was of the tribe of white men, of Pcnnfylva- 
nia, who efteem themfclves brothers and friends to 
the red men, but particularly fo to the Cherokees, 
and that notwithftanding we dwelt at fo great a dif- 
tance, we were united in love and friendfhip, and 
that the name of Ata-cul-culla was dear to hi« 
white brothers of Pennfylvania. 

After this compliment, which feemed to be ac- 
ceptable, he inquired if I came lately from Char- 
lefton, and if John Stewart was well, faying that he 
was going to fee him. 1 replied, that I came lately 
from Charlefton on a friendly vifit to the Chero- 
kees ; that I had the honour of a perfonal acquain- 
tance with the fuperintendant, the beloved man, 
ti'hom I faw well but the day before I fet off, and 
who, by letters to the principal white men in the 
nation, recommended me to the friendfliip and 
protedion of the Cherokees. To which the great 
chief was pleafed to anfwer very refpedfully, that I 
was welcome in their country as a friend and bro- 
ther ; and then Ihaking hands heartily bid me fare- 
wel, and his retinue confirmed it by an united voice 
of affent. After giving my name to the chief, re- 
quefting my compliments to the fuperintendant, 
the emperor moved, continuing his journey for 

Charlefton j 

3^4- TRAVtLS IN 

Charkfton ; and I, yet pcrfifting in my intention of 
vifiting the Overhill towns, continued on. Leaving 
the great foreft, 1 mounted the high hills, defcending 
them again on the other fide, and fo on repeatedly 
for ftveral miles, without obferving any variation 
in the natural produftions fmce pailing the Jore : 
and perceiving the flow progrefs of vegetation in 
this mountainous, high country ; and, upon ferious 
confideration, it appearing very pLiinly that I could 
not, with entire fafety, range the Overhill fettle- 
ments until the treaty was over, v/hich would not 
come on till late in June ; I fuddenly came to a 
refolution to defer thefe refearches at this time, and 
leave them for the employment of another feafont 
and m.ore favourable opportunity, and return to 
Dartmouth in Georgia, to be ready to join a com- 
pany of adventurers who were to fet off in July for 
Mobile in Weft Florida. The leader of this com- 
pany had been recommended to me as a fit peribn 
to affift me on fo long and hazardous a journey, 
through the vaft territones of the Creeks. 

Therefore next day I turned about on my return, 
proceeding moderately, being engaged in noting 
fuch objeils as appeared to be of any moment, and 
colleding fpecimens -, and in the evening of next 
day arrived again at Cowe. 

Next morning Mr. Galahan conduced me to the 
chief of Cowe, who during my abfence had returned 
from the chace. The remainder of this day I fpent 
in obfervations in and about the town, reviewing 
my fpecimens, &c. 

The town of Cowe confifts of about one hundred 
dwellings, near the banks of the Tanafe, on both 
fides of the river. 

' The 


The Cherokees conftrufl their habitations on a 
different plan from the Creeks ; that is, but one 
oblong four fquare building, of one (lory high ; the 
materials confiding of logs or trunks of trees, drip- 
ped of their bark, notched at their ends, fixed one 
upon another, and afterwards plaiftered well, both 
infide and out, with clay well tempered with dry 
grafs, and the whole covered or roofed with the 
bark of the chefnut tree or lono^ broad fliinp-les. 
This building is however partitioned tranfvcrfely, 
forming three apartments, which communicate with 
each other by infide doors ; each houfe or liabita- 
tion has befides a little conical houft-, covered with 
dirt, which is called the winter or hot- houfe ; this 
ftands a few yards diftant from the manfion-houfc, 
oppofite the front door. 

The council or tovv^n-houfe is a large rotunda, 
capable of accommodating feveral hundred people : 
it Hands on the top of an ancient artificial mount of 
earth, of about twenty feet perpendicular, and the 
rotunda on the top of it being above thirty feet 
more, gives the whole fabric an elevation of about 
fixty feet from the common furfice of the ground. 
But it may be proper to obferve, that this mount, 
on which the rotunda flands, is of a much ancienter 
date than the building, and perhaps was raifjd for 
another purpofe. The Cherokees themfelves are 
as ignorant as we are, by what people or for what 
purpofe thefe ardficial hills were raifed -, they have 
various dories concerning them, the bed of which 
amount to no more than mere conjecture, and 
leave us entirely in the dark ; but they have a tra- 
dition common with the other nadons of Indian?, 
tliat they found them in much the fame condition 
iis they now appear, when their forefathers arrived 



from the Weft and poflefled themfelves of the coun- 
try, after vanquilTiing the nations of red men who 
then inhabited it, who themfelves found thefe mounts 
when they took poffeflion of the country, the former 
pofTeflbrs deUvering the fame ftory concerning 
them : perhaps they were defigned and appropri- 
ated by the people who conftru6led them, to fome 
religious purpofe, as great altars and temples fimi- 
lar to the high places and facred groves anciently 
amongft the Canaanites and other nations of Pale- 
ftine and Judea. 

The rotunda is conflrufled after the following 
manner : they firft fix in the ground a circular 
range of pofts or trunks of trees, about fix feet 
high, at equal diftances, which are notched at top, 
to receive into them, from one to another, a range 
of beams or wall plates ; within this is another cir- 
cular order of very large and ftrong pillars, above 
twelve feet high, notched in like manner at top, to 
receive another range of wall plates ; and within 
this is yet another or third range of ftronger and 
higher pillars but fewer in number, and fbanding 
at a greater diftance from each other; and laftly, 
in the centre ftands a very ftrong pillar, which forms 
the pinnacle of the building, and to which the raf- 
ters centre at top ; thefe rafters are ftrengthened 
and bound together by crofs beams and laths, which 
fuftain the roof or covering, which is a layer of 
bark neatly placed, and tight enough to exclude 
the rain, and fometimes they caft a thin fuperficies 
of earth over all. There is but one large door, 
^vhich ferves at the fame time to admit light from 
without and the fmoak to efcape when a fire is 
kindled ; but as there is but a fmall fire kept, fuf- 
ficient to give light at night, and that fed with drv 



fmall found wood divelled of its bark, there is but 
little fmoak. Ail around the infide of the building, 
betwixt the fecond range of pillars and the wall, is 
a range of cabins or fophas, confifting of two or 
three fteps, one above or behind the other, in the- 
atrical order, where the aifembly fit or lean down ; 
thefe fophas are covered with mats or carpets, very 
curioufly made of thin fplints of Alii or Oak, woven 
or platted together; near the great pillar in the 
centre the fire is kindled for light, near which the 
muficians feat themfelves, and round about this the 
performers exhibit their dances and other Hiows at 
public feflivals, which happen almoft every night 
throughout the year. 

About the clofe of the evening I accompanied 
Mr. Galahan and other white traders to the rotun- 
da, where was a grand feftival, mufic and dancing. 
This afTembly was held principally to rehearfe the 
ball-play dance, this town being challenged to play 
againit another the next day. 

The people being affembled and feated in order, 
and the muficians having taken their ftation, the 
ball opens, firft with a long harangue or oration, 
fpcken by an aged chief, in commendation of the 
manly exercile of the ball-play, recounting the 
many and brilliant vi6bories which the town of 
Cowe had gained over the other towns in the na- 
tion, not forgetting or neglecting to recite his own 
exploits, together vvith thofe of other aged men 
now prefent, coadjutors in the performance of thefe 
athletic games in their youthful days. 

This oration was dehvered with great fplrit and 
eloquence, and was meant to influence tlie paffions 


3^8 TRAVELS in 

of the young men prcfent, excite them to emula- 
tion, and infpire them wiih ambition. 

This prologue being at an end, the muficians 
began, both vocal and infti umental ; when prefently* 
a company of girls, hand in hand, drefled in clean 
white robes and ornamented with beads, bracelets 
and a profufion of gay ribbands, entering the door, 
immediately began to fing their refponfes in a gen- 
tle, low, and fweet voice, and formed themfelves 
in a femicircular file or line, in two ranks, back to 
back, facing the Ipcftators and muficians, moving 
flowly round and round. This continued about a 
quarter of an hour, when we were furprifed by a 
fudden very loud and fhrill whoop, uttered at once 
by a company of young fellows, who came in brifkly 
after one another, with rackets or hurls in one hand. 
Thefe champions likewife were well dieffed, paint- 
ed, and ornamented with filver bracelets, gorgets 
and wampum, neatly ornamented with moccafins 
and high waving plumes in their diadems : they 
immediately formed themfelves in a femicircular 
rank alfo, in front of the girls, when thefe changed 
their order, and formed a fingle rank parallel to the 
men, raifing their voices in refponfes to the tunes 
of the young champions, the femicircles continually 
moving round. There was fomething fingular and 
diverting in their ftep and motions, and I imagine 
not to be learned to exadtnefs but with great atten- 
tion and perfeverance. The flep, if it can be fo 
termed, was performed after the following manner j 
firft, the motion began at one end of the femicircle, 
gendy rifing up and down upon their toes and 
heels alternately, when the firfl was up on tip-toe, 
the next began to raife the heel, and by the time 
tb« firft refted again on the heel, the fecond was 



on tip- toe, thus from one end of the rank to the 
other, fo that fome were always up and fome 
down, alternately and regularly, without the lealt 
baulk or confufion ; and they at the fame time, and 
in the fame motion, moved on obliquely or fide- 
ways, lb that the circle performed a double or com- 
plex motion in its progreflion, and at ibxcd times 
exhibited a grand or univerilil movement, in.t:;ntly 
and unexpededly to the fpe6lators, by each rank 
turning to right and left, taking each others places : 
the movements were managed with inconceivable 
alcrtnefs and addrefs, and accompanied widi an in- 
ilantaneous and univerfal elevation of the voice,, 
and (hrili lliort whoop. 

The Cherokees, befide^ t!.'*«* K:!*-pl;iy dance, have 
a variety of others eqi laUy entertaining. The men 
efpeciaily exercife themfelves with a variety of gef- 
ticulations and capers, fome of wiiich are ludicrous 
and diverting enough ; and they have others which 
are of the martial order, and others of th^ chace j 
thefe feem to be fome what of a tragical nature, 
wherein they exhibit aftonifning feats of military 
prowefs, mafculine flrength and a6livity. Indeed 
all their dances and mufical entertainments feem to 
be theatrical exhibitions or plays, varied with comic 
and fometimes lafcivious interludes : the women 
however condu6t themfelves with a very becoming 
grace and decency, iniomuch that in amorous in- 
terludes, when their refponfes and geftures feem, 
cohfenting to natural liberties, they veil themfelves, 
juft difcovering a glance of. their fparkling eyes 
and blufhing faces, expreffive of fcnfibihty. 

Next morning early I fet off on my return, and 
meeting with no material occurrences on the road, 
in tv,'o days arrived fife at Keowe, \Yhere 1 tarried 

B b tw(^ 


tv/o or three days, employed in augmenting my 
colledions of fpecimens, and waiting for Mr. Ga- 
lahan, who was to call on me here, to accompany 
him to Sinica, where he and other traders were to 
meet Mr. Cameron, the depiity-commifTary, to 
hold a congrcfs at that town, with the chiefs of the 
Lower Cherokees, to confult preliminaries intro- 
duftory to a general congrcfs and treaty with thefe 
Indians, which was to be convened next June, and 
held in the Overhill towns. 

I obferved in the environs of Keowe, on the bafes 
of the rocky hills, immediately afcending from the 
low grounds near the river bank, a great number of 
very fingular antiquities, the work of the ancients; 
they feem to me to have been altars for facrilice or 
fepulchres : they were conftruded of four flat ftones, 
two fet on an edge for the fides, one clofed one 
end, and a very large flat one lay horizontally at 
top, fo that the other end was open ; this fabric was 
four or five (cet in length, two (tet high, and three 
in width. I inquired of the trader what they were, 
who could not tell me certainly, but fuppofed them 
to be ancient Indian ovens j the Indians can give no 
account of them : they are on the furface of the 
ground, and are of different dimenfions. 

I accompanied the traders to Sinica, where we 
found the commiflTary azid the Indian chiefs con- 
vened in council : continued at Sinica fome time, 
employing myfelf in obfervations, and making col- 
Icftions of every thing worthy of notice : and find- 
ing the Indians to be yet unfettled in their determi- 
nation, and not in a good humour, I abandoned 
the projcft of vifiting the regions beyond the Che- 
rokee mountains for this feafon ; fet off on my re- 
n;rn to fort James, Dartmouth, lodged this night 



37 t 

in the foreds near the b:inks of a delightful large 
creek, a branch of Keowe river, and next day ar- 
rived fafe at Dartmouth. 

Lift of the towns and villages in the Cherokee na- 
tion inhabited at this day, viz. 

No. I Echoe 

2 Nucaffe 

3 Whatoga 

4 Cowe 

5 Ticoloofa 

6 Jore 

7 Conifca 

8 Nowe 

9 Tomothle 

10 Noewe 

11 TelHco 

12 Clennufe 

13 Ocunnolufte 

14 Che we 

15 Quanufe 

16 Tellowe 

17 Tellico 
i3 Chatuga 

19 Hiwalfe 

20 Chewafe 

21 Nuanha 

22 Tallafe 

23 Chelowe 

24 Sette 

25 Chote great 

26 Joco 

27 TahafTe 

On the Tanafe Eaft of 
the Jore mountains. 

4 towns. 

Inland on the branches 
of the Tanafe. 
4 towns. 

On the Tanafe over the 
Jore mountains. 
» 8 towns. 

Inland towns on the 
branches of the Tanafe 
and other waters over 
the Jore mountains. 

5 towns. 

Overhill towns on the 
Tanafe or Cherokee 

6 towns. 


28 Tamahle 




28 Tamahle Overhill towns on the 

29 Tiifkege Tanafe or Cherokee 
30 .Biglfland > river. 

^i Nilaque f 5 towns. 

J 2 Niowe I 

Lower towns Eafl of the mountains, viz. 

I Sinica 

2 Keowe 

3 Kulfage 

4 Tugilo 

5 Eftotowe 

6 Qualatche 

7 Chote 


On the Savanna or 
Keowe river. 

On Tugilo river. 

On Flint river. 

Towns on the waters of other rivers. 

Eftotowe great. Allagae. Jore. Nae oche. 

In all forty-three towns. 

C H A Pe 



0/ J 

Being returned from the Cherokee country to 
Dartmouth, I underftood that the company of ad- 
venturers for Weft Florida, were vciy forward in 
their preparations, and would be ready to let off in 
a few weeks, fo that I had but a little ti<ne allowed 
me to make provifion and equip myfclf for the 
profecution of fo long and hazar-dous a journey. 

Our place of rendezvous was at fort Charlotte, 
on the oppofite fide of the river Savanna, and 
about a mile from fort James. I had a defire to 
make little botanical excurfions towards the head 
of Broad river, in order to collect feme curiofities 
which I had obferved thereabouts j which being 

June 22d fet out from fort Charlotte in company 
with Mr. Whitfield, who was chief of our caravan. 
We travelled about twenty miles, and lodged at the 
farm of Monf St. Pierre, a French gentleman, who 
received and entertained us with great policenefs 
and hofpitality. The manfion-houfe is fituated on 
the top of a very high hill near the banks of the 
river Savanna, overlooking his very extenfive 
and well cultivated plantations of Indian Corn (Zea) 
Rice, Wheat, Oats, Indigo, Convolvulus Batata, &c. 
thefe are rich low lands, lying very level betwixt 
thefe natural heights and the river ; his gardens 
occupy the gentle defcent on one fide of the mount, 
and a very thriving vineyard, confifting of about 
#Ye acres, is on the other fide. 

B b 3 Next, 


Next morning after breakfaft: we fet off again, 
continuing nine or ten miles farther down the river, 
when we flopped at a plantation, the property of 
one of our companions, where we were joined by 
the red of the company. After dining here we 
prepared to depart ; and the gentleman of the houfe 
taking an afFe<fi:ionate leave of his wife and chil- 
dren, we fat off again, and proceeding fix miles 
farther down the river, we croifed over into Georgia, 
takirxg a road which led us into the great trading 
path from Augufta to the Creek nation. As the 
foil, fituation and produftions of thefe parts, for 
fi-veral days journey, differ very little from the 
Northern diftrifts of Georgia, already recited, when 
on the furvey of the New Purchafe, I apprehend it 
neediefs to enter again into a detail of particulars, 
fince it would produce but little more than a re- 
capitulation of that journey. 

Early in the evening of the 27th we arrived at 
the Flat-rock, where we lodged. This is a com- 
mon rendezvous or camping-place for traders and 
Indians. It is an expanfive clean flat or horizontal 
rock, but a little above the furface of the ground, 
and near the banks of a delightful rivulet of excel- 
lent water, which is one of the head branches of Great 
Ogeche : in the loofe rich foil verging round this 
rock, grew feveral very curious herbaceous plants, 
particularly one of fingular elegance and beauty, 
which I take to be a fpecies of Ipomea (Ipomea, 
caule eredo, ramofo, tvipedali, fol. radicalibus, pin- 
natihdis, linearibus, humi-ftratis, florib. incarnatis 
intus maculis cocci neis adfperfo). It grows ered:, 
three feet high, with a ftrong flem, which is deco- 
rated with plumed or pinnatilid linear leave.', 
fomewhat refcmbling thole of the Delphinium or 



Ipomea quamoclit; from about one half its length 
upwards, it fends out on all fides, afcendant branches 
which divide again and again ; thefe ternninate with 
large tubular or funnel-formed flowers; their limbs 
equally divided into five fegments; thefe beautiful 
flowers are of a perfe^ rofe colour, elegantly be- 
fprinkled on the infide of their petals witli crimfon 
fpecks ; the flower.s are in great abundance, and 
together with the branches and delicately fine cut 
leaves, compofe a conical fpike or compound pan- 
nicle. I law a fpecies of this plants if not the very 
fame, growing on the fea-coall iflands near St. Au- 
guftine. The blue flowered Malva and Delphinium 
were its aflTociates about the Flat-rock. 

There are extenfive cane brakes or cane mea- 
dows fpread abroad round about, which afford the 
moft acceptable and nourilhing food for cattle. 

This evening two companies of Indian traders 
fi-om Augufta arrived and encamped near us ; and 
as they were bound to the Nation, we concluded to 
unite in company with them, they gencroufly offer- 
ing us their affiftance, having many fpare horfes and 
others lightly loaded, feveral of ours by this time 
being jaded : this was a favourable opportunity of 
relief in cafe of neceffity. 

Next morning as foon as the horfes were packed 
and in readinefs, we decamped and fct forward 

I thought it wordiy of taking notice of a fingular 
n-iethod the traders make ufe of to reduce the wild 
young horfes to their hard duty. When any one 
perfiits in refufing to receive his load, if threats, the 
difcipline of die whip, and otlier common abufe, 
B b 4 prove 


prove infufficlent, after being haltered, a pack-' 
horfe-man catches the tip end of one of his ears be- 
twixt his teeth and pinches it, when inftaritly the 
ftirious frrong creature, trembling, ftands perfeftly 
ftill undl he is loaded. 

Our caravan confifting of about twenty men and 
fixty horfes, we made a formidable appearance, 
having now little to apprehend from predatory^ 
bands or out-laws. 

This day's journey was for the mofl part over 
high gravelly ridges, and on the moft elevated hills, 
appeared emerging out of the earth, rocky cliffs of 
a dark reddifh brown colour ; their com poll tion 
feemed to be a coarfe, fandy, ferruginous concrete, 
but fo firmly cemented as to conftitute a perfe6l hard 
i'cone or rock, and appeared to be excavated or worn 
into cavities or furrows by the violence of die dafh- 
ing billows and rapid currents of the ocean, which 
heretofore probably waflied them ; there were how- 
ever ftrata or veins in thefe rocks, of a finer com- 
pofition and compadt confidence, and feemed pon- 
derous rich iron ore. A little depth below the 
fandy gravelly furface, lies a flratum of very corn- 
pad reddifh yellow clay and fragments of ochre. 
The trees and fhrubs common on thefe gravelly 
ridges are as follows, Diofpyros, Quercus mbra, 
Q^nigra, Q^tinftoria or great Black Oak, Q^alba, 
Q^ lobata, poft White Oak, Q^incana, foliis ova- 
libus integerrimis fubtus incanis, Pinus lutea, Pinus 
tasda, foliis geminatis et trinis, flrobilo ovato bre- 
vi, cortice rimofo, Pinus paluflris, foliis trinis ion- 
gilfimis, flrobilo elongata, Coruus Florida, Andro- 
nicda urborea, NyfJa fylvatica, Juglans hiccory, 
'primus padus, ^c. Of /urbacese, Sclidago, Eupa- 
z. toriunij 


toiiLiiTi, Sylphiiim, Riidbcckia, Gerardia, Afclepias, 
Agave Virjiinica, Eryngium, Thapfia, Euphorbia, 
Polymnia, &c. 

In the coiirfe of this day's journey we crofled 
two conliderable rivulets, running fwifdy over rocky 
beds. There is fome very good land on the gra- 
dual defccnts of the ridges and their bottoms bor- 
dering on creeks, and very cxtenfive gralTy favan- 
nas and cane meadows always in view on one liand 
or the other. At evening we came to camp on the 
banks of a beautiful creek, a branch of Great Oge- 
che, called Rocky Comfort, where v/e found ex- 
cellent accommodations, here being pleafant graf- 
iy open plains to Ipread our beds upon, environed 
with extenfive cane meadows, affording the belt of 
food for our quadiupeds. 

The next day's journey led us over a level dif- 
trift j the land generally very fertile and of a good 
quality for agriculture, the vegetable furface being 
of a dark, loofe, rich mould, on a ftratum of ftiff 
reddiih brown chy. CrolTing feveral confiderabie 
creeks, branches of the Ocone, North branch of the 
Alatamaha; at evening, July ift, encamped on the 
banks of the Ocone, in a delighrfui grove of foreil 
trees, confiding of Oak, Alh, Mulberry, Hiccory, 
Black Walnut, Elm, SalTafras, Gleditfia, &c. This 
flourifhing grove was an appendage of the high fo- 
refts we had pafled through, and prcjefted into an 
excenfive, green, open, level plain, confifling of 
old Indian fields and plantations, being the rich low 
lands of the river, and ftretching along its banks 
upwards to a very great diftance, charmingly di- 
verGfied and decorated with detached groves and 
clumps of various trees and fhrubs, and indented 
on its verge by advancing and retreating promon- 

tories of the high land. 



Our encarnprrient was fixed on the fine of the old 
Ocone town, which, about fixty years ago, was eva- 
cuated by the Indians, who, finding their fitua- 
tion difagreeable from its vicinity to the white peo- 
ple, left it, moving upwards into the Nation or 
Upper Creeks, and there built a town ; but that 
fituation not fuiting their roving difpofition, they 
grew fickly and tired of it, and refolved to fcek an 
habitanon more agreeable to their minds. They all 
arofe, direfting their migration South-Eafiward to- 
wards the fea coaft j and in the courfe of their jour- 
ney, obierving the delightful appearance of the ex- 
tenfive plains of Alachua and the fertile hills envi- 
roning it, they fat down and built a town on the 
banks of a fpacious and beautiful lake, at a fmall 
diftance from the plains, naming this new town, 
Cufcowilla : this fituation pleafed them, the vaft 
defarts, forefts, lakes and favannas around, afford- 
ing unbounded range of the beft hunting ground 
for bear and deer, their favourite game. But al- 
though this fituation was healthy and delightful to 
the utmoft degree, affording them variety and 
plenty of every defirable thing in their eftimation, 
yet troubles and afBidtions found them out. This 
territory, to the promontory of Florida, was then 
claimed by the Tomocos, Udnas, Calloofas, Ya- 
mafes, and other remnant tribes of the ancient Flo- 
ridans and the more Northern refugees, driven 
away by the Carolinians, now in alliance and under 
the protecflion of the Spaniards, who aflifting them, 
attacked the new fettlement, and for many years 
were very troublefome j but the Alachuas or Oco- 
ncs being flrengthcncd by other emigrants and 
fugitive bands from the Upper Creeks, with v/liom 
they were confederated, and who gradually eftablifhed 
other towns in this low country, ftretching a line of 
ftttlcmcnts acroib the iil^imu^j extending from the 



Aktamaha to the bay of Apalache ; thefe uniting, 
were at length able to face their enemies, and even 
attack them in their own fettlements; and in the 
end, with the afTiftance of the Upper Creeks, their 
uncles, vanquiflied their enemies and deftroyed 
them, and then fell upon the Spanifh fettlements, 
which alfo they entirely broke up. But having 
treated of thefe matters in the journal of my travels 
into Eaft Florida, I end this digrefiion and proceed 
again on my journey. 

After croffing the Ocone by fording it, which 
is about two nundred and fifty yards over, we tra- 
velled about twenty miles, and came to camp in the 
evening J pafled over a plcafant territory, prefent- 
ing varying fcenes of gentle fwelling hills and le- 
vels, affording fublime forefts, contrafted by expan- 
five illumined o-recn fields, native meadows and 
Cane brakes ; the ve>zetables, trees, flirubs and 
plants, the fame as already noticed Vv-ithout any ma- 
terial variation. The next day's journey was 
about twenty miles, having croffed the Oakmuige 
by fording it three or four hundred yards over. 
This river is the main brnch of the beautiful Ala- 
tamaha : on the Eail bank of the river lie the fa- 
mous Oakmuige fields, where are yet confpicuous 
very wonderful remains of the power and grandeur 
of the ancients of this part of America, in the ruins 
of a capital town and fettlement, as vail artificial 
hills, terraces, &c. already particularly mentioned 
in my tour through the lower diftrifts of Georgia. 
The Oakmuige here is about forty miles diftance 
from the Ocone, the other arm of the Alatamaha. 
In the evening we came to camp near the banks of 
Stony Creek, a large rapid water about fix miles 
beyond the river. 



Next day vve travelled about twenty miles far- 
ther, croffing two Confideiable creeks named Great 
and Little Tobofochte ; and at evening encamped 
clofe by a beautiful large brook called Sweet Wa- 
ter, the glittering waving flood pafllng along active- 
ly over a bed of pebbles and gravel. The territory 
through which we pafTed from the banks of the 
Oakmulge to this place, exhibited a delightful di- 
verfified rural Iccne, and promifes a happy, fruitful, 
and filubrious region, when cultivated by induftri- 
ous inhabitants ; generally ridges of low fwelling 
hills and plains fuppordng grand forefls, vail Cane 
meadows, favannas and verdant lawns. 

I obferved here a very lingular and beautiful 
Ihrub, which I fuppofc is a fpecies of Hydrangia 
(PI. quercifoiia). It grows in coppices or clumps near 
or on the banks of rivers and creeks; mnny ftems 
iifually arife from a root, fprcading itfelf greatly on 
ail fides by fuckers or offsets ; the ftems grow five 
or fix feet hio-h, declinins; or divero-ing from each 
other, and are covered with feveral barks or rinds, 
the lail of which being of a cinereous dirt colour 
and very thin, at a certain age of the ftems or fhoots, 
cracks through to die next bark, and is peeled off 
by the winds, difcovering the under, fmooth, dark 
reddifli brown bark, which alfo cracks and peels off" 
the next yeai*, in like manner as the former ; thus 
every year forming a new bark ; the ftems divide 
regularly or oppofitelv, though the branches are 
crooked or v/reathe about horizontally, and thcfe 
again divide, forming others which terminate with 
large heavy panicles or thyrfi of flowers; but 
thefe flowers are of two kinds : the numerous par- 
tial fpikes which compofe the panicles, and conftft 
of a aiultitude of very fmall fruitful flowers, ter- 


NcJit day we travelled about twenty miles far- 
ther, crofling two Confideiable creeks named Great 
and Little Tobofochte ; and at evening encamped 
clofe by a beautiful large brook called Sweet Wa- 
ter, the glittering waving flood palling along a6tive- 
]y over a bed of pebbles and gravel. The territory 
through which we palled from the banks of the 
Oakmulge to this place, exhibited a delightful di- 
verfified rural Ibene, and promifes a happy, fruitful, 
and filubrious region, when cultivated by induftri- 
ous inhabitants ; generally ridges of low Iwelling 
hills and plains fiipporting grand forefis, vail Cane 
meadows, favannas and verdant lawns. 

I obferved here a very fingular and beautiful 
ihrub, which I fuppofe is a fpecies of Hydrangia 
(FI. q.uercifoha). It grows in coppices or clumps near 
or on the banks of rivers and creeks; many fbems 
iifually arife from a root, iprcading itfelf greatly on 
ail fides by fuckers or offsets ; the ftems grow five 
or fix feet high, declining or diverging from each 
other, and are covered with feveral barks or rinds, 
the laft of which being of a cinereous dirt colour 
and very thin, at a certain age of the ftems or fhoots, 
cracks through to die next bark, and is peeled off 
by the winds, difcovering the under, fmooth, dark 
reddifli brown bark, which alfo cracks and peels off 
the next year, in like manner as the fijrmer; thus 
every year forming a new bark ; the ftems divide 
regularly or oppofitelv, though the branches are 
crooked or v/reathe about horizontally, and thefe 
again divide, forming others which terminate with 
large heavy panicles or thyrfi of flowers; but 
thefe flowers are of two kinds : the numerous par- 
tial fpikes which compofe the panicles, and confift 
of a multitude of very fmall fruitful flowers, ter- 



minate with one or more very large expanfive neu- 
tral or mock flowers, (landing on a long, flt'nder, 
ilifF p'^duncle ; thefe flowers ai e coiiipofeci o{' fbur 
broad oval petals or fegments, of a dark role or 
crimlbn colour at firft, but as they become older 
acquire a deeper red or purplilli hue, and laftly arc 
of a brown or ferruginous colour j thefe have no 
perfeft parts of generation of cither lex, but difco- 
ver in their centre, two, three or four papilht or 
rudiments J thefe neutral flowers, with the whole 
pannicle, are truly permanent, remaining on the 
plant for years, until they dry and decay : the leaves 
which clothe the plants are very large, pinnatiflcl 
or palmated, and ferrated or toothed, very much 
refembling the leaves of fome of our Oaks ; they 
fit oppolite, fupported by flender petioles, and are 
of a fine, full green colour. 

Next day after noon we croiTcd FHnt river by 
fording it, about two hundred and fifty yards overy 
and at evening came to camp near the banks of 
a large and deep creek, a branch of the Flint. 
The high land excellent, altording grand forefts, 
and the low ground vafl timber and Canes of great 
height and thicknefs, Arundo gigantea. I obferv- 
cd growing on the fteep dry banks of this creek, a 
fpecies of fhrub Hypericum, of extraordinary ihow 
and beauty (Hypericum aureum). It grows ereft, 
three or four feet high, forming a globular top, 
reprefenting a perfect little tree ; the leaves arc 
large, oblong, firm of texture, fmooth and fliining; 
the flowers are very large, their petals broad and 
confpicuous, which, with their tufts of golden fila- 
ments, give the little bulhes a very fpiendid ap- 

The adjacent low grounds and Cane Iwamp af- 


forded excellent food and range for our horfes, who, 
by diis time- through fatigue of conftant travelling, 
heat of the climate and feafon, were tired and dif- 
pirited : we came to camp fooner than ufual, and 
llarted later next day, that they might have time 
to reft and recruit themfelves. The territory ly- 
ing upon this creek, and the fpace between it and 
the river, prefent every appearance of a delight- 
ful and fruitful region in fome future day, it being 
a rich foil, and exceeding well fituated for every 
branch of agriculture and grazing, diverfified with 
hills and dales, favannas and vaft Cane meadows, 
and watered by innumerable rivulets and brooks, 
all contiguous to the Flint river : an arm of the 
great Chaca Uche or Apalachucla offers an uninter- 
rupted navigation to the bay of Mexico and the At- 
lantic ocean, and thence to the Weft India iflands 
and over the whole world. 

Our horfes being hunted up and packed, fat for- 
ward again, proceeding moderately, afcending a 
higher country and moreu»even by means of ridges, 
of gentle hills ; the country however very plea- 
fing, being diverfified with expanfive groves, favan- 
nas and Cane meadows, abounding with creeks and 
brooks gliding through the plains or roving about 
the hills, their banks bordered with forefts and 
groves, confifting of varieties of trees, fhrubs and 
plants ; the fummits of the hills frequently prefent- 
ing to view piles and cliffs of the ferruginous rocks, 
the fame fpecits as obferved on the ridges between 
the Flat-rock and Rocky Comfort. 

Next day we travelled but a few miles ; die 
heat and the burning fies tormenting our horfes 
to fuch a degree, as to excite compalfion even in 
the hearts of pack-horfemen. Thefc biung flies are 



of feveral fpecies, and their numbers Incredible. 
We travelled almoil: from fun- rife to his fetting, 
amidft a flying hoftof thefe perfecuting fpirirs, who 
formed a vaft cloud around our caravan fo thick as 
to obfcure every dirtanc object i but our van always 
bore the brunt of the confiicl; the head, neck, and 
fhoulders of the leading hories were continually in 
a gore of blood : fome of thefe flies were near as 
large as humble bees ; this is the hippobofca. They 
are armed with a fl:rong fliarp beak or probofcis, 
fliaped like a lancet, and flieathed in flexible thin 
valves ; with this beak they inftantly pierce the 
veins of the creatures, making a large orifice from 
whence the blood fprings in large drops, rolling 
down as tears, caufing a tierce pain or aching for a 
confiderable time after the wound is made. There 
are three or four fpecies of this genus of lefs fize 
but equally vexatious, as they are vaflly more nu- 
merous, a^live and fanguineous ; particularly, one 
about half the flze of the firfl mentioned, the next 
lefs, of a dufky colour with a green head ; another 
yet fomewhat lefs, of a fplendid green and the head 
of a gold colour.; the fling of this is intolerable, 
no lefs acute than a prick from a red-hot needle, or 
a fpark of fire on tlie flvin ; thefe are called the 
burning flies. Befides the preceding tormentors, 
there are three or four fpecies of the afilus or fmaller 
biting flies ; one of a grayifli dufky colour; ano- 
ther much of the fame colour, having fpotted wings 
and a green head; and another very fmall and 
perfecflly black: this laft fpecies lies in ambufli in 
Ihrubby thickets and Cane brakes near water : 
whenever we approach the cool lliadcs near creek?, 
impatient for repofe and relief, almofl flnking un- 
der the periecutions from the evil jpirits, who con- 


tinually furround and follow us over the burning 
defart ridges and plains, and here are in fome hopes 
of momentary peace and quietnefs, under cover 
of the cool humid groves, we are furprized and 
quickly invefted with dark clouds of thefe perfe- 
cuting demons, befides mufquitoes and gnats (cu- 
lex et cynips). 

The next day, being in like manner opprefled and 
haralfed by the flinging flies and heats, we halted 
at noon, being unable longer to fupport ourfelves 
under iuch grievances, even in our prefent fituation 
charming to the fenfes, on the acclivicy of a high 
fwelling ridge planted with open airy groves of the 
fuperb tercbinthine Pines, glittering rills playing 
beneath,, and peilucid brooks meandering through 
an expanfive green favanna, their banks orna- 
mented with coppices of blooming aromatic ihrubs 
and plants perfumiing the air. The meridian heats 
iuft allayed, the fun is veiled in a dark cloud, rifing 
North-Weftward ; the air Hill, gloomy and fultry ; 
the animal fpirits fink under the conflift, and wc 
fall into a kind of mortal torpor rather than re- 
frefhing repofe; and ftartled or terrified at each 
others plaintive murmurs and groans. Now the 
earth trembles under the peals of incefTant diftanr 
thunder, the hurricane comes - on. roaring, and I 
am fhocked again to life : I raife ray head and rub 
open my eyes,, pained with gleams and fialhes of 
liglitning; when juft attempting to wake my af- 
fli6led brethren and companions, ahiriofl over- 
whelmed v/ith floods of rain, the dark cloud opens 
over my head, developing a vaft river of the ethe- 
rial fire -, I am inflantly ftruck dumb, ina6tive and 
benumbed ; at length the puife of life begins to 
vibrate, the animal fpirits begin to exert their 
|)owers, and I am by degrees revived. 



In the evening this furprirmgly heavy tcmpcft 
jp^fled off, we had a fcrene flcy and a pleafanc cool 
hight; having had time enough to colled a great 
quantity of wood and Pine knot to fcvd our fires 
and keep up a light in our camp, which was a lucky 
precaution, as we found it abfolutely nccefiary to 
dry bur clothes and warm ourfelves, for all our 
Ikins and bedding were cafl over the packs of mer- 
chandize to prevent rhem and our provifion from 
being injured by the deluge of rain. Next day was 
Cool and pleafant, the air having recovered its elaf- 
ticity and vivific fpiric: I found myfeif cheerful 
and invigorated ; indeed all around us appeared re- 
animated, and nature prefcnted her cheerful coun- 
tenance ; the vegetables fmiled in their blooming 
decorations and fparkling cryftalline dew-drops.. 
The birds fung merrily in the groves, and the alert 
roe-buck whiftled and bounded over the ample meads 
dnd green turfy hills. After leaving our encamp- 
ment, we travelled over a delightful territory, pre- 
fenting to view variable fylvan fcenes, confifting of 
chains of low hills affording high forefts, with ex- 
panfive favannas, Cane meadows, and lawns between, 
"watered with rivulets and 2:litterinor brooks. To- 
wards evening we came to camp on the banks of 
Pintchlucco, a large branch of the Chata Uche river. 

The next day*s journey was over an uneven hilly 
country, but the foil generally fertile, and of a 
quality and f tuation favourable to agriculture and 
grazing, the fummits of the ridges rough with fer- 
ruginous rocks, in high cliffs and fragments, fcat- 
tered over the fur(ace of the ground : obferved 
alfo high cliffs of ftiff reddifh brown clay, with veins 
or ftrata of ferruginous ftones, either in detached 
maffes or conglomerated nodules or hematites with 
veins or maffes of ochre. 

C c Next 


Next day, after traverfing a very delightful ter- 
ritory, exhibiting a charming rural fcenery of pri- 
mitive nature, gently defcending and paffing alter- 
nately eafy declivities or magnificent terraces fup- 
porting fublime forefts, almoft endlefs grafly fields, 
detached groves and green lawns for the diftance 
of nine or ten miles, we arrived at the banks of the 
Chata Uche river oppofite the Uche town ; where, 
after unloading cur horfes, the Indians came over 
to us in large canoes, by means of which, with the 
cheerful and liberal afTiliance of the Indians, fer- 
ried over the merchandize, and afterwards driv- 
ing our horfes altogether into the river fwam them 
over : the river here*is about three or four hundred 
yards v/ide, carries fifteen or twenty feet water, 
and flows dovv^n with an aftive current 3 the water 
is clear, cool and faiubrious. 

The Uche town is fituated in a vaft plain, on 
the gradual afcent as we rife from a narrow ftrip 
«f low ground immediately bordering on the river : 
it is the largefl, moft compact, and bcft fituated 
Indian town I ever faw^ the habitations are large 
and neatly built; die walls of the houfes are con- 
ilrufted of a wood^^n frame, then lathed and plaif- 
tered infidc and out with a reddifh well tempered 
clay or mortar, which gives them the appearance 
oi' red brick wails ; and theie houfes are neatly co- 
vered or roofed with Cyprefs bark or fliingles of* 
that tree. The town appeared to be populous and 
tiiriving, full of youth and young children : I fup- 
pofe die number of inhabitants, men, women and 
children'j might amount to one thoufand or fifteen 
hundred, as it is fald tliey are able to mufter five 
hundred gun-men or warriors. Their own national 
language is altogctlicr or radically different from 

2 the 


the Creek or Mufcogulge tongue, and is called the 
Savanna or Savanuca tongue; I was told by the 
traders it was the ilime with, or a dialed: of, the 
^hawanefe. They are in confederacy with the 
Creeks, but do not mix with thenij and, On I'ccount 
of their numbers and ftrength, are of importance 
enough to excite and draw upon them the jealoufy 
of the whole Mufcogulge confederacy, and are 
ufually at variance, yet are v/ife enr-ugh to unite 
againft a common enemy, to fupp :>rt the intereft 
and glory of the general Creek confederacy. 

After a little refrefhment at this beautiful town, 
we repacked and fet off again for the Apalachucla 
town, where we arrived after riding over a level 
plain, confifting of ancient Indian plantationb, d 
beautiful landfcape diverfified with groves and 

Tliis is efteemed the mother town or Capital of 
the Creek or Mufcogulge confederacy ; facred to 
peace ; no captives are put to death or human 
blood fpik here. Apd when a general peace is 
propoled, deputies from all the towns in the con- 
federacy aflemble at this capital, in order to de- 
Jiberate upon a fubjeft of fo high importance for 
the profperity of the commonwealth. 

And on the contrary the great Coweta town, 
about twelve miles higlier up this river, is called the 
bloody town, v/here the Micos, chiefs, and warriors 
ailemble when a general war is propofed -, and here 
captives and ilate nialefadlors are put to death. 

The time of my condhuance here^ which was 

about a week, was employed in excurfions round 

about this fetclement. One day the chief trader 

nf Apalachucla obhged me with !jis company on a 

C c 2 walk 


walk of about a mile itnd an half down the river, to 
view the ruins and fite of the ancient Apalachuck : 
it had been fituated on a peninfula formed by a 
doubling of -the river, and indeed appears to have 
been a very famous capital by the artificial mounds 
or terraces, and a very populous fettlement, from 
its extent and expanfive old fields, ftretching be- 
yond the fcope of the fight along the low grounds 
of the river. We viewed the mounds or terraces, 
on which formerly flood their town houfe or ro- 
tunda and fquare or areopagus, and a little behind 
thefe, on a level height or natural ftep, above the 
low grounds, is a vaft artificial terrace or four fquare 
inound, now feven or eight feet higher than the 
common furface of the ground ; in front of one 
iiquare or fide of this mound adjoins a very exten- 
iivt oblong fquare yard or artificial level plain, funk 
a little below the common furface, and furrounded 
with a bank or narrow terrace, formed with the 
eirth throvv^n out of this yard at the time of its for- 
mation : the Creeks or prefent inhabitants have a 
tradition that this was the work of the ancients, 
many ages prior to their arrival and poircfTing this 

This old town was evacuated about twenty year? 
ago by the general confent of the inhabiuants, on 
account of its unhealthy fituation, owing to the fre- 
quent inundations of the river over the low grounds; 
and moreover they grew timorous and dejefted, 
apprehending (hemfelves to be haunted and pof- 
felfcd with vengeful fpirits, on account of human 
blood that had been undefervedly * fpilt in this old 


* About fifty or fixtf years ago almgil all t|ic white traders then in the 
«ation were mafTacrtxl in this town, whither th(*y had repj,uj|tl from the dif- 
ferent towns, in hope; of an afylum vr refuge, in confequence of the alarm* 
liaving been tiouetj' lipjjrizeti of the hoft^s ijitciuions of the Indians by their 



town, having been repeatedly warned by appari- 
tions and dreams to leave it. 

At the time of their leaving this old town, like 
the ruin or difperfion of the ancient Babel, the in- 
habitants feparated from each other, forming fe- 
veral bands under the conduft or aufpices of the 
qhief of each family or tribe. The greateft number, 
however, chofe to fit down and build the prcfent 
new Apaiachucla town, upon a high bank, of the 
river above the inundations. The other bands 
purfued different routs, as their inclinations led 
them, fetding villages lower down the river; fome 
continued their migration towards the fea coaft, 
feeking their kindred and countrymen amongft the 
Lower Creeks in Eall Florida, where they fettled 
themfelves. Mv intellio;ent friend, the trader of 
Apaiachucla, having from a long refidence amongft 
thefe Indians acquired an extenfive knowledge of 
their cuftoms and affairs, I inquired of him what 
were his fentiments with refpeft to their wander- 
ing, unfettled difpofition ; their io frequently break- 
ing up their old towns and fettling new ones, &c» 
His anfwers and opinions were, the neceility they 
were under of having frefh or new ftrong land for 
their plantations, and new, convenient and exten- 
five range or hunting ground, which unavoidably 
forces them into contentions and wars with their 
confederates and neighbouring tribes ; to avoid 
which they had rather move and feek a plentiful 
and peaceable retreat, even at a diftance, than con^ 
tend with friends and relatives or embroil themfelves 

temporary wives. They all met together in one lioufe, under the avoweii 
protection of the chiefs of the tovyii> waiting the event ; but whilft the chiefs 
were affembled in council, deliberating on ways ami means to (irotedlthem, 
the Indians in nniltitu<!es lurrounded the b.ouie and fet fire to it ; they ali, 
ro the number of eighteen or twenty, periflied with the houfe in the flame;. 
The trader fhowed mc the ruins of the houfe where they were burnt. 

C c 3 ia 


in deftruclive wars with their neighbours, when 
qither can be avoided v;ith fo little inconvenience. 
With regard to the Mufcogulges, the firft objeft in 
order to obtain thefe conveniencies was the de- 
ftruCtion of the Yamafes, who held the pofTeffion of 
FJoridaj and were in clofe alliance with the Spani- 
ards, their declared and moft inveterate enemy, 
which they at length fully accomplifhed ; and by 
this conqucll they gained a vaft and invaluable ter- 
ritory, comprehending a delightful region, and mod 
plentiful country for their favourite game, bear and 
4eer. But not yet fatisfied, having already fo far 
conquered the powerful Cherokees, as, in a man^ 
•ner, to force theqi to alliance, and compelled the 
"warlike Chicafaws to fue for peace and alliance with 
them 5 they then grew arrogant and infatiable, an4 
>i:urned their covetous , looks towards the potent and 
intrepid Chaclav/s, the only Indian enemy they had 
to fear, meaning to break them up and poffefs them- 
felves of that extenfive, fruitful and delightful coun- 
try, and make it a part of their vaft empire. But 
the Chaftaws, a powerful, hardy, fubtils and intre- 
pid race, cftimated at twenty thoufand warriors, are 
likely to afford fuhicicnt ex:;rcife for the proud and 
refrlefs fpirits of the Mufcogulges, at leaft for fome 
years to come ; and they appear to be fo equally 
matched with the Cl^ac^^ws, tiiat it feems dcubtful 
which of thefe powerful nations will rife viftorious. 
The Creeks have fworn, it feems, that they never 
will make peace with this enemy as long as the 
rivers flow or the fun purfues his courfc through 
the fldeso 

Thus we fee that war or the exercife of arms 
originates from the fame motives, and operates in 
the fpirits of the wild red men of America, as it 



formerly did with the renowned Greeks and Ro- 
mans, or modern civiHzed nations, and not from a 
ferocious, capricious defire of Ihedding human blood 
as carnivorous lavages : neither does the eager 
avarice of plunder fliimulate them to a6ls of mad^- 
nefs and cruelty, that being a trifling objetl: in their 
eftimation, a duffield blanket, a poiifhed rifle gun, 
or embroidered mantle ; no, their martial prowets 
and objects of defire and ambition proceed from 
greater principles and more magnanimous inten- 
tions, even that of reuniting all nations and languages 
under one univerfal confederacy or commonwealth. 

The vegetable produ6lions in the rich low 
ground, near the banks of this great river, of trees 
and fhrubs, are as follow ; Platanus occidentalis, 
Liriodendron tulipifera, Populus heterophylla, Lau- 
rus faflfafras, Laurus Barbonia, Laurus benzoin, Be- 
tula lenta, Salix fluvialis, Magnolia grandiflora, An- 
nona glabra, Ulmus campeftris, Uimus fuberifera, 
Carpinus, Quercus, various ipecies, Juglans, vari- 
ous fpecies, j^fculus pavia, i^fculus fylvatica, C 
Virginiana, Morus, Hopea tindoria, Fagus fylva- 
tica, of furprifing magnitude and comelinefs, &c. 
The land rifes from the river with fubiime magni- 
ficence, gradually retreating by flights or fteps one 
behind and above the other, in beautiful theatrical 
order, each ftcp or terrace holding up a level plain; 
and as we travel back from the river, the fteps are 
higher, and the correfponding levels are more and 
more expanfive : the afcents produce grand high 
forefts, and the plains prefent to view a delightful 
varied landfcape, confifl:ing of extenfive graflTy tields, 
detached groves of high foreft trees, and clumps of 
lower trees, evergreen fhrubs and herbage j green 
knolls, with ferpentine, wavy, glittering brooks 
C c 4 courfing 


courfing through the green plains j and dark pro- 
montories, or obtufe proje6tions of the fide-long 
acclivities, alternately advancing or receding or^ 
the verge of the illumined nativte fields, to the ut- 
moft extent of fight. The funnnnits of the acclivi- 
ties afford, befides the foreft trees already recited, 
Halefia, Ptelea, Circis, Cornus Florida and Amor- 
pha. The upper mound or terrace holds up a dilated 
level plain of excellent land, for the diftance of five; 
or fix miles in width, which is a high fqreft of the 
majeftic trees already mentioned, as Quercus tinftb- 
ria, Juglans nigra, Morus, Ulmus, Tilia, Gleditfia, 
Juglans hiccory, &c. The land after this diftance, 
|:hough almofl: fiat and level, becomes leaner; the 
vegetative mould or furface is fiiallower, op a 
ftratum of tenaceous humid clay, for the diftance 
of fifteen or twenty miles, more or lefs, according 
to the diftance of the next great river j pr^fenting 
to our view a fine expanfe of level grafiy plains, 
detached forefts and groves of Quercus alba, Q^ 
lobata, Q^ phillos, Q. hemifpherica, Q^ aquatica, 
•with entire groves of the fplendid Nyifa fylvatica 
and perfumed Liquidambar ftyraciflua, vaft Cane 
meadows, apd laftly a chain of grafiy iavannas. 
Immediately from this we began to afcend gra- 
dually the moft elevated, gravelly and ftony ridge, 
confifting of parallel chains of broken fv/elling 
|iills, the very higheft chain frequently prefenting 
to view cliffs of the ferruginous rocks and red 
clay already noticed. This laft mentioned high 
ridge divides the waters of the great rivers from 
each other, whence arife the fources of their nume- 
rous lateral branches, gradually increafing as they 
wind about the hills, fertilizing the vales and level 
plains, by their inundations, as they pour forth 
from the vaft humid forefts and ftiaded prolific hills, 
' ' - and 


mid laftly, flow down, with an eafy meandering, 
IJeady courfe, into the rivers to which they are tri- 

Our horfes by this time having recruited them- 
felvcs by ranging at liberty an.i feeding in the rich 
young cane fwamps, in the vicinity of Apalachu- 
cla, we refumed our journey for Mobile, having 
here repaired our equipage, and repleniflied our- 
felves with frefh fupplies of provifions. Our cara- 
van was now reduced to its original number; the 
companies of traders who joined us at the Flat-rock% 
on our arrival at this town fcparated from us, be- 
taking thcmfelves to the feveral towns in the Na- 
tion, where they were refpeiftively bound. I fhall 
juft mention a very curious non-defcript fhrub, which 
I obferved growing in the Ihady forefts, beneath 
the afcents, next bordering on the rich low lands 
of the river. 

This floloniferous fhrub grows five or fix feet in 
lieight J many ftems ufually afcend from onti root 
or the fame fourcej thefe feveral fi;ems diverge 
from each other, or incline a little towards the earth, 
covered with a fmooth whitilh bark, divided op- 
pofitely, and the branches wreathe and twift about, 
being ornamented with compound leaves; there 
being five lanceolate ferratcd leaves, afibciAted upon 
one general long (lender petiole, which iland op- 
pofitely, on the branches, which terminate with a 
Ipike, or panicle of v/hite flowers, having an agree- 
able fcent : from the charadlers of the flowers, this 
fhrub appears to be a fpecies of .^fculus or Pavia, 
but as I could find none of the fruit and but a (cw 
flowers, quite out of feafon and imperfe<5l, I am not 




July 13th v/e left the Apalachucla town, and 
three days journey brought us to Talalle, a town 
on the Tallapoore river, the North Eail great 
branch of the Alabama or Mobile river ; having 
pailcd ever a vaft level plain country of expanfive 
favannaSj groves. Cane fwamps and open Pine fo- 
refts, watered by innumerable rivulets and brooks, 
tributary to Apalachucla and Mobile. We now 
altered our courfe, turning to the left hand. Souther- 
ly, and defcending near the river banks, continually 
in fight of the Indian plantations and comn:ions ad- 
jacent to their towns. Faffed by Otaffe, an ancient 
famous Mufcogulge town. The next fettlement 
we carne to was Coolome, where we flayed two 
idays, and having letters for Mr. Germany, the prin- 
cipal trader of Coolom.e, I meant to confult with 
him in matters relative to my affairs and future pro- 

Here are yery extenfive old fields, the abandoned 
plantations and commons of the old town, on the 
Eaff fide of the river j but the fetdement is remov- 
ed, and the new tov/n now ftands on the oppofite 
fhore, in a charming fruitful plain, under an elevated 
ridge of hills, the fweliing beds or bafes of which 
are covered with a pleafmg verdure of grafs ; but 
the laft afrent is ftecper, and towards the fummit 
difcovcrs flielving rocky cliffs, which appear to be 
continually fplitting and burfting to pieces, fcatter- 
ing their thin exfoliations over the tops of the grafi'y 
knolls beneath. The plain is narrow where the 



town is built : their houfes are neat commodiou? 
buildings, a wooden frame with plaiftered walls, 
and roofed with Cyprefs bark or fliingles; every 
habitation confifts of four obkno; fquare houfes, of 
one ftoiy, of the fame form and u.r.ienfions, and fo 
fituated as to form an exaft Iquare, encompafllng 
an area or court yard of about a quarter of an 
acre of ground, leaving an entrance into it at each 
corner. Here is a beautiful neiv fquare or areopa- 
gus, in the centre of the new towns but the ftores of 
the principal trader, and two or three Indian Im- 
bitations, ftand near the banks of the oppofite 
fhore on the fite of the old Coolome town, llie 
Tallapoofe river is here three hundred yards over, 
and about fifteen or twenty feet deep : the water is 
very clear, agreeable to the tafte, eftcemed falur 
brious, and runs with a (leady, aftive current. 

Being now recruited and refitted, having obtain- 
ed a guide to {cl us in the great trading path for 
Weft Florida, early in the morning we fat off for 
Mobile : our progrefs for about eighteen miles vv^as 
through a rnagniticent foreil, juft without or Ikirt- 
ing on the Indian plantations, frequently having a 
view of their diftant towns, over plains or old fields; 
and at evening we came to camp under Hielter of a 
grove of venerable fpreading oaks, on the verge 
of the great plains -, their enormous limbs loaded 
with Tillandfia ufneadfcites, waving in the winds; 
thefe Oaks were fome fhelter to us from the vio- 
lence of an extraordinary fhov/er of rain, v/hicii 
fuddenly came down in fuch fioods as to inundate 
the earth, and kept us ftanding on our feet the 
whole night, for the furface of the ground was un- 
der water almoft till morning. Early next morn- 
ing, our guide having performed his duty, took 



leave, returning home, and we continued on our 
journey; entering on the great plains. We had not 
proceeded far before our people roufed a litter of 
yaung wolves, to which giving chafe, we foon caught 
one of them, it being entangled in high grafs ; one 
of our people caught it by the hind legs, and an- 
other beat out itj brains with the but of his gun, — 
barbarous fport! — This creature was about htlf 
the fize of a fmajl cur-dog, and quite black. 

We continued over thefe expanfive illumined graf- 
fy plains, or native fields, about twenty miles in 
length, and in width eight or nine, lying parallel 
to the river, which was about ten miles diilance ; 
t|iey are invefted by high forefts, extenfive points 
or promontories, which projecfl into the plains on 
each fide, dividing them into many vaft fields open- 
ing on either hand as we pafled along, which pre- 
fents a magnificent and pleafing fylvan landfcape 
of primitive, uncultivated nature. CrofTed feveral 
very confiderable creeks, their ferpentine courfes 
being diredled acrofs the plain by gently fwelling 
knolls perceptible at a difiance, but which feem to 
vanifli and difappear as we come upon them ; the 
creeks were waters of the Alabama, the name of 
the Eaft arm of the Mobile below the confluence of 
the Tallapoofe. Thefe rivulets were ornamented hy 
groves of various trees and fhrubs, which do not 
ipread far from their banks. I obferved amongft 
them the wild Crab (Pyrus coronaria), and Prunus 
Indica or wild Plumb, Cornus Florida, and on the 
gralTy turf adjoining grev/ abundance of Strawber- 
ry vines : the furface of the plains or fields is clad 
with tall grafs, intermixed with a variety of her- 
bage. The moft confpicuous, both for beauty and 
novelty, is a tall fpecies of Silphium s the radjcal 



leaves are large, long and lightly finuated, but thofe 
which garnifh the (lem are few and Ids finiiiitcd ; 
thefe leaves, with the whole plant, except the flow- 
ers, appear of a whitiih green colour, which Is ow- 
ing to a fine foft filky dov/n or pubefcence i the 
flower ftem, which is eight or ten feet in length 
when ftanding eredt, terminates upwards with a long 
heavy fpike of large golden yellow radiated flow- 
ers ; the ftem is ufually feen bov/ing on one fide or 
other, occafioned by the weight of the flowers, and 
many of them are broken, iuft under the panicle or 
fpike, by their own weight, after ftorms and heavy 
rains, which often crack or fplit the Item, from 
whence exudes a gummy or refinous fubftance, 
"which the fun and air harden into fe mi -pellucid 
drops or tears of a pale amber colour. This refin 
poflefles a very agreeable fragrance and bitterilh 
tafte, fomewhat like frankincenle or turpentine ; 
it is chewed by the Indians and traders, to cleanfe 
their teeth and mouth, and fweeten their breath. " 

The upper ftratum or vegetable mould of thefe 
plains is perfectly black, foapy and rich, efpecially 
after rains, and renders the road very flippery: 
it lies on a deep bed of white, teftaceous, limeilone 
rocks, which in fome places refemble chalk, and in 
other places are ftrata or fubtcrrene banks of va- 
rious kinds of fea fhells, as oftrea, &c. thefe difTolv- 
ing near the furface of the earth, and mixing with 
the fuperficial mould, render it extremely pro- 

Immediately after leaving the plains we enter 
the grand high forefts. There were flately trees of 
the Robinea pfeudacacia, Tilia, Morus, Ulmus^ 
Juglans exaltata, Juglans nigra, Pyrus coronana, 
Cornus Florida, Cercis, &:c. Our road now for 


39 5 tRAVELS tTT 

feveral miles led us near the Alabamaj within two 
or three miles of its banks : the furface of the 
land is broken into hills ahd vales, fome of 
them of confiderable elevation, covered with fo- 
rcfts of {lately trees, fucni as already mentioned,, 
but they are of a much larger grov/th than thofe of 
the fame kind which grow in the Southern or inha- 
bited parts of Georgit and Caroling. We now 
left the river at a good diftance, the Alabama 
bearing away Southerly, and entered a vail open 
foreft which continued above fcventy milesj Eaft 
and Weft, without any confiderable variation, gene- 
rally a level plain, except near the banks of creeks 
that courfe through : th^ foil en the furface is a duf- 
ky brownifh mould or fandy loam^ on a foundatioil 
of ftiff day; and the furface, pebbles or gravel mix- 
ed with clay on the fummics of the ridges : the fo- 
refts confift chicfflv of Oak, Hiccory, AHii Sour 
Gum (NyiTa fylvatica), Sweet Gum (Liquidambnr 
ftyraciflua), Beech, Mulberry, Scarlet Maple, Biack 
walnut. Dog wood, Cornus Florida, iEfculus pa- 
via, Prunus Indica, Ptelea, and an abundance of 
Chefnut (Fag. caftanea) on the Iiills, v/ith Pinus tse- 
da and Pinus lutea. During our progrefs over this 
vaft high foreft, we croffed extenfive open plains, 
the foil gravelly, producing a few trees and Ihrubr. 
or undergrowth, which were entangled with Grape 
vines (Vids campeftris) of a pccuHar fpecies j the 
bunches (racemes) of fruit were ve;y large, as vvere 
the grapes that compofed them, though yet green 
and not fully ^Town, but when ripe they are of va- 
rious colours, and their juice fvvect and rich. The 
Indians gather great quantities of them, which they 
piepare for keeping, by firft fweating them on hur- 
dles over a gentle fire, and afterwards drying them 
en their bunches in the fun and air, and ftore theni 


lip for provlfion. Thefe Grape vines do not climb 
into high trees, but creep along from one low 
fhrub to another, extending their branches to a 
great diftance .horizontally round about ; and it i-i 
very pleafing to behold the chillers pendant from 
the vines, almoft touching the earth j indeed fome 
of them lie upon the ground. 

We now entered a very remarkable grove of Dog 
wood trees (Corniis Florida), v/hich continucel nine 
or ten miles unalterable, except here and there a 
towering Magnolia grandiflora; the land on which 
they ftand is an exadt level : the furface a fli allow, 
loofe, black mould, on a ftratum of ftifF, yellowifli 
clay. Thefe trees v/ere about twelve feet high, 
fpreading horizontally ; their limbs meeting and 
interlocking with each other, formed one vaft, 
fhady, cool grove, fo denfc and humid as to 
exclude the fun-beams, and prevent the intru- 
fion of almoft every other vegetable, affording 
us a moft defirable Ihelter from the fervid fim- 
beams at noon-day. This admirable grove by way 
of eminence has acquired the name of the I.'o^ 

During a progrefs of near feventy miles, through 
this high foreft, there conftandy prefented to view 
on one hand or J/.c other, Ipacious groves of this 
fine flowering tree, which muft, in the fpring fea- 
fon,when covered with bloffoms, prefent a moft plea- 
fing fcene ; when at the fame time a variety of other 
fweet fhrubs difplay their beauty, adorned in their 
gay apparel, as the Halefia, Stewartia, ^^fculus pa- 
via, ^fc. alba, JE(c. Florid, ramis divaricatis, thyr- 
fis grandis, flofculis expanfis incamatis. Azalea, &c. 
entangled with garlands of Bignonia crucigera, 



Big. radicans. Big, fempervirens. Glycine frute-^ 
fcens, Lonicera, femperviren.;, &c. and at the fame 
time the fuperb Magnolia grandiflora, Handing m 
fi'ont of the dark groves,' towering far above the 
comnnon level. 

The evening cool, we encamped on the banks 
of a glittering rivUiCC amidft a ipicy grove of the 
illicium Fioridanum, 

Early next morning we ai'ofe, htinted up our 
horfes and proceeded on, continuing about twenty 
miles, over a diftritfl which prefented to view an- 
other landfcape; expanfive plains of Cane meadoAvs, 
and detached groves, conrrafted by fv/elling ridge?, 
and vales fupporting gri^nd forefts of the trees al- 
ready noted, ennbeliifhed with delightflil creeks 
and brooks, the low grounds producing very tall 
canes, and the higher banks groves of the Illicium> 
Callicanthus, Stewarci^, Halefia, Styrax and others, 
particularly Magnolia auricuiata. In the evening 
v*'e forded the river Schambe about fifty yards 
over, the ftream zclWc but fhallow, which carries 
its waters into the bay of Penfatola. Came tof 
camp on the banks of a beautiful creek, by a charm- 
ing grove of the Illicium Fioridanum : from this 
we travelled over a level country above fifty milesy 
very gently but perceptibly defcending South-Eaft- 
ward before us : this diilricl exhibited a landfcape 
very different from what had prefented to view 
fince we left the Nation, and not much unlike the 
low countries of Carolina ; it is in fa6l one vafh 
flat grafiy favanna and Cane meadows, interfered 
or varioudy fcrolled over with narrow forelts and 
groves, on thtj banks of creeks and rivulets, or 
hommocks and fwamps at their fources; v;ith long 
leaved Pines, fcatteringly planted, amongfl the grafs j 



!5nd on the high fandy knolls and fwelling ridges, 
Quercus nigra, Querciis fl;-immula, Quercus incana, 
with various other trees and flirubs as already notedj 
inhabiting fuch fituacions. The rivule?:s however 
exhibited a different appearance ; they are fliallowcr, 
courfe more fwiftly over gravelly beds, and their 
banks are adorned with Illiciiim groves, Magnolias, 
Azaleas, Halefia, Andromedas, &c. The higheft 
hills near large creeks afford high [breRs with abun- 
dance of Chefnut trees. 

We now approached the bay Mobile, gently af- 
cending a hilly diitrid:, being the higheft Ibreii ad- 
joining the extenfive rich low lands of the river * 
thefe heights are fomewhan encumbered with peb- 
bles, fragments and cliffs of rufty ferruginous rocks ; 
the ftones were ponderous and indicated very rich 
iron ore j here was a fmall diftrift of good land, 
on the acclivities and bafes of thefe ridges, and a 
level foreft beloWj watered by a fine creek, running 
into the Mobile. From hence we proceeded, again 
defcending, and travelled about nine miles generally- 
over a level country confiftin^ of favannas. Cane 
fwamps, and gently rifing knolls, producing Pinus 
tsda, Nyffa fylvatica, Quercus rubra, Fagus caff?.- 
nea, Fraxinus, with other trees. Arrived at Ta- 
enfa, a pretty high bluff, on the Eaftern channel 
of the great Mobile river, about thirty miles above 
fort Conde, or city of Mobile, at the head of the 

Next day early in the morning I embarked in a 
boat, and proceeded for Mobile, along the banks of 
iflands (near twenty miles) which lay in the middle 
of the river, between the Eaftern and Weftern 
fliores of the main: the banks of thefe low flat rich 
iflands are well cultivated, having on them extenfive 

£) d farms 


farms and fome good habitations, chiefly the pro- 
perty of French gentlemen, who refide in the city, as 
being more pkafant and healthy. Leaving thefe 
iflands, we continued ten or twelve miles between 
the Eaftern main and a chain of low gralTy i(lands, 
too low and wet for cultivation : then crolfed over 
the head of the bay, and arrived in town in the evening. 

The city of Mobile is fituated on the eafy afcent 
of a rifing bank, extending near half a mile back on 
tiie level plain above ; it has been near a mile in 
length, though now chiefly in ruins, many houfes va- 
cant and mouldering to earth; yet there are a few 
good buildings inhabited by French gentlemen, 
Englifli, Scotch and Irifh, and emigrants from the 
Northern Britifh colonies. Meffrs. Swanfon and 
M'Gillivray, who have the management of the In- 
dian trade carried on with the Chicafaws, Cha6laws, 
Uoper and Lower Creeks, &;c. have made here 
very extraordinary improvements in buildings. 

The fort Conde, which ftands very near the bay, 
towards the lower end of the town, is a large regu- 
lar fortrcfb of brick. 

The principal French buildings are conftrucled 
of brick, and are of one ftory, but on an extenfive 
Icale, four fquare, encompaffing on three fides a 
large area or court yard : the principal apartment 
is on the fide fronting the ftreet j they feem in 
fome degree to have copied after the Creek habi- 
tation in the general plan : thofe of the poorer clafs 
are corirrufted of a ftrong frame of Cyprefs, filled 
in with brick, plaillered and white-walhed infide 
and out. 

July 31ft, 1778, the air being very hot and fultry, 
tiienivjmeter up at 07, we had exceflive thunder, and 



repeated heavy fhowers of rain, from morning until 

Not having an immediate opportunity from 
hence to Manchac, a Britifli fettlement on the Mlf- 
fiflipi, I endeavoured to procure a hght canoe, with 
which I defigned to purfiie my travels along flior^ 
to the fettlements about Pearl river. 

Auguft 5th, fct ofi^ from Mobile up the river in 
a trading boat, and was landed at Taenfa blufl', the 
feat of Major Farmer, to make good my engage- 
ments, in confequcnce of an invitation from that 
worthy gentleman, to fpend fome days in his fa- 
mily : here I obtained the ufe of a light canoe to 
continue my voyage up the river. The fettlement 
of Taenfa is on the fite of an ancient town of a 
tribe of Indians of that name, which is apparent 
from many artificial mounds of earth and other 
ruins. Befides Mr. Farmer's dwellings, there are 
many others inhabited by French families, who 
are chiefly his tenants. It is a moft delightful fitua- 
tion, commanding a fpacious profpeft up and down 
the river, and the low lands of his extenfive planta- 
tions on the oppofite fliore. In my excurfions about 
this place, I obferved many curious vegetable pro- 
ductions, particularly a fpecies of Myrica (Myrica 
inodora) : this very beautitul evergreen fhrub, which 
the French inhabitants call the Wax tree, grows in 
wet fandy ground about the edges of fwamps ; it 
j rifes ere(5t nine or ten feet, dividing itfelf into a 
i multitude of nearly ere<5t branches, which are gar- 
nifhed with many fliining deep green entire leaves 
of a lanceolate figure ; the branches produce abun- 
dance of large round berries, nearly the fize of bird 
cherries, which are covered with a fcale or coat of 
white wax ^ no part of this plant poffefTes any de- 

D d 2 gree 


gree of fragrance. It is In high eftimadon with the 
inhabitants for the produftion of wax for candles, 
for which purpofe it anfwers equally well with 
bees-wax, or preferably, as it is harder and more 
laPuing in burning. 

Early on a fine morning I fet fail up the river, 
took the Eafl channel, and palTed along by well 
cultivated plantations on the fertile iflands, in the 
river on my left hand : thefe iflands exhibit every 
fl) ow of fertility } the native produftions exceed any 
thing 1 had ever feen, particularly the Reeds or 
Canes (Arundo gigantea) grow to a great height 
and thicknefs. 

Early one morning, pafTing along by Tome old 
uncultivated fields, a few miles above Taenfa, I 
was ftruck with furprize at the appearance of a 
blooming plant, gilded with the richeft golden yel- 
low : ftepping on fliore, I difcovered it to be a new 
ipecies of the Oenothera (Oenothera grandiflora, 
caule erefto, ramofo, pilofo, 7, 8 pedali, foliis 
femj-amplexi-caulibus, lanceolatis, ferratodentatis, 
fioribus magnis, fulgidis, feffilibus, capfulis cylin- 
dricis, 4 angulis), perhaps the mofl pompous and 
brilliant herbaceous plant yet known to exifb. It 
is an annual or biennial, rifing ereft feven or eight 
feet, branching on all fides from near the earth up- 
wards, the lower branches extenfive, and the fuc- 
ceeding gradually fliortcr to the top of the plant, 
forming a pyramid in figure ; the leaves are of a 
broad lanceolate fiiape, dentated or deeply ferrated, 
terminating with a fiender point, and of a deep full 
green colour ; the large expanded flowers, that fo 
ornament this plant, are of a fplendid perfeft yel- 
low colour; but when they contraft again, before, 
they drop ofi^j the underfide of the petals next the 



calyx becomes of a reddifh flefli colour, inclining to 
vermilion, the flowers begin to open in the even- 
ing, are fully expanded during the night, and are in 
their beauty next morning, but clofe and wither 
before noon. There is a daily profufe fuccelTion for 
many weeks, and one fingle plant at the fame in- 
ftant prefents to view many hundred flowers. I 
have meafured thefe flowers above five inches in 
diameter, they have an agreeable fcent. 

After leaving thefe fplendid fields of the golden 
Oenothera, I palled by old deferted plantations and 
high forefbs ; and now having advanced above ten 
miles, landed at a bluff', where mooring my bark 
in a fafe harbour, I afcended the bank of the river, 
and penetrating the groves, came prefently to old 
fields, where 1 obferved ruins of ancient habitations, 
there being abundance of Peach and Fig trees, 
loaded with fruit, which affording a very acceptable 
defl"ert after the heats and toil of the day, and even- 
ing drawing on apace, I concluded to take up my 
quarters here for the night. The Fig trees were 
large as well as their fruit, which was then ripe, 
of the fliape of pears, and as large, and of a dark 
bluifli purple colour. 

Next morning I arofe early, continuing my 
voyage ; pafllng by, on each hand, high forefls and 
rich fwamps, and frequendy ruins of ancient French 
plantations J the Canes and Cyprefs trees of m 
aftonifnino; magnitude, as were the trees of other 
tribes, indicating an excellent foil. Came to at 
noon, and advancing forward from the river, and 
penetrating the awful lliades, paflx^d between the 
ftately columns of the Magnolia grandiflora, and 
came to the afcents fupporting the high forells and 

expanfive plains above -What a fyivan fcene is 

D d 3 here I 


here ! the pompons Magnolia reigns fovereign of 
the forefcs J how fweet the r.roiTiauc lllicium groves 1 
how gaily flutter the radiated wings of the Mag- 
nolia auriciilatn, -rach branch fupporting an ex- 
panded umbrella, Tuperbly creiled v/ith a filver 
plume, fragrant blofTom'j or crhnfon frudded fcro- 
bile and fruits ! I recline on the "^'erdant bank, 
and view the. beauties of the grov "_j j^ifcuius pa- 
via, Prunus nemoralis, fioribus racem.ofis, foiiis 
iempervirentibusj niddis, /Efcul'ip alba, Hydrarigia 
quercifolia, Cafline, Magnolia pyramidata, foiiis 
ovatisj (iblongisj acuminatis, bafi auriculatis, flrobilo 
cblongo ovato, Myrica, Rhamnus frangula, Hale- 
lea, Bi'^Tf^nu. Azalea, Lonicera, Sideroxylon, with 
many more. 

Returned to the riv^r, re-embarked, and at even- 
ing came to, in fight of th' confluence or junction 
of the tv/o large arms of the great Mobile river, i. e. 
the Tomibigbe or Chicafaw with the Alabama or 
Coofau. About one hundred and fifty miles above 
this conflux, at Ft. Thouloufe, the Alabama receives 
into it from the Eaft the great Tai?:poofe river, 
v/hen the former takes the name of Coofau, which 
it bears to its fource, which is in the So. Wefl pro- 
montories of the Cherokee or Apalachian moun- 
tains in the Chicafaw territories. 

Obferved very large alligators, baflving on the 
fhores, as well as fwimming in the river and la- 

Next morning entered the Tombigbe, and af- 
cended that fine river. Juft within Ils Capes, on 
the left hand, is a large lagoon, or capacious bay 
of flill water, containing many acres in furface, 
which at a diftant view prefents a very fingular and 
diverting fcene i a delufive green wavy plain of the 
,, Nymph^a 


Nymphnsa Neliimbo : tlie fiirface of the water is 
overfpread with its round floating leaves, wliilft 
thefe are fliadowed by a forcft of umbrageous leaves 
with gay flowers, waving to and fro on flexible 
flems, three or four feet high : thefe fine flowers are 
double as a rofe, and when expanded are fevcn 
or eight inches in diameter, of a lively lemon yel- 
low colour. The feed veflTel when ripe, is a large 
truncated dry porous capfula, its plane or diflsi 
regularly perforated, each cell containing an oval 
ciTeous gland or nut, of the fize of a filbert ; when 
thefe are fully grown, before they become quite hard, 
they are fweet and pleaiant eating, and tade like 
chefnuts : I fed freely on them without any injury, 
but found them laxative. I have obferved this 
aquatic plant, in my travels along the Eaftern Ilioref 
of^ this continent, in the large rivers and lakes, from 
New-Jerfey to this place, particularly in a large 
pond or lake near Cape Fear river in North Caro- 
lina, which is about two miles ever and twelve 
feet water, notwithftanding which its furface is al- 
moft covered with the leaves of this plant ; it alio 
abounds in Wakamaw lake near the fame river, and 
in Savanna river at Augufta, and all over Eaft 

Proceeding up the river, came to at a very 
high fteep blufi-^ of red and particoloured tenaceous 
clay, under a deep flratum of loofe fimdy mould : after 
afcending this fteep bank of the river, 1 found my- 
felf in an old field, and penetrating the forefl:s fur- 
rounding, obferved them to be young growth, co- 
vering very extenfive old plantations, which was 
evident from the ridges and hillocks which once 
railed their Corn (Zea), Batatas, &c. I fuppofe this 
to be the fite of an ancient fortified poft of the 
D d 4 French, 


^rench, as there appear veftiges of a rampart an4 
other traces of a fortrefs ; perhaps fort Louis de la 
Mobile ; but in all probability it will not remain 
long vifible ; ths ftream of the river making daily 
encroachments on it, by carrying away the land on 
which it ftood. 

Obferved here amongfT: other vegetable produc- 
tions, a new fpecies, or at leaft a variety, of Hale- 
iia diptera : thefe trees are of the fize and figure of 
ordinary Mulberry trees, their ftems lliort, and 
tops regular and fp reading, and the leaves large 
and broad, in fize and figure refembling thofe of 
our common wild Mulberry. 

Oppofite this bluff, on the other fide of the river, 
is a diftrift of fwamp or low land, the richell 1 ever 
faw, or perhaps any where to be feen : as for the 
trees 1 Ihall forbear to defcribe them, becaufe it 
would appear incredible; let it fuffice to mention, that 
the Cyprefs, Afh, Platanus, 'Populus, Liquidambar, 
^nd others, are by far the talleft, ftraightell, and every 
way the moft enormous that I have feen or heard 
of. Afid as a proof of the extraordinary fertility of 
the foil, the reeds or canes (Arundo gigantea) grow 
here thirty or forty feet high, and as thick as a 
man's arm, or three or four inches in diameter j I 
fuppofe one joint of foriie of them would contain 
above a quart of water; and thefe reeds ferve very 
well for letting poles, or mails for barks and canoes. 
Continued yet afcending this fine river, pafl^ing 
by the moii delightful and fertile fituations : ob- 
ferved frequently, on bluffs of high land, deferted 
plantations, the houfes always burnt down to the 
ground, and ancient Indian villages. But perceiv- 
ing little varl.iLion in the natural vegetable pro- 
flydionsj the current of the river preffing down 



with increafed force and velocity, I turned about, 
defcending the river, and next evening came to at 
a large well cultivated plantation, where I lodged 
all night, and the evening following returned to 

Next day I felt fynnptoms of a fever, which in a 
few days laid me up and became dangerous. But 
a dofe of Tart. Emet. broke its violence ; and care 
and good attendance, after a few days, in fome de^- 
gree reflored my health, at leafl, fo far as to ena- 
ble me to rove about the neighbouring foreftsi 
and here being informed of a certain plant of ex- 
traordinary medical virtues, and in high eftima- 
tion with the inhabitants, which grew in the 
hilly land about diirty miles higher up the river, 
I refolved to fet out in fearch of it, the Major be- 
ing fo polite and obliging as to furnilh me with 
horfes to ride, and a Negro to pilot and take care 
of me. 

Sat off in the morning, and in the courfe of the 
day's journey crofled feveral creeks and brocks, one 
of which fwam our horfes. On pafling by a f>\'amp 
at the head of a b?y or lagoon of the river, I ob- 
ferved a fpecies of Cyprefb ; it differs a little from 
the white Cedar of Kew-Jerfey and Pennfylvania 
(Cuprefllis thyoides), the trunk is lliort and the limbs 
fpread hori'.ontaily, the branches fuller of leaves, 
and the cones larger, and of a crimfon or reddifh 
purple colour when ripe. 

After leaving the low grounds and afcending 
the hills, difcovered the plant I went in fearch of, 
which I had before frequently obferved in my de- 
fcent from the Creek nation down towards Tasnfa. 
Xhis plant appears to be a fpecies of Collinfonia ; 



it is diuretic and carminative, and efteemed a 
powerfiil febrifuge, an infufion of its tops is ordi- 
narily drank at breakfaft, and is of an exceeding 
pleafant tafie and flavour : when in flower, which is 
the time the inhabitants gather it for prefervation 
and ufe, it poffeffes a lively aromatic fcent, partak- 
ing of lemon and anifced. Lodged this night at 
a plantation near the river, and met with civility 
and good entertainment. The man and his three 
fons are famous hunters. I was afl:ured, from good 
authority, that the old gentleman, for his own part, 
kills three hundred deer annually, befides bears, 
tygers, and wolves, ^ 

Next morning early, fat off again, on my return, 
and taking a different path back, for the fake of 
variety, though fomewhat farther about, and at a 
greater diftance from the banks of the river, ob- 
ferved abundance of the tall blue Sage : it grows 
fix or fevcn feet high ; many ftems arife from one 
root or Iburce -, thefe items are thick, woody and 
quadrangular, the angles obtufe : the harrow lan- 
ceolate and ferrated leaves are placed oppofite, 
and are fefllle, lightly embracing the branches, 
which terminate with ipikes of large flowers of a 
celefl:ial blue colour. 

Thefe flony gravelly heights produce a variety 
of herbaceous plants, but one in particular I iliall 
mention on account of its fingular beauty : I be- 
iieve it is a fpecies of Gerardea (Gerardea fiammca); 
it grows ere(51:, a f ngle frem from a root, three or 
four feet in height, branching very regular from 
about one half its length upwards, forming a cone 
or pyramid, profufeiy garniilied with large tubular 
labiated fcariet or flame coloured flov/ers, which 
give the plant a very fplcndid appearance, even at 

a great 


a gre^it dlfliance. Returned home in the evening 
fully fatisfied with the day's excurfion, from tjie 
difcovery of many curious and beautiful vegetables. 

Having advice from Mobile of an opportunity 
to Manchac, although my health was not eftablifh- 
ed, feverifn fymptoms continuing to lurk about me, 
I refolved, notwithftanding, immediately to embrace 
this offer, and em.barked again, defcending the ri- 
ver to the city in company with Dr. Grant, a ])hy- 
fician of the garrifon, and late in the evening ar- 
rived in town, having fuffered a fmart fit of the 
fever by the way. 

In the courfe of converfation with the do6lor, I 
remarked that during my travels fince leaving the 
Creek nation, and when there, 1 had not feen any 
honey bees. He replied, that there were few or 
none Weft of the Ifthmus of Florida, a'd but one 
hive in Mobile, which was lately broi.^giit there from 
Europe, the Engliih fuppofing that liere were none 
in the country, not finding any when they took pof- 
felTion of it after the Spanifh and French. I had 
been allured by the traders that there were none in 
Weft Florida, which to me feemed extraordinary 
and almoft incredible, f'. .e ;hey are fo numerous 
all along the Eaftern condnent from Nova Scotia 
to Eaft Florida, even in the wild forcfts, as to be 
thought by the generality of the inhabitants, abo- 
rigines of this condnent. 

The boat in which I had taken a pafTage to Pearl 
river, not being in readinefs to depart for feveral 
days to come, I fought opportunities to fill up this 
time to the beft advantage polTible -, and hearing 
of a boat going to the river Perdedo, for the pur- 
pofe of fecuring the remains of a wreck, I appre- 


hended this a favourable time to go and fearch that 
coaft, the captain civilly offering me a pafTage and 
birth with him in a handfome light failing boat. 
Set fail early on a fine morning, and having a brifk 
leading breeze, came to in the evening jufl within 
Mobile point ; collefted a quantity of drift wood to 
' keep up a light, and fmoke away the mufquitoes, 
and refled well on the clean fandy beach until the 
cool morning awoke us. We hoifted fail again, 
and foon doubled the point or Eaft promontory of 
the cape of the bay, ftretching out many miles and 
pointing towards Dauphin ifland, between which 
and this cape is the fhip channel. 

Coafting along the fea-lhore Eaflward, we foon 
came up to the wreck, which being already flrip- 
ped of her fails, &c. our captain kept on for Pen- 
iacola, where we arrived late in the evening. 

My arrival at this capital, at prefent the feat of 
government, was merely accidental and undefigned j 
and having left at Mobile all my papers and tefti- 
monials, 1 defigned to conceal my avocations, but 
my name being made known to Dr. Lorimer, one 
of the honourable council, he fent me a very polite 
invitation, and requerted that he might acquaint 
governor Chefler of my arrival, who he knew 
would expe6l that I fhould wait on him, and would 
be pleafed to lee m.e. I begged to be excufed, at 
this time, as the boat would fail back for Mobile in a 
few hours, in which I was under the necefTity of re- 
turning, or muft lofe my pafTage to the MiffifTipi ; but 
durii g :his expoftulaticn, I received a letter from 
Mr. Livingflon the fecretary, whom I waited upon, 
and was received very refpe<5lfully, and treated with 
the utmoll politenefs and afTlibility. Soon after, the 
governor's chariot palled by, his excellency return- 


in.g from a morning vifit to his farm a few miles 
from Penfacola. Mr. Livingfton went with me and 
introduced me to the governor, who commended 
my purfuits, and invited me to continue in Weft: 
Florida, in refearches after fubjefts of natural hif- 
Cory, &c. nobly offering to bear my expences, and 
a refidence in his own family as long as I chofe to 
continue in the colony; very judicioufly obferving, 
that a complete invelligation of its natural hiftory 
could not be accomplilhed in a fliort fpace of time, 
fmce it would require the revolution of the fcafons 
to difcover and view vegetable nature in all her va- 
rious perfedlions. . 

The captain of our fortunate bark by this time 
being ready to fail, I took leave of his excellency 
the governor, and bid adieu to my friends Dr. Lo- 
rimer, Mr. Livingfton, and others : fct fail about 
noon on our return, and came to again within the 
capes of Mobile river. 

Since I have hitherto given a fuperficial account 
of the towns, ports, improvements and other re- 
markable produftions of nature, and human arts 
and induftry, during the courfe of my peregrina- 
tion, I fhali not pafs by Penfacola and its environs. 
This city commands fome natural advantages, fu- 
perior to any other port in this province, in point 
of naval commerce, and fuch as human art and 
ftrength can never fupply. It is delightfully fituated 
upon gentle rifing afcents environing a fpacious 
harbour, fafe and capacious enough to fheker all the 
navies of Europe, and excellent ground for anchor- 
age; the Weft end of St. Rofe ifland ftretches acrofs 
the great bay St. Maria Galves, and its South-Wefl 
projecting point forms the harbour of Penfacola, 



which, with the road or entrance, is defended by ^ 
block-houfe built on the extremity of that point, 
which at the fanne time ferves the piirpofe of a 
fortrcfs and look-out tower. There are feveral 
rivers which run into this great bay from the con- 
tinent, but none of them navigable for large craft, 
to any confiderable diftance into the country : the 
Shambe is the largeft, which admits fliallops fome 
miles up, and perriauguas upwards of fifty miles. 
There are fome fpots of good high land, and rich 
fwamps, favourable for the produftion of rice on 
the banks of this river, Vi^hich have given rife to 
fome plantations producing Indigo, Rice, Corn, 
Batatas, &c. Thefe rivers dividing and fpreading 
abroad their numerous branches, over the ex- 
paniive flat low country (between the two great 
riyers Apalachuia and Mobile), which confifts of 
lavannas and cane meadows, fill them with brooks 
and water courfes, and render them exuberant 
pafture for cattle. 

There are feveral hundred habitations in Penfa- 
cola : the governor's palace is a large ftone build- 
ing ornamented witii a tower, built by the Spa- 
niards. The town is defended by a large ftockado 
fortrefs, the plan a tetragon with falient angles at 
each corner^ where is a block-houfe or round 
tower, one ftery higher than the curtains, where are 
light cannon mounted : it is conftrufted of wood. 
Vv'ithin this fortrefs is the council chamber ; here the 
records are kept, houfes for the officers, and barracks 
for the accommodation of the garrifon, arfenal, 
magazine, &c. The fecretary refides in a Ipacious, 
neat building : there are feveral merchants and 
gentlemen of other profefllons, who have refpedl- 
able and convenient buildings in the town. 

I , There 


There were growing on the fand hills, environ- 
ing Penfacola, feveral curious non-delcribed plants j 
particularly one of the verticillate order, about 
eighteen inches in height : the flowers, which form- 
ed loofe fpikes, were large and of a fine fcarlcc 
colour ; but not having time to examine the fru6li- 
fication, or colled good fpecimens, I am ignorant 
of what order or genus it belongs to. And in 
the level wet favannas grew plentifully a new and 
very elegant fpecies of Saracinia (Saracinia lacuno- 
fa) ; the leaves of this plant, which are twelve or 
fourteen inches in length, ftand nearly ereft, arc 
round, tubular and ventricofe — but not ridged with 
longitudinal angles or prominent nerves, as the 
leaves of the Saracinia flava are ; the aperture at 
top may be fliut up by a cap or lid, of a helmet 
form, which is an appendage of the leaf, turning 
over the orifice in that lingular manner ; the ventri- 
cofe, or inflated part of the leaf, which is of a pale, 
but vivid green colour, is beautifully ornamented 
with rofe coloured ftuds or blifters, and the inner 
furface curioufly infcribed, or variegated, with crim- 
fon veins or fibres. It was paft the time for flower- 
ing, but the plant in any fituation is a very great 

Next morning early we arofe from our hard 
fandy fea-beaten couch, being difl:urbed the whole 
night by the troublefome mufquitoes ; (et fail, and 
before night returned fafe to the city of Mobile. 




The next day after my return to Mobile, I 
found myfelf very ill, and not a little alarmed by 
an excefTive pain in my head, attended with a high 
fever j this diforder foon fettled in my eyes, nature 
purfuing that way to expel the malady, caufing a 
moft painful defluxion of pellucid, corrofive water ; 
notwithftanding, I next day fet off on board a large 
trading boat, the property of a French gentleman^ 
and commanded by him (he being general interpre- 
ter for the Chadaw nation), on his return to his 
plantations, on the banks of Pearl river : our bark 
was large, well equipped for failing, and manned 
with three ftout Negroes, to row in cafe of necef- 
fity. We embarked in the evening, and came to 
about fix miles below the town, at a pleafant farm, 
tlie mailer of which (who was a Frenchman) enter- 
tained us in a very polite and friendly manner. 
The wind favourable, next morning early we fet 
fail again, and having made extraordinary way, 
about noon came up abreaft of a high fteep bluff, 
or perpendicular cliff of high land, touching on 
the bay of the Wefl coafl, where we went on fhore, 
to give liberty to the flaves to reft and refrefh 
themfelves. In the mean time I accompanied the 
captain on an excurfion into the fpacious level 
forefts, which fpread abroad from the fhore to a 
great diflance back ; obferved veftiges of an anci- 
ent fortrefs and fettlement, and there yet remain a 
few pieces of iron cannon ; but what principally 
attracted my notice, was three vaft iron pots or ket- 
tles^ each of many hundred gallons contents : upon 



inquiry, my aflbciate informed me they were for 
the purpofe of boiUng tar to pitch, there bciiiLT 
vafl: fortfts of Pine trees in the vicinity of this place. 
In Carohna the inhabitants purfue a different me- 
thod i when they dcfign to make pitch, they 
dig large holes in the ground, near the tar 
kiln, which they line with a thick coat of good 
Clay, into which they condudl a fufficienc quantity 
of tar, and fet it on f re, fuffcring it to flame and 
evaporate a length of time fufficient to convert it 
into pitch, and when cool, lade it into barrels, and 
fo on until they have confumed all the tar, or made 
a fufficient quantity of pitch for their purpofe. 

After re-imbarking, and leaving this bluff a few 
miles, we put into fhore again, and came to a 
farm houfe, a little diftance from the water, where 
we fupplied ourfelves with Corn meal. Batatas, 
bacon, &:c. The French gentleman (proprietor- of 
the plantation) was near eighty years old, his hair 
almoil white with age, yet he appeared adtive, 
ftrong and mufcularj and his mother who was pre- 
fent, was one hundred and five years old, aftive 
and cheerful, her eyes feemed as brifk and fpark- 
ling as youth, but fhe was of a diminutive fize, not 
half the ftature and vveidit of her fon : it was now 
above fifty years fince fhe can^e into America from 
old France. 

I embarked again, proceeding down the bay, 
and in the evening doubled the weft point or cape of 
the bay, being a promontory of the main, between 
which and Dauphin illand, we entered the channel 
Oleron. From this time, until we arrived at this gen- 
tleman's habitation on Pearl river, I was incapable 
of making any obfervations, for my eyes could not 
bear the light, as the leaft ray admitted feemed 

E e as 


as the piercing of a fword : and by the time I had 
arrived at Pearl river, the excruciating pain had 
rendered me almoft frantic and ftupified for want 
of fleep, of which I was totally deprived ; and the 
corroding water, every few minutes, ftreaming from 
my eyes, had ftripped the fkin off my face, in the 
fame manner as fcalding water would have done. 
I continued three days with this friendly Frenchman, 
who tried every remedy, that he or his family could 
rccoUeft, to adminifter relief, but to no purpofe. 
My fituation was now become dangerous, and I 
expefted to fink under the malady, as I believe my 
friends here did. At laft the man informed me, that 
on Pearl ifland, about twelve miles diftance, refided 
an Englifh gentleman, who had a variety of medi- 
cines, and if I chofe to go to him he would take 
me there. I accordingly bid adieu to this hofpita- 
ble family, and fet off with him in a convenient 
boat ; before night arrived at Mr. Rumfey's, who 
received me kindly, and treated me with the utmofl 
humanity, during a ftay of four or five weeks. The 
night however after my arrival here I fincerely 
thought would be my laft, and my torments were 
fo extreme as to defire it : having furvived this 
tedious night, I in fome degree recovered my 
fenfes, and afked Mr. Rumfey if he had any Cantha- 
rides ; he foon prepared a bliftering plaifter for me^ 
which I direded to be placed betwixt my fhoulders ; 
this produced the defired relief, and more than an- 
fwered my expeftation, for it had not been there 
a quarter of an hour before I fell afleep, and re- 
mained fo a whole day, when I awoke intirely re- 
lieved from pain, my fenfes in perfed harmony and 
mind compofed. I do n6t know how to exprefs 
myfclf on this occafion ; all was peace and tran- 
quillity : although 1 had ray fight itnperfedly, yet my 



body feemed but as a light fhadow, and my exift- 
cncc as a pleafing delirium, for I fometimes doubted 
of its reality. I however from that moment be- 
gan to mend, until my health was perfeflly reftored ; 
but it was feveral weeks before I could expofe my 
eyes to open day light, and at laft I found my left 
eye confiderably injured, which fuffcred the great- 
eft pain and weight of the difcafe. 

As foon as I acquired flrength to walk about, and 
bear the leaft impreffion of open day light on my 
eyes, I made frequent, indeed I may fay daily ex- 
curfions in and about this ifland, ftrolling through 
its awful fhades, venerable groves and fubiime fo- 
refts, confifting of the Live Oaks and Magnolia 
grandiflora, Laurus Borbonia, Olea Americana, 
Fagus fylvatica, Laur. Saflafras, Quercus hemi- 
fpherica, Tilia, Liquidambar ftyraciflua, Morus, 
Gleditfia, Callicarpa, Halefia, &:c. 

The ifland is fix or feven miles in lengrh, and 
four or five in width, including the fait marllies and 
plains, which invefl: it on every fide, I believe we 
may only except a narrow (Irand at the South end 
of it, waflied by Lake Borgone at the ReguUets, 
which is a promontory compofed of banks of fea- 
fhells and fand caft up by the force of winds, and 
the furf of the Lake ; thefe fliells are chiefly a fmall 
fpecies of white clam flielis, called les coquilles. 
Here are a few flirubs growing on thefe Ihelly 
heights, viz. Rhamnus frangula, Sideroxylon, My- 
rica, Zanthoxylon clava Herculis^ Juniperus Ame- 
ricana, Lyfium faifum j together with feveral new 
genera and fpecies of the herbaceous, and fuffruti- 
cofe tribes, Croton, Stillingia, &c. but particularly 
a fpecies of Mimofa (Mimofa virgata), which in 
refpedt of the elegancy of its pinnated leaves, can- 
E e 2 rot 

4^0 TRAVELS Ilf 

not be exceeded by any of that celebrated family. 
It is a perennial plant, fending up many nearly 
creft ftems from the root or fource ; thefe divide 
themfelves into many afcendant flender rods like 
branches, which are ornamented with double pin- 
nated leaves, of a mofl delicate formation. The 
compound flowers, are of a pale, greeni(h yellow, 
collefted together in a fmall oblong head, upon a 
long flender peduncle, the legumes are large, lu- 
nated and flat, placed in a fpiral or contorted man- 
ner, each containing feverai hard compreflTed feeds 
©r little beans. 

The interior and by far the greater part of the 
ifland conflfts of high land -, the foil to appearance 
a heap of fea land in fome places, with an admix- 
ture of fea fliells ; this foil, notwithftanding its fandy 
and fteril appearance, when divefl:ed of its natural 
vegetative attire, has, from what caufe I know not, 
a condnual refource of fertility within itfelf: the 
furfiice of the earth, after being cleared of its origi- 
nal vegetable produ6lions, expofed a few feafons 
to the fun, winds, and triturations of agriculture, 
appears fcarcely any thing but heaps of white fand, 
yet it produces Corn (Zea), Indigo, Batatas, Beans, 
Peas, Cotton, Tobacco, and almofl; every fort of 
efculent vegetable, in a degree of luxuriancy very 
furprizing and unexpe6led, year after year, incef- 
fandy, without- any addition of artificial manure or 
compoft: r-lhere is indeed a foundation of Ilrong 
adhffive clay, confifting of ftrata of various colours, 
which I examining a well, lately dug 
in Mr. Rumfey's^yard ; but lying at a great depth 
under the furface, the roots of fmall (hrubs and 
herbage, cannot reach near to it, or receive any 
"b&fit,. unlefs we may fuppofe, that afcending 
■>w" 5-_ fumes 


fumes or exlialations, from this bed of clay, may- 
have a vivific nutritive quahty, and be received by 
the fibres of the roots, or being condenfed in the 
atmofphere by nocturnal chills, fall with dews upon 
the leaves and twigs of thefe plants, and tliere ab- 
forbed, become nutritive or exhilerating to them. 

Befides the native foreft trees and flirubs already 
noted, manured fruit trees arrive in this ifland to 
the utmoft degree of perfeftion, as Pears, Peaches, 
Figs, Grape Vines, Plumbs, &c. ; of the lad men- 
tioned genus, there is a native fpecies grows in this 
idand, which pi'oduces its large oblong crimfon 
fruit in prodigious abundance ; the fruit, though of 
a mofl enticing appearance, is rather too tart, yet 
agreeable eating, at fultry noon, in this burning 
■climate ; it affords a moft delicious and reviving 
marmalade, w4ien prefervcd in fugar, and makes 
excellent tarts ; the tree grows about twelve f<^ct 
high, the top fpreading, the branches fpiny and the 
leaves broad, nervous, ferrated, and terminating 
with a fubulated point. 

My eyes having acquired fufficient ftrength to 
endure the open day light, I fet off from Pearl 
ifland, for Manchac on the MiffifTippi, in a handfome 
large boat with three Negroes to navigate her. 
Leaving the friendly Mr. Rumfey's feat on Pearl 
Ifland, we defcend-ed a creek from the landing 
near his houfe; this creek led us about a mile, 
winding through fait ledgy marfhes, into Lake 
Pontchartrain, along whofe North fliorcs we coaft- 
ed about twenty miles, having low, reedy marflies, 
on our [larboard : thcfe niarlhes were very extcn- 
five betv,'een us and the far diftant high forells on 
the main : at evening the iliore became bolder, with 
Tandy elevations, affording a few dwarf Oaks, Zan- 
E e 3 thoxylon. 


ihoxylon, Myrica and Rham. frangula. We came 
to in a little bay, kindled a fire, and after fupper 
betook ourfelves to repofe ; our fituation open, airy 
and cool, on clean fand banks ; we refted quietly, 
though fometimes roufed by alarms from the cro- 
codiles, which are here in great numbers, and of 
an enormous bulk and ftrength. 

Next day early we got under way, purfuing our 
former courfe, nearly Weftward, keeping the North 
fhore feveral leagues. Immediately back of this 
high fandy ftrand, (which is caft up by the beating 
furf and winds, fetting from feaward, acrofs the 
wideft part of the lake) the ground fuddenly falls, 
and becomes extenfive flat Cyprefs fwamps, the 
fources of creeks and rivers, which run into the 
lake, or Pearl River, or other places; the high 
forelts of the main now gradually approaching the 
lake, advance up to the very fhore, where we find 
houfes, plantations and new fettlements : we came 
to at one of them charmingly fituated, fet fail again, 
and came up to the mouth of the beautiful Taen- 
fapaoa, which takes that name from a nation of In- 
dians, who formerly poffefled the territories lying on 
its banks, which are fertile and delightful regions. 
This river is narrow at its entrance, but deep, and 
faid to be navigable for large barks and perriauguaj 
upwards of fifty miles : j\ift widiin its capes, on 
the leeward fhore, are heights, or a group of low 
hills (compofed of the fmall clam fliells, called les 
coquilles), which gradually deprefs as we retreat 
back from the river, and the furface of the land is 
more level; thefe fliells diflblving and mixing with 
the furface, render the vegetative mould black, 
rich, and produ(5live. Here are a few habitadons, 
and feme fields cleared and culdvated; but the 



inhabitants neglect agriculture, and generally em- 
ploy themfelves in hunting and fifhing : we however 
furnifhed ourfelves here with a fufficiency of ex- 
cellent Batatas. I obferved no new vegetable pro- 
dudlions, except a fpecies of Cleome (Cleonie lu- 
pinifolia) ; this plant polTefles a very llrong fcent, 
fomewhat like Gum Aflafetida, notwithlVanding 
which the inhabitants give it a place in Ibups and 

From Taenfapaoa, we flill coafled Weftward, 
three or four miles, to the ftraits that communicate 
with the lake Maurepas ; entering which and continu- 
ing fix or eight miles, liaving low fwanipy land on 
each fide, the channel divides, forming an ifland in the 
middle of the pafs : we took the right hand channel, 
which continues three or four miles, when the chan- 
nels reunite in full view of the charming lake. Wc 
came to at an elevated point, or promontory, on the 
ftarboard main fhore, it being the North cape, from 
whence I enjoyed a very pleafing and complete view 
of the beautiful lake Maurepas j entering which 
next morning, a fteady favourable gale foon wafted 
us nine or ten miles over to the mouth of the river 
Amite ; afcended between its low banks ; the land 
on each fide a level Iwamp, about two feet above 
the furface of the water, fupporting a thick foreft 
of trees, confiding chiefly of Fraxinus, Nyfla aqua- 
tica, Nyfla multiflora, Cuprefliis difl:icha, Quercus 
phillos, Acer rubrum, Ac. negundo, Acer glaucum, 
Sambucus, Laurus Borbonia, Carpinus, Ulmus, and 
others. The foil or earth humid, black and rich. 
There is fcarcely a perceptible current : the water 
dark, deep, turgid and llagnate, being from Ihore 
to fliore covered with a fcum or pellicle of a green 
and purplifh cafl:, and perpetually throwing u[^ 
E c 4 fioiii 


from the muddy bottom to its furface minute air 
bladders or bubbles : in ihort, thefe dark loathfome 
waters, from every appearance, feem to be a ftrong 
extract or tin6lure of the leaves of the trees, herbs 
and reeds, arifing from the Ihores, and which almoft 
overfJDread them, and float on the furface, infomuch 
that a great part of thefe ftagnate rivers, dui ing the 
fummer and autumnal feafons, are conftrained to 
pafs under a load of grafs and weeds ; which are 
continually vegetating and fpreading over the fur- 
face from the banks, until the rifing floods of win- 
ter and fpring, rufliing down from the main, fweep 
them away, and purify the waters. Late in the 
evening we difcovered a narrow ridge of land clofe 
to the river bank, high and dry enough to fuffer us 
to kindle a Are, and fpace fufficient to fpread our 
bedding on. But here, fire and fmoke were infuf- 
iicient to expel the hofts of mufquitoes that inverted 
our camp, and kept us awake during the long and 
tedious night, fo that the alligators had no chance 
of taking us napping. We were glad to rife early 
in the morning, proceeding up the Amite. The 
land now gradually rifes, the banks become higher, 
the foil drier and firmer four or five feet above the 
furface of the river; the trees are of an incredible 
magnitude, particularly Plataniis occidentalis, Frax- 
inus, Ulmus, Quercus hemifpherica, &:c. The 
Canna Indica grows here in furprifmg luxuriance, 
prefenting a glorious Ihow ; the ftem rifes fix, feven 
and nine feet high, terminating upwards with fpikes 
of fcarlet flowers. 

Now having advanced near thirty miles up the 
Amite, we arrived at a very large plantation, the 
property of a Scotch gentleman, who received me 



with civility, entreating me to refide with him ; but 
being impatient to get to the river, and pleading 
the neceffity of profecuting my travels with alacrity, 
on account of the feafon being fo fi\r advanced, I 
was permitted to proceed, and fet off next morn- 
ing. Still afcending the Amite nbout twenty miles 
farther, arrived at the forks, where the Iberville 
comes in on the left hand, afcending which a little 
way, we foon came to tlie landing, where arc ware- 
houfes for depofiting merchandize, this being the ex- 
tremity of navigation up this canal, and here fmall 
veflels load and unload. From this place to Man- 
chac, on the banks of the MilTiffippi, juft above the 
mouth of the canal, is nine miles by land ; the 
road ftraight, fpacious, and perfeftly level, under the 
fhadow of a grand foreft ; the trees of the firft order 
in magnitude and beautv, as Magnolia orrandi- 
flora, Liriodendron tulipifcra, Platanus, Juglans 
nigra, Fraxinus excelfior. Moms rubra, Laurus 
faffafras, I.aurus Borbonia, Tilea, Liquidambar 
ftytaciflua, Sec. 

At evening arrived at Manchac, when I dircfled 
my fteps to the banks of the MilTilTippi, where I (lood 
for a time as it were fafcinated by the magnificence 
of the great fire * of rivers. 

The depth of the river here, even in this feafon, 
at its lowed ebb, is aftonifliing, not lefs than forty 
fathoms; and the width about a mnle or fomewhac 
lefs : but it is not expanfion of furface alone that 
flrikes us with ideas of magnificence ; the altitude 
and theatrical afcents of ics penfile banks, thi^ ftea- 
dy courfe of the mighty flood, the trees, high fo- 
refls, even every particular objecl, as well as focie- 

* Which is the meaning of the word Mifliflippi. 



ties, bear the flamp of fuperiority and excellence ; 
all unite or combine in exhibiting a profpeft of the 
grand fublime. The banks of the river at Manchac, 
though frequently overflowed by the vernal inunda- 
tions, are about fifty feet perpendicular height above 
the furface of the water (by which the channel at 
thofe times nnufb be about two hundred and ninety 
feet deep) j and thefe precipices being an accumu- 
Jation of the fediment of muddy waters, annually 
brought down with the floods, of a light loamy confif- 
tence, continually cracking and parting, prefent to 
view deep yawning chafms, in time fplit ofF, as the 
adiive perpetual current undermines, and the mighty 
niaflTes of earth tumble headlong into the river, 
whofe impetuous current fweeps away and lodges 
iliem elfewhere. There are yet vifible fome remains 
of a high artificial bank, in front of the buildings of 
the town, formerly caft: up by the French, to refift 
the inundations, but found to be ineffectual, and 
now in part tumbled down the precipice : as the 
river daily encroaches on the bluff, fome of the ha- 
bitations are in danger, and muft be very foon re- 
moved or fwallowed up in the deep gulph of waters. 
A few of the buildings that have been eflabUfhed 
by the Englilh, fince taking poffeffion of the colo- 
ny, are large and commodious, particularly the 
warehoufes of iVIeffrs. Swanfon & Co. Indian tra- 
ders and merchants. 

The Spaniards have a fmall fortrefs and garrifon 
on the point of land below the Iberville, clofe by 
the banks of the river, which has a communica- 
tion with Manchac, by a (lender narrow wooden 
bridge acrofs the channel of Iberville, fupported on 
wooden pillars, and not a bow fliot fiom the habi- 
tations of Manchac. The Iberville in the fummer 



fcafon Is dry, and its bed twelve or fifteen feet above 
the furfacc of the Mifliflippi ; but in the winter 
and fpring has a great depth of water, and a very- 
rapid dream which flows into the Amite, thence 
down through the lakes into the bay of Pearls to 
the ocean. 

Having recommendations to the inhabitants of 
Batonrouge, now called New-Richmond, more than 
forty miles higher up the river, one of thefe gende- 
men being prefent at Manchac, gave me a friendly 
and polite invitation to accompany him on his re- 
turn home. A pleafant morning ; we fat off after 
breakfaft, well accommodated in a handfome con- 
venient boat, rowed by three blacks. Two miles 
above Manchac we put into fliore at Alabama: this 
Indian village is delightfully fituated on feveral 
fwelling green hills, gradually afcending from the 
verge of the river : the people are a remnant of 
the ancient Alabama nation, who inhabited the 
Eaft arm of the great Mobile river, which bear!> 
their name to this day, now poflefled by the Creeks 
or Mufcogulges, who conquered the fornrier. 

My friend having purchafed fome bafkets and 
earthen -ware, the manufactures of the people, we 
left the village, and proceeding twelve miles higher 
up the river, landed again at a very large and wtU 
cultivated plantation, where we lodged all night. 
Obferved growing in a fpacious garden adjacent to 
the houfe, many ufeful as well as curious exotics, 
particularly the delicate and fweet Tube-rofe (Poly- 
anthus tuberofa) : it grows here in the open garden ; 
the flowers were very large and abundant on the 
ftems, which were five, fix or fcven feet high, bi;c 
i faw none here having double flowers. In one cor- 
ner of the garden was a pond or marfli, roujul about 



■which gfjcw luxuriantly tlie Scotch grafs (Panicum 
hirtellum^vgramen paniciim maximum, ipica diviia, 
ariftis armaturii, Sloan, Jam. Cat. p. 30) : the peo- 
- pie introduced, this valuable grafs from the Well- 
India iflands : "they mow or reap it at any time, and 
feed it green to -,gov/s or horfes ; it is nouriihing 
food for all catde. The Humble plant (Mimofa 
pudica) grows here.five or fix feet high, rambling 
like Brier vines over the fences and flirubs, all 
about the garden. "iThe people here fay it is an in- 
digenous plant, but. this I doubt, as it is not i'licn 
growing wild in the foreils and fields, and it differs 
in no refpeft from that which we protect in green 
houfes and fcoves, except in the extent and luxuri- 
ancy of its branches, which may be ov.'ing to the 
produflive virgin mould and temperature of the 
climate. They however pay no attention to its 
culture, but rather condemn it as a noxious trou- 
blefome weed, for wherever it gets footing, it 
fpreads itfeif by its feed in fo great abundance as 
to opprefs and even extirpate more ufcful vegeta- 

Next day we likewife vifited feveral delightful 
and fpacious plantations on the banks of the river, 
during our progrefs upwards : in die evening ar- 
rived at my friend's habitation, a very delightful 
villa, v/ith extenfive plantations of Corn (Zea), In* 
digo, Cotton and fome Rice. 

A day or two after our arrival we agreed upon 
a vifit to Point Coupe, a flourifhing French fettle-- 
incnt on tiie Spanifh lliore of the Mirnnippi. 

Early next morning we fet off in a neat Cyprefs 
boat v.'ith three oars, proceeding up die river i and 
bv niiiUc got to a large plantation near the White 



cliffs, now called Brown's cliffs, in honour of the 
late governor of Weft Florida, now of the Ba- 
hanna Iflands, who is proprietor of a large diftriiil 
of country, lying on and adjacent to the Clifls. 
At the time of my refidence with Mr. Rumfey 
at Pearl idand, governor Brown, then on his paf- 
fage to his government of the Bahamas, paid Mr. 
Rumfey a vifit, who politely introduced me to 
his excellency, acquainting him with my chara(5ter 
and purfuits : he defired me to explore his territo- 
ry, and give him my opinion of the quality of the 
Wiiite plains. 

Auguft 27th, 1777, having in rcadinefs horfes 
well equipt, early in the morning we let off for the 
plains. About a mile from the river we ciolfcd a 
deep gully and fmall rivulet, then immediately en- 
tered the Cane forefts, following a ftraight avenue 
cut through them, off from the river, which conti- 
nued about eight miles, the ground gradually but 
imperceptibly rifing before us : when at once opened 
to view expanfive plains, which are a range of native 
graffy fields of many miles extent, lying parallel 
with the river, furrounded and interfecfled with Cane 
brakes and high forefts of flately trees ; the foil 
black, extremely rich and produfbive, but the vir- 
gin mould becomes thinner and lefs fertile as it 
verges on to the plains, which are fo barren as 
fcarcely to produce a bufh or even grali, in the mid- 
dle or higheft parts. The upper flratum or furfacc 
of the earth is a whitiili clay or chalk, with veins of 
fea Ihells, chiefly of thofe little clams called ies co- 
quiiles, or interfpcrfed with the white earth or clay, 
fo tenacious and hard as to render it quite fterilj 
fcarcely any vegetable growth to be feen, except 
fhort grafs, or cruftaceous molfes ; and fome places 
quite bare, where it is on die lurface ; but where it 


43» TRAVELS iJf 

lies from eighteen inches to two or three feet be^ 
low, it has the virtue of fertilizing the virgin 
mould above, rendering it black, humid, foapy, 
and incredibly produftive. 

I obferved two or three fcrubby Pine trees or 
rather dwarf bulhes, upon the higheft ridge of 
thefe plains, which are viewed here as a curiofity, 
there being no Pine forefts within feveral leagues 
diftance from the banks of this great river, but, on 
the contrary, feemingly an cndlefs wildernefs of 
Canes, and the moft magnificent forells of the 
trees already noted, but particularly Platanus 
pccidentalis, Liriodendron, Magnolia grandiflora, 
Liquidambar ftyraciflua, Juglans nigra, Juglans 
cxaltata, Tilea, Morus rubra, Gleditfia triacan- 
thus, Laurus Borbonia, and Laurus faflafras ; this 
laft grows here to a vaft tree, forty or fifty feet 
ftraight trunk j its timber is found to be ufeful, 
fawn into boards and fcantling, or hewn into 
pods for building and fencing. 

On the more fertile borders of the plains, ad- 
joining the furrounding forefts, are Sideroxylon, 
Pyrus Goronaria, and Strawberry vines (Fraga- 
ria) but no fruit on them ; the inhabitants aflured 
me they bore fruit in their feafon, very large, 
of a fine red colour, delicious and fragrant. 

Having made our tour and obfervations on the 
White plains, we returned to the river at the clofe 
of the day, and next morning fat off for Point Cou- 
pe : pafled under the high painted cliffs, and then 
fet our courfe acrofs the Miffiffippi, which is here 
near two miles over : touched at a large ifland near 
the middle of the river, being led there, a little out 



of our way, in purfuit of a bear crofllng from the 
main, but he out-fwam us, reached the illand, 
and made a fafe retreat in the forefts entangled 
with vines ; we however purfued him on lliore, 
but to no purpofe. After refting a while, we re- 
cmbarked and continued on our voyage, coafting 
the Eaft fhore of the ifland to the upper end ; here 
we landed again, on an extended projcding point, 
of clean fand and pebbles, where were to be feca 
pieces of coal (licking in the gravel and fand, to- 
gether vvith other fragments of the folfil king- 
dom, brought down by inundations and lodged 
there. We obfervcd a large kind of mufcle in the 
fand ; the fhell of an oval form, having horns or 
protuberances near half an inch in length and as 
thick as a crow quill, which I fuppofe lerve the 
purpole of grapnels to hold their ground againft 
the violence of the current. Here were great num- 
bers of wild fowl wading in the flioal water that 
covers the fandy points, to a vaft diHance from 
the Ihores : they were geefe, brant, gannet, and 
the great and beautiful whocping crane (grus al- 
ber). Embarked again, doubled the point of the 
illand and arrived at Point Coupe in the evening. 

We made our vifit to a French gentleman, an 
ancient man and wealthy planter, who, according 
to the hiftory he favoured us with of his own life 
and adventures, muft have been very aged j his 
hair was of a filky white, yet his complexion was 
florid and conftitucion athletic. He faid that foon 
after he came to America, with many families of 
his countrymen, they alcended the river to the 
Cliffs of the Natches, where they fat down, being 
entertained by the natives -, and under cover of a 
ftrong fortrefs and ganifon, eftabliflied a fettle- 
ment, and by cultivating the land and forming 



plantations, in league and friendfhip with the In- 
dians, in a few years they became a populous, 
rich and growing colony; when through the im- 
prudent and tyrannical conduft of the command- 
ant towards the Natches, the ancients of the 
country, a very powerful and civilized nation of 
red men, who were fovcreigns of the foil, and 
pofiefied the country round about them, they be- 
came tired of thefe comers, and exafperated at 
their cruelty and licentioufnefs, at length deter- 
mining to revenge themfelves of fuch inhumanity 
and ingratitude, fccretly confpired their deftruc- 
tion ; and their meafures were fo well concerted 
with other Indian tribes, that if it had not been 
for the treachery of one of their princelTes, with 
■whom the commander v/as in favour (for by her 
influence her nation attempted the deftrudtion of 
the fettlement, before their auxiliaries joined them, 
which afforded an opportunity for fome few of 
the fettlers to efcape), they would have fully ac- 
complilhed their purpofe. However the fettle- 
ment was entirely broken up, moft of the inhabi- 
tants being flaughtered in one night, and the few 
who efcaped betook themJelves to their canoes, 
defcending the river until they arrived at this 
place, whf re they eftablifhed themfelves again ; 
and this gentleman had only time and opportu- 
nity to take into his boat one heifer calf, which he 
aiTured us was the mother of the numerous herds 
he now polTefTes, confiding of many hundred head. 
Here is now a very relpedable village, defended 
by a ftrong fortrefs and gaa-ifon of Spaniards, 
the commander beinn; o;overnor of the diflricfb. 

The French here are able, ingenious and in- 
duftrious planters : they live eafy and plentifully, 
and are far more regular and commendable in tiie 



tnjoymcnt of their earnings than their ncighbinirs 
the Englifli: their drefs of their own manufac- 
tures, well wrought and neatly made up, yet not 
extravagant or foppifh ; manners and converfa- 
tion eafy, moral and entertaining. 

Next morning we fat off again on our return 
home, and called by the way at the Cliffs, which 
is a perpendicular bank or bluff, rifing up out of* 
the river near one hundred feet above the prefcnc 
Surface of the water, whofc active current fvvceps 
along by it. From eight or nine feet below the 
loamy vegetative mould at top, to within four or 
five feet of the water, thefe cliffs prefent to view 
ftrata of clay, marie and chalk, of all colours, as 
brown, red, yellow, white, blue and purple ; there 
are feparate ilrata of thefe various colours, as well 
as mixed or particoloured : the loweft flratum 
next the water is exaftly of the fmie black mud 
or rich foil as the adjacent low Cyprefs fwamps, 
above and below the bluff; and here in the cliffs 
wc fee vaft of Cyprefs and other trees, 
which at this day grow in thefe lov;, wet fwamps, 
and which range on a level with them. Thefe 
ftumps are found, ftand upright, and feem to be 
rotted off about two or three feet above the fpread 
of their roots i their trunks, limbs. Sec. lie in all 
directions^ about them. But when thefe fwampy 
forefts were growing, and by what caufe they 
were cut off and overwhelmed by the various 
ftrata of earth, v/hich now rife near one hundred 
feet above, at the brink of the cliffs, and two or 
three times that height but a few hundred ycrcls 
back, are enquiries perhaps not eafily anfwered. 
The fwelling heights rifing gradually over and 
beyond this precipice are now adorned Witii high 
forefls of ftatcly Magnolia, Liquidambar, Fagus, 
t F f - Quercus 


Quercus, Lairrus, Morus, Jnglans, Tilia, Ha- 
iefia, iEfcLilus, Callicarpa, L iriodenciron, &c» 
Arrived in the evening at the plantation below 
the Cliffs, and the next day got fafe back to my 
friend's habitation. 

Obferved few vegetable produdions different 
from what grow in Carolina and Georgia j per- 
haps in the fpring and early fumnner feafon, here 
may be Tome new plants, particularly in the high 
forefts and ridges, at fome diftance from die ri- 
ver : there is however growing in the rich high 
lands, near on the banks cf the river, which I ob- ' 
fcrved in the fettlement of Baton Rouge, an ar- 
borefcent aromatic vine, which mounts to the tops 
of the higheft trees, by twilling or writhing fpi- 
rally round them ; fome of thcfe vines are as 
thick as a man's leg, of a fofc fpungy texture, 
and flexible, covered with a Cinnamon coloured 
bark, v/hich is highly aromatic or fpicy. The 
large oblong leaves fit oppofite on the branches, 
ajid are of a full deep green colour j but its fea- 
fon of flowering being pafl:, and the feed fcatter- 
ed, I am entirely ignorant to v/hat genus it be- 
longs ; perhaps it is a non-defcript or new genus- 
Here is likewife a new and beautiful ipecies of 
V'erbena, v/ith decumbent branches and lacerat- 
ed deep green leaves ; the branches terminate 
with corymbi of violet blue flowers : this pretty 
plant grows in old fields where there is a good 

The fevere diforder in my eyes fubvcrtcd the 
plan of my peregrinations, and contrafted tli^: 
fpan of my pilgrimage South-Wefl:ward. This 
dilappointment afi'efted me very fenfibly, but re- 
iignacion and reafon refuming their empire o\'cr 


my mind, I fubmitted, and determined to return 
to Carolina. 

Receiving information that the company's 
fchooner was ready to fail for Mobile, I embarked 
on board a trading boat for Manchac, where ar- 
riving in the evening, I took leave next morning 
of MefTrs. Swanfon and Co. and fet off for the 
forks of the Amite, and next day fat fail, de- 
fcending the tardy current of the Aaiite. Ob- 
ferving two bears croffing the river a-head, 
though our pieces were ready charged, and the 
yawl along fide to receive us, we purfucd them in 
vain, they fwam fwifdy acrofs, and efcaped in 
the forefts on the ifland of Orleans. The brerze 
dying away at evening, we came to anchor, and 
had variety of amufements at fiftiins; and fowlin":- 

Next day, November i^di, 1777, with a flcady 
leading breeze, entered and failed over the lake 
Maurepas, and through the ftreights into the 
Pontchartrain, and continued under fail ; but at 
midnight, by keeping too near the Weft fiiore, 
we ran aground en a fand-bar, where we lay 
beating the hard fandy bottom until morning, 
and our yawl parting from us in the night, which 
we never recovered, we were left to the mercy of 
the winds and floods j but before noon the wind 
coming brifkly from North-Eaft, driving the fea 
into the lake, we got off, made fail again, and 
before night paffed through the Reguliets, en- 
tering the ocean through the bay of Pearls, fail-' 
ing through the found betwixt Cat ifl md and the 
ftrand of the continent j paffing by the beautifjl 
bay St. Louis, into which defcend many delight- 
ful rivers, which flow from the lower or maritime 
fettlements of the Chadaws or Fiatheads. Con- 
tinuing through the found betv/een the oyfteir 

F f 2 banks 


banks and ihoals of Ship and Horn iflands, and 
the high and bold coaft of Biloxi on the main, 
got through the narrow pafs Aux Chriftians, and 
foon came up abreafl: of Ille Dauphin, betwixt 
whofe Hioals and the Weft Cape of Mobile Bay 
we got aground on fonne funken oyfter banks ; 
but next day a brilk Southerly wind raifcd the 
fea on the coaft, which lifted us off again, and 
fetting fail, we ftiot through the Pafs au Oleron, 
•cind entering the bay, by night came to anchor 
fafe again at the city of Mobile. 

After having made up my colle6lions of grow- 
ing roots, feeds and curious fpecimens, left them 
to the care of MelTrs. Swanfon and M'Gillavry, 
to be forwarded to Dr. Fothergill of London. I 
prepared to fet off again to Augufta in Georgia, 
through the Creek Nation, the only prafticabie 
Vv'ay of returning by land, being fruftrated of 
purfuing my intended rout which I had meditat- 
ed, throuofli the territories of the Siminoles or 
Lower Creeks, they being a treacherous people, 
Ivinp- fo far from the eve and controul of the na- 
tion with whom they are confederate, that there 
had lately been depredations and murders com- 
mitted by them at the bay of Apalache, on fome 
famiTies of white people who v/ere migraiing from 
■ ' Georgia, 'with an intention of fetding on the 
Mobile. Having to pals the diftance of near 
two hundred miles to the firft town of the na- 
tion, through a f^litary, uninhabited wildernef;, 
'the bloody field of Schambe, where thofe con- 
rending bands of American bravos. Creeks and 
Cha<51:a\vs, often meet in dire conflift ; for the 
better con%'enience and fecurixy, I joined com- 
pany vAch a carav.m of traders^ now about fee- 
ting off for the Nation. 



Obferved growing in a garden in Mobile, two 
large trees of the Juglans pecan, and the Diol- 
corea bulbifera : this laft curious phint bears a 
large kidney fliaped root, one, two or three at 
the bofom of the leaves, feveral feet from the 
ground, as they cHmb up poles or fupports fcc by 
their roots j thefe roots when boiled or roafted 
are efteemed a pleafant wholefome food, and tafte 
like the ordinary Yam. 

Ff3 CHAP. 



November ijth, 1777, fat ofF from Mobikj 
in a large boat with the prinGipal trader of the 
company, and at evening arrived at Taenfa, where 
were the pack-horfemen with the merchandize;, 
and next morning as foon as we had our horfes 
in readinefs, I took my laft leave of Major Far- 
mer, and left Taenfa. Our caravan confided of 
between twenty and thirty horfes, fixteen of 
v/hich were loaded, two pack-horfemien, and my- 

lelf, under the diie6tion of Mr. Tap y the 

chief trader. One of our young men was a 
Muftee Creek, his mother being a Cha6law (lave, 
and his father a half breed, betwixt a Creek and 
a v/hite man. I loaded one horfe with my effedls, 
fome preftnts to the Indians, to enable me to pur- 
chafe a frefh horfe, in cafe of necelTity ; for my 
old trufty flave, which had ferved me faithfully al- 
moft three years, having carried me on his back at 
lead fix thouiiind miles, was by this time almoft 
worn out, and 1 expeded every hour he v/ould give 
up, efpecially after I found the manner of thefe 
traders' traveUing. They feldom decamp until the 
fun is high and hot -, each one having a whip 
made of the toughed cow-fkin, they llart all at 
once, the horfes having ranged themfelves in re- 
gular Indian file, the veteran in the van, and the 
younger ir^^/the rear; then the chief drives with 
the crack ''bf his whip, and a whoop or fliriek, 
which rings tlirough the forefts and plains, fpeaks 
in Indian, commanding them to proceed, which 
IS repeated by all the company, when we ftart 
■It once, keeping up a brilk and conftant trot, 



wliick is incefiantly urged and continued as long 
a^ the mlfcrable creatures are able to move for- 
ward ; and then come to camp, though fre- 
quendy in the middle of the afternoon, which is 
the pleafanteft time of the day for travelling : 
and every horfe has a bell on, which being flopped 
when we ftart in the morning witii a twift of 
grafs or leaves, foon fliakcs out, and they are 
never flopped again during the day. The con- 
ftant ringing and clattering of the bells, fmack- 
ing of the whips, whooping and too frequent 
curfing thefc milerable quadrupeds, caufe an in- 
ceflant uproar and confufion, inexprcflibly difa- 

After three days travelling in this mad man- 
ner, my old fervant was on the point of giving 
out, and I'everal of the company's horfcs were 
tired, but were relieved of their burthens by the 
led horfcs which attended for that purpofe. I 
was now driven to difagreeable extremities, and 
had no other alternative, but either to leave my 
horfe in the woods, pay a very extravagant hire 
for a doubtful palfage to the Nation, or feparatc 
myfelf from my companions, and wait tiie reco- 
very of my horfe alone : the chief gave me no 
other comfortable advice in this dilemma, than 
that there was a company of traders on the road 
a-head of us from the Nation, to Mobile, who 
had a large gang of led horfes with them for fale, 
v^hen they Siould arrive ; and expecled, from the 
advice which he had received at Mobile before 
we fet off from thence, tliat this company muR 
be very near to us, and probably would be up 
to-morrow, or at leafl in two or three days : and 
this man condcfcended fo far as to moderate a 
Tittle his mode of travelling, that I might have a 

F f 4 - chance 


chance of keeping up with them until the even- 
ing of next day j hefides I had the comfort of 
obferving that the traders and pack-horfemen 
carried themfelves towards me with evident figns 
of huinanitv and friendfhip, often exprefling fen- 
timcnts of fympathy, and faying I mull not be lefc 
alone to periili in the wildernefs. 

Although my apprehenfions on this occafion 
were fomewhat tumultuous, fince there Vv^as httle 
hope, on the principle of reafon, fhould I be left 
alone, of efcaping cruel captivity, and perhaps 
being murdered by the Chafbav/s (for the com- 
pany of traders was my only fecurity, as the 
Indians never attack the traders on the road, 
though they be trading with nations at enmiity 
with them) yet 1 had fecret hopes of relief and 
deliverance, that cheered me, and infpired con- 
fidence and peace of mind. 

Now I am come within the atmofphere of the 
Illicium groves, how reanimating is the fra- 
grance ! every part of this plant above ground 
polTcffes an aromatic fcent, but the large itillated 
pericarpe is the moft fragrant part of It, M'hich 
continually pcrfpires an oleagenous fweat, as 
warm and vivific as cloves or mace. I never faw 
it grow naturally further North than Lat. 33% 
on the Mobile river and its branches, and bur 
one place in Eaft Florida near Lake George, 
Lat. 28". 

About the middle of the afternoon, we were 
joyfully fiirprifed at the diftant profpeft of the 
trading company corning up, and we foon met, 
fainting eacii other feveral times with a general 
Indian whoop, or fhout of friendfliip; then each 
company came to camp within a few paces of 



each other; and before night I ftruck up a bai- 
gain with them for a handlbmc ftrong young 
horfe, which coft me about ten pounds flcrling. 
I was nov/ conftiained to leave my old flave be- 
hind, to feed in rich cane paftures, where he was 
to remain and reciuit until the return of his new 
mafter from Mobile; from whom I extorted a 
promife to ufe him gently, and if pcdiblc, not to 
make a pack-horfc of him. 

Next morning we decamped, proceeding again 
on my travels, now alert and clicerf il. Croficd a 
briflv riviikt rippling over a gravelly bed, and 
winding through aromatic groves of the Illicium 
Floridanum, then gently defcended to the high 
forefts, leaving Deadman's creek, for at this 
creek a white man was found dead, fupoofed to 
have been murdered, from which circumftancc 
it has its name. 

A few days before we arrived at the Nation, 
we met a company of emigrants from Georgia; 
a man, his wife, a young woman, feveral young 
children, and three ftout young men, witii about 
a dozen horfes loaded with their property. They 
informed us their defign was to fetde on the 
Alabama, a few miles above the confluence of 
the Tombigbe. 

Being now near the Nation, die chief trader 
with another of our company fat off a-head for 
his town, to give notice to the Nation, as he faid, 
of his approach with the merchandize, each of 
tliem taking the beft horfe they could pick out 
of the gang, leaving the goods to the conduft 
and care of the young Multce and myfelf. Early 
in the evening we came to the banks of a largtt 
deep creek, a confiderable branch of the Ala- 
bama : 


bama: the waters ran furioufly, being over- 
charged with the floods of rain which had fallen 
the day before. We difcovered immediately that 
there was no poffibility of crofling it by fording ; 
its depth and rapidity would have iwept our 
horfes, loads and all, inftantly from our fight : 
my companion, after conHderation, faid we mufl 
make a raft to ferry over our goods, which we 
immediately fet about, after unloading our horfes 
and turning them out to range. I undertook to 
coUeft dry canes, and my companio'n, dry timber 
or logs and vines to bind them together : having 
gathered the neceffary materials, and laid them 
in order on the brinks of the river, ready to work 
upon, we betook ourfelves to repofe, and early 
next mornino; fat about building our raft. This 
was a novel fcene to me, and I could not, until 
finifhed and put to praftice, v/ell comprehend 
how it cculd poffibly anfwer the efFe<5l defired. 
In the firil place we laid, parallel to each other, 
dry, found trunks of trees, about nine feet in 
length, and eight or nine inches diameter 3 which 
binding fail together with grape vines and withs, 
until we had formxed this iirfc floor, about twelve 
or fourteen fQtt in length, v.^e then bound the 
dry canes in bundles, each near as thick as a 
man's body, with which we formed the upper 
itratum, laying them clofe by the fide of each 
ether, and binding them fail: afcer this manner 
our raf: was conilrufled. Then having two 
flrong grape vines, each long enough to crofs 
the river, v/e faftened one to each end of the 
raft, whicli now being completed, and loadinj^ 
on as much as it v/ould fafely carry, the Indian 
took the end of one of the vines in his mouth, 
plunged into the river and fwam over with it, and 
the vine fixed to the other end was ccmmitted to 



my charge, to fteady the raft and haul it back 
again after being unloaded. As loon as he hid 
fafe landed and hauled taught his vine, I pulhed 
off the raft, vvliich he drew over as quick as pof- 
fible, I fteadyiiig it with my vine : in this man- 
ner, though with inexprelTible danger of lofing 
our efFe6ls, we ferried all (dfe over. The lalt 
load, with otner artic'es, contained my property, 
"ivith all my clothes, which 1 ftripped off", ex- 
cept my breeches, for they contained matters of 
more value and confequence than all t!ie reft 
of my property put together ; befiJes I did not 
choofe to expofe myfelf entirely naked to the 
alligators and ferpents in crofTing the flood. Now- 
feeing ail the goods {iife over, and the horfes at a 
landing place on the banks of the river about 
fifty yards above, I drove them all in together, 
when, feeing them fafe landed, I plunged in 
after them, and being a tolerable fwimmrr, foon 
reached the nppofite fhore. But my difficukies 
^t this place were not yet at an end, for our 
horfes all landed juft below the mouth of a con- 
fiderable branch of this river, of fifteen or twenty 
feet width, and its perpendicular banks almoft 
as many feet in height above its fwift waters, 
over which we were obliged to carry every article 
of our effects, and this by no other bridge than 
a fapling felled acrofs it, which is called a rac- 
coon bridge ; and over this my Indian friend 
would trip as quick and Tight as that quadruped, 
with one hundred weight of leather on his back, 
when I was fcarcely able to fhuffie myfelf along 
over it aftride. At laft having re- packed and fit 
off again, without any material occurrence inter- 
vening, in the evening we arrived at the banks 
of the great Tallapoofe river, and came to camp 
under fhelter of fome Indian cabins, in expanfive 

I fields. 


fields, clofe to the river bank, oppofite the town 
of Savannuca. Late in the evening a young 
white man, in great hafte and ieeming confu- 
lion, joined our camp, who immediately related, 
that being on his journey from Penfacola, it 
happened that the very night after we had pafTed 
the company of emigrants, he met them and 
joined their camp, in the evening ; when, juft at 
dark, the Chaftaws furrounded them, plundered 
their camp, and carried all the people off cap- 
tive, except himfelf, he having the good fortune to 
eltrape with his horfe, though clofely purfued. 

Next morning very early, though very cold, 
and the lurface of the earth as hoary as if cover- 
ed with a fall of fnow, the trader iianding on the 
oppofite fliore entirely naked, except a breech- 
clout, and encircled ,by a company of red men in 
the like habit, hailed us, and prefcntly, with 
canoes, brought us all over with the merchan- 
dize, and conduced us fafe to the town of 
Mucclafie, a mile or two diftant. 

The next day was a day of reft and audience : 
the following was devoted to feafting, and the 
evening concluded in celebrating the nuptials of 
the young Muftee with a Creek girl of Muc- 
claffe, daughter of the chief and fifter to our 
trader's wife. The trader's houfe and ftores 
formed a complete fquare, after the mode of the 
habitations of the Mufcogulges, that is, four 
oblong buildings of equal dimenfions, two op- 
pofite to each other, encompafling an area of 
about a quarter of an acre ; on one fide of this 
a fence enciofed a yard of near an acre of ground, 
at one of the farther corners of which a booth or 
pavilion was formed of green boughs, having 
two Laurel trees, planted in front (Magnolia 



grandiflora). This was the fccret nuptial cham- 
ber. Dancing, mufic and fealling continued tlic 
forepart of the night, and towards morning the 
happy couple privately withdrew, and continued 
alone all the next day, no one prefuming to ap- 
proach the facred, myfterious thalame. 

The trader obliged me with his company on a 
vifit to the Alabama, an Indian town at the con- 
fluence of the two fine rivers, the Tallapoofe and 
Coofau, which here refign their names to the 
great Alabama, where are to be feen traces of 
the ancient French fortreis, Thouloufe ; here are 
yet lying, half buried in the earth, a few pieces 
of ordnance, four and fix pounders. I obfcrved, 
in a very thriving condition, two or three very 
large apple trees, planted here by the French. 
This is, perhaps, one of the moft eligible fitu- 
ations for a city in the world ; a level plain be- 
tween the conPiUX of two majeftic rivers, which 
are exa6]:ly of equal magnitude in appearance, 
each navigable for veflels and perriauguas at 
lead five hundred miles above it, and fpreading 
their numerous branches over the moil fertile 
and delightful region?, many hundred m.iles be- 
fore we reach their fources in the Apalachean 

Stayed all night at Alabam.a, where we had a 
grand entertainm.ent at the public fquarc, with 
mufic and dancing, and returned next day to 
MucclafTe ; where being informed of a company 
of traders about fettin^ off" from Tuckabatche for 
Augufta, I made a vifit to that town to know the 
trutn of it, but on my arrival there they were 
gone ; but being informed of another caravan 
who were to ftart from the OttaflTe town in two 



or three weeks time, I returned to Mucclafle iti 
order to prepare for my departure. 

On my anival I was not a little fu-prifed at a 
tragical revolution in the family of my friend the 
trader, hi^ fcores HiUt up, and guarded by a party 
of Indians: in a few minutes however, the whole 
affair v/as related to me. It appeared that this 
fon of Ad nis, had been detefted in an amorous 
intrigue, wiih the wife of a young chief, the day 
after his ai rival: the chief was out on a hunt, 
but arrived next day; and upon information of 
the affair, the fa6l being confirmed, he with his 
friends and kindred refolved to exaft legal fatis- 
£i6tion, which in this cafe is cutting off both ears 
of the delinquent, clofe to the head, which is 
called cropping. This being determined upon, 
he took the mofl: fecret and effectual methods to 
effect his purpofe. About a dozen young Indian 
fellows conduced by their chief (the injured 
huiband), having provided and armed them- 
felves with knotty cudgels of green Hiccory, 
•which they concealed under their mandes, in the 
duflc of the evening paid a pretended friendly 
vifit to the trader at his own houfe, when the 
chief feigning a private matter of bufinefs, took 
him afide in the yard ; then whifliing through 
his fingers (the fignal preconcerted) he was in- 
ftantly furrounded, knocked down, and then 
faipped to his Ikin, and beaten with their knotty 
bludgeons ; however he had the fubtilty to feign 
himfeif fpeechlcfs before they really killed him^ 
which he fuppofed was their intention : when he 
had now lain for dead, the executioner drew out 
his knife with an intention of taking off his ears : 
this fmall rcfpite gave him time to refled a little ; 



when he inftantly fprang up, ran ofF, leaped the 
fence, and had the good fortune to get into a 
dark fwamp, overgrown with vines and thickets, 
where he miraculoufly ekided the carncft re- 
fearches of his enemies, and finally made a fafe 
retreat to the houfe of his father-in-law, the chief 
of the town, throwing himfelf under his pro- 
teftion, who gave his word that he wculd do 
him all the favour that lay in his power. This 
account 1 had from his own mouth, for hearing 
of my return, the next morning after my arrival, 
he fent a trufty meflenger, by whom I found 
means of accefs to him. Fie firther informed 
me, that there had been a council of the chiefs 
of the town convened, to deliberate on the affair, 
and their final determination was that he muft 
lofe his ears, or forfeit all his goods, wliich 
amounted to upwards of one thoufand pounds 
fterling, and even that forfeiture would not fave 
his ears, unlefs Mr, Golphin interpofed in his 
behalf i and after all, the injured Indian declares 
that he will have his life. He entreated me with 
tears to make what fpeed I could to Silver Blufl^ 
to reprefent his dangerous fituation to Mr. Gol- 
phi-n, and folicit that gentleman's moft fpeedy 
and cfFeftual interference i which I afTured him 
I wo4ild undertake. 

Now having all things prepared for my depar- 
ture, early in the morning, after taking leave of 
my diftreffed friend the trader of MuccIafTe, I 
fat off, pafTed through continued plantations 
and Indian tov/ns on my way up the Tallapoofe 
river, being every where treated by the inhabi- 
tants with marks of friendiliip, even as though I 
had been their countryman and relation. Called 
by tlie way at the beautiful town of Coolome, 



where I tarried fome time with Mr. German/ 
the chief trader of the tov/n, an elderly gentle- 
man, but active, cheerful and very agreeable, 
who received and treated me with the utmoft 
civility and friendfhip : his wife is a Creek wo- 
man, of a very amiable and worthy charafter and 
difpofition, induftrious, prudent and affeftionate; 
and by her he had feveral children, v.'hcm he is 
defirous to fend to Savanna or Charlefton, for 
their education, but cannot prevail on his wife 
to confent to it ; this affair affefts him very fen- 
fibly, for he has accumulated a pretty fortune by 
his induftry and commendable condudt. 

Leaving Coolome, I re-crofftd the river at 
Tuccabache, an ancient and large town ; thence 
continued up tlie river, and at evening arrived 
at Attaffe, where I continued near a week, wait- 
ing the preparations of the traders, with whom I 
Vvas to join in company to Augufta. 

The next day' after m^y arrival, I was introduced 
to the ancient chiefs, at the public fquare or 
jireopagus ; and in the evening, in company 
with the traders, who are numerous in this town, 
repaired to the great rotunda, where were aflem- 
bled the greateft number of ancient venerable 
chiefs and \\an-iors that I had ever beheld: we 
fpent the evening and great part of the night 
together, in drinking Calfine and fmoking To- 
bacco. The great council houfe or rotunda, 
is appropriated to much the fiime purpofe as the 
public fquare, but more private, and feems par- 
ticularly dedicated to political affairs ; women 
and youth are never admitted j and I fuppofe, 
in is death for a female to prefume to enter the 
door, or apj-roach v.ithin its p le. It is a vafl 
conical building or circular dome, capable of 



accommodating many hundred people; conftriKfted 
and furniflicd within, exasftly in the lame manivjr as 
thole of the Cheroliees ah-eady delcribed, but much 
larger than any I had feen of them : there arc peo- 
ple appointed to take care of it, to have it daily 
fwept clean, and to provide canes for fuel, or to 
o-ive liffht. 

As their vigils and manner of condu61:ing their 
vefpers and myiticai fire in this rotunda, are ex- 
tremely fmgular, and altogether different from 
the cuftoms and ufages of any other people, I 
fhall proceed to dcfcribe them. In the Hrit place, 
the governor or officer who has the manage m,ent 
of this bufinefs, with his fervants attending, or- 
ders the black drink to be brewed, which is a 
decoftion or infufion of the leaves and tender 
flioots of the CafTine : this is done under an open 
flied or pavilion, at twenty or thirty 3'ards dif- 
tance, direftly oppofite the door of the council- 
houfe. Next he orders bundles of dry canes to 
be brought in : thefe are previoufly fpllt and 
broken in pieces to about the length of two feet, 
and then placed obliquely crr.'flways upon one 
another on the floor, forming a fpiral circle 
round about the great centre pillar, rifing to a 
foot or eighteen inches in height from the ground; 
and this circle Iprcading as it proceeds round 
and round, often repeated from right to left, 
every revolution encreafes its diameter, and at 
length extends to the ditlance of ten or twelve 
feet from the centre, more or Icfs, according to 
the lensth of time the allemblv or meeting is to 
continue. By the time thele preparations are 
accomplifhed, it is night, and the afrcmbly shave 
taken their feats in order. I'he exterior extre- 
mity or outer end ot the fplrai circle takes fire 

G n - and 

45'^' TRAVELS m 

and immediately rifes into a bright flame (but 
how this is effefted I did not plainly apprehend j 
I faw no perfon fet fire to it; there might have 
been fire left on the earth, however I neither faw 
nor fmelt fire or fmoke until the blaze inftantly 
afcended upwards), which gradually and flowly 
creeps round the centre pillar, v/ith the courfe of 
the lun, feeding on the dry canes, and affords a 
cheerful, gentle and fufHcient light until the circle 
is confumed, when the council breaks up. Soon 
after this illumination takes place, the aged chiefs 
and warriors are feated on their cabins or fophas, 
on the fide of the houfe oppofite the door, in three 
clalTes or ranks, rifing a little, one above or behind 
the other ; and the white people and red people of 
confederate rowns in the like order on the left 
hand ; a tranfverfe range of pillars, fup porting a 
thin clay wall about breafl high, feparating them : 
the king's cabin or feat is in front ; the next to the 
back of it the head warrior's ; and the third or laft 
accommodates the young v/arriors, &c. The 
great war chiefs feat or place is on the fame cabin 
with, and immediately to the left hand of the king, 
and next to the white people ; and to the right 
hand of the mico or king the moll venerable 
head-men and warriors are feated. The aifembly 
being now feated in order, and the houfe illu- 
minated, two middle aged men, who perform the 
office of iiL-ves or fervants, pro tempore, come m 
together at the door, each having very large 
conch fliclls full of black drink, and advance 
with flow, uniform and fteady fleps, their eyes 
or countenances lifted up, iinging very low but 
Iweetly ; they come within fix or eight paces of 
the king's and white people's cabins, when they 
{top together,, and each reils his fhell on a tripos 


or little table, but prefently takes it up n^ain, 
and, bowing very low^ advances obfequioully, 
croffing or interfedling each other about mid- 
way: he who relied his fhell before the white 
people now {lands before the king, and the other 
who (lopped before the king ftands before the 
white people j when each prefents his fhell, one 
to the king and the ocher to the chief of the 
white people, and as foon as he raifcs it to his 
mouth, the (lave utters or fings two notes, each 
of which continues as long as he Jias breadi j 
and as long as thefe notes continue, fo long muft 
the perfon drink, or at leaft keep the fliell to his 
mouth. Thefe two long notes are very flcnnn, 
and at once ftrike the imagination with a religious 
av/e or hom .ge to the Supreme, founding fome- 
what like a-hoo — oj.ih and a-lu — yah. Afcer this 
manner the whole aifembiy ai e treated, as long as 
the drink and light continue to hold out; and as 
foon as the drinking begins, tobacco and pipes are 
brought. The fkin of a wild cat or young tyger 
fluffed with tobacco is brought, and laid at the 
king's feet, with the great or royal pipe beautifully 
adorned ; the fl<.in is ufually of the animals of the 
king's family or tribe, as the wild car, otter, bear, 
rattle-fnake, &c. A fkin of tobacco is like wife 
brought and cafl at the feet of the white chiet of 
the town, and from him it pafles from one to ano- 
ther to fill their pipes from, though each perfcn has 
befides his own peculiar fkin of tobacco. 1 he 
king or chief fmokes firft in the great pipe a few 
whiffs, blowing it oft' ceremonioufly, firft towards 
the fun, or as it is generally fuppofed to the GiCac 
Spirit, for it is puffed upwards, next towards the 
four cardinal points, then towards the white people 
in the houfe ; then the great pipe is taken from the 


hand of the mico by a flave, and prefented to the 
chief white man, and then to the great war chief, 
whence it circulates through the rank of head men 
and warriors, then returns to the king. After this 
each one fills his pipe from his own or his neigh- 
bour's ficin. 

The great or public Iquare generally ftands 
alone, in tlie centre and higheft part of the town : 
it confifts of four-fquare or cubical buildings, or 
lioufes of one ftory, uniform, and of the fame 
dimenfions, fo fituated as to form an exa6l tetragon, 
enccmpafTing an area of half an acre of ground, 
more or lefs, according to the fcrength or largenefs 
of the town, or will of the inhabitants ; there is 
a paffage or avenue at each corner of equal width : 
each building is conftrutled of a wooden frame fixed 
ftrongly in the earth, the walls filled in and neatly 
plaiftered v^^ith clay mortar ; clofe on three fides, 
that is the back and two ends, except within about 
two feet of the wall plate or eves, which is left open 
for the purpofe of a window and to admit a free 
paffage of the air ; the front or fide next to the 
area is quite open like a piazza. One of thefe 
buildings is properly the council houfe, where the 
mico, chiefs, and v/arriors, with the citizens who 
have buhnefs, or choofe to repair thither, affembk 
every day in council, to hear, decide and red^tify 
all grievances, complaints and contentions, arif- 
ing betwixt the citizens; give audience to am- 
baffidors, and ftrangers; hear news and talks 
from confederate towns, allies or diftant nations ; 
confult J bout the particular affairs of the town, 
as ereding habitations for new citizens, or eftab- 
lifliing young families, concerning agriculture, 
&c. This building is fomewhat different from 



the Other three : it is clofely fliut up on three fi Ics, 
that is the back and two ends, and befides, a par- 
tition wall longitudinally from end to end divides 
it into two apartments, the back par! totally dark, 
only three fmall arched apertures or holes opening 
into it from the front apartment or piazzci, and 
little larger than jull: to admit a man to crawl in 
upon his hands and knees. This llcludcd place 
appears to me to be defigned as a fanftiiary * de- 
dicated to religion or rather pricft craft ; for here 
are depofited all the facred things, as the phyfic pot, 
rattles, chaplets of deer's hoofs and other apparatus 
of conjuration ; and likewife the calumet or great 
pipe of peace, the imperial ftandard, or eagle's tail, 
which is made of the feathers of the white eagle's 
tail -j- curioufly formed and difplayed like an open 
fan on a fceptre or flaff, as white and clean as 
poflible when difplayed for peace, but when for 
war, the feathers are painted or tinged witn Ver- 
million. The piazza or front of this building, 
is equally divided into three apartments, by two 
tranfverfe walls or partitions, about bread high, 
each having three orders or ranges of feats or ca- 
bins flepping one above and behind the otl^.er, 
which accommodate the fcnate and audience, in 
the like order as obferved in the rotunda. The 
other three buildings which compofe tlie fquire, 
are alike furniflied with three ranges of cabins or 
fophas, and fervc for a banqueting houfe, to 
fhelter and accommodate the audience and fpec- 
tators at all times, particularly at feafts or public 
entertainments, where all clalfes of citizens relort 

• Sanitoriura or facred temp!e ; ami it is faiil to be death for nny pfrf»u 
but the mico, w ar-cliicf and Ijij'i prieft to enter in, and none are adr.iiticd 
iut by peririilfioii of tlie jritlV, vUio ?.\irtrd it day r.iid ni^ht. 

-|- Vultur facra. 

G g 3 day 


day and night in the fummer or moderate fcafon ; 
the children and females hov/ever are feldom or 
never feen in me public fquare. 

The pillars and walls of the houfes of the fquare 
are decorated with various paintings and fculptures ; 
which I fuppofe to be hieroglyphic, and as an 
hiftorjc legendary of political and facerdotal affairs: 
but I hey are extremely pi£turefque or caricature, 
as men in variety of attitudes, fome ludicrous 
enough, others having the head of fome kind of 
animal, as thofe of a duck, turkey, bear, fox, wolf, 
buck, &c. and again thofe kind of creatures are 
reprefented having the human head. Thefe de- 
figns are not ill executed ; the outlines bold, free, 
and vv^ell proportioned. The pillars fupporting the 
front or piazza of the council- houfe of the fquare, 
are ingenioufly formed in the likenefs of vafb 
fpeckled ferpents afcending upwards j the OttafTes 
being of the fnake family or tribe. At this time 
the town was falling, taking medicine, and I think 
I may fny praying, to avert a grievous calamity 
of ficknefs, which had lately afflicted them, and 
laid in the grave abundance of their citizens. Thty 
fail ft::vcn or eight days, during Vv^hich time they 
cat or drink nothing but a meagre gruel, made of 
a little corn-fiour and water; taking at the fame 
time by way of medicine or phyfic, a llrong de- 
co6tion of tiic roots of the Iris verficolor, which 
is a powerful cathartic : they hold this root in 
high cuiniation, every town cultivates a little plan- 
tation of it, having a large ardhcial pond, juil 
■without the town, planted and almofl overgrown 
with it, where they ufually dig clay for pottery, 
and mortar and plafter for their buildings, and I 
obferved vyjierc they had lately been digging up 
this roof. 



In the midft of a large oblong fquare adjoin- 
ing this town, (which was fuiTounded with a low 
bank or terrace) is fl;anding a high pillar, round 
like a pin or needle ; it is about forty feet in height, 
and between two and three feet in diameter at the 
earth, gradually tapering upwards to a point ; it is 
one piece of pine wood, and arifes from the centre 
of a low, circular, artificial hi!l, but it leans a little 
to one fide. I inquired of the Indians and traders 
what it was defigned for, who anfv/ered they knew 
not: the Indians laid that their anceflors f)und it 
in the fame fituation, when they firft arrived and 
pofieiTed the councrv, adding, that the red men or 
Indians, then the pofleirors, whum they vanqnifhed, 
were as ignorant as themfclves concerning it, faying 
that their anceftors like wife found it ftanding fo. 
This monument, fimple as it is, may be worthy 
the obfervations of a traveller, fince it naturally 
excites at lead the following queries : for what 
purpofe was it defigned ? its great antiquity and 
incorruptibility — what method or machines they 
employed to bring it to the fpot, and how they 
raifed it ereft ? There is no tree or fpecies of the 
pine, whofe wood, i. e. fo large a portion of the 
trunk, is fuppofed to be incorrupnble, expofed in 
the open air to all weathers, but the long-leaved 
Pine (Pin. paluftris), and there is none growing 
within twelve of fifteen miles of tins place, that 
tree being naturally produced only on the»high, 
dry, barren ridges, where there is a fandy ll)il and 
gralTy wet fivannas. A great numbtr of men unit- 
ing their ftrength, probably carried it to the place 
on handfpikes, or fome fuch contrivance. 

On the Sabbath day before I fet off from this 
piace^ I could not help obferving die folemnity 

G g 4 of 


of the town, the filence and the retlrednefs of the 
red inhabitants J bat a very few of them were to be 
feen, the doors of their dwelhngs fhut, and if a child 
chanced to flray out, it was quickly drawn in doors 
again. I afked the meaning of this, and was im- 
mediately anfwered, that it being the white people's 
beloved day or Sabbath, the Indians kept it reli- 
gioully facred to the Great Spirit. 

Lafl: night was clear and cold, wind North 
Weft, and this morning, January 2d, 1788, the 
face of the earth was perfe6tly white with a 
beautiful fparkling frofl. Sat off for Augufta 
with a company of traders, four men with about 
thirty horfes, twenty of which were loaded with 
leather and furs, each pack or load fuppofed to 
weigh one hundred and fifty pounds upon an 
average. In three days we arrived at the Apa- 
lachucla or Chata Uche river ; croffed at the point 
tov/ns Chehaw and UfTeta: thefe towns almoft 
join -each other, yet fpeak two languages, as ra- 
dically different perhaps as the Mufcogulge's and 
Chinefe. After leaving the river we met with 
nothing material, or worth particular obferva- 
tion, until our arrival at Oakmulge, towards even- 
ing, where v/e encamped in expanfive ancient 
Indian fields, in view of the fioaming flood of tlie 
river, now raging over its banks. ^ Here were two 
corr^anies of traders from Auguila, bound to the 
Natiorji, confifiiing of fifteen or twenty men, with 
feventy or eighty horfes, moft of which had their 
loads of merchandize : they croffed the river this 
mornirg and loft- fix horfes in the attempt; they 
were drowned, beino- entano;led in the vines un- 
der water at landing. But the river now failing 
again, we were in hopes that by next morning 



the waters would be again confined wich'm the 
banks. We imnnediatciy fat aboiK rigging our 
portable leather boat, about eight feet long, 
vv'hich was of thick foal leather, folded up and 
carried on the top of a pack of deer flvins. The 
people loon got her rigged, which was effected 
after the following manner. We, in the firft 
place, cut down a White-Oak fapling, and by 
notching this at each end, bent it up, which 
formed the keel, ftem and flern poft of one 
piece ; this was placed in the bottom of the boat, 
and pretty ftrong hoop- poles being fixed in the 
bottom acrofs the keel, turning up their ends, 
expanded the hull of the boat, which being faft- 
ened by thongs to two other poles bent round, 
the outfide of the rim formed the gunwhales : 
tiius in an hour's time our bark was rigged, to 
which afterwards we added two little oars or 
fculls. Our boat being now in readincfs, and our 
horfes turned out to pafture, each one retired to 
repofe, or to fuch exercife as moft efi'eclually 
contributed to divert the mind. I was at this 
time rather dejected, and fought comfort in re- 
tirement, turning my courfe to the expanfive 
fields, fragrant groves and fublime forefts. Re- 
turned to camp by dufl^, where I found my com- 
panions cheerful and thoughtlefs rather to an ex- 
treme. It was a calm ftill evening and warm ; 
the wood-cock (fcolopax) chirruping high up 
in the air, gently defcends by a fpiral circular 
tract, and alights on the humid plain : this bird 
appears in Pennfylvania early in the fpring, when 
the Elm and Maple begin to flower ; and here 
the fcarlet Maple, Elm and Elder began to l>.o\v 
their flowers; the yellow Jafmin was i'lfc ready 
to open its fragrant golden blolToms, and the gay 
Azalea alfo preparing to expand its beauties. 



The morning cool and r^leafant: after recon- 
noitering the ihores of :,ic rivers, and confulting 
with our brethren in diftrefs, who had not yet 
decarnpedj refolving to ftay and lend their afrift- 
ance in pafTing over this rapid gulph, we were 
encouraged to proceed ; and launching our bark 
into the raging flood, after many fucccfsful trips 
ferried over all the goods, then drove in our 
horfes altogether, and had the pleafure of feeing 
them all fafely landed on the oppofite fhore j and 
laftly I embarked with three of our people, and 
feveral packs of leather ; we then put off from 
fhore, bidding adieu to our generous friends left 
behind, who re-echoed our fhouts upon our fafe 
landing. We proceeded again, crolTed the Oconne 
in the fame manner, and v;ith the like fuccefs, 
and came to camp in the fertile fields, on the 
banks of that beautiful river ; and proceeding 
thence next day, in the evening came to camp on 
the waters of great Ogeche. The following day, 
afncr croffing feveral of its conliderable branches, 
came to camp j and next day crolled the main 
branch of that fam.ous river, which being wide 
and very rapid proved difficult and dangerous 
fording ; yet we crofTed without any lofs, but 
fome of our pack-horfes were badly bruifed, be- 
ing fwept off their feet and daflied againft the 
rocks, my horfe too being carried away with the 
current, and plunging off funken fhelving rocks 
into deep holes, I got very wet, -but I kept my 
feat and landed fafe : however I fuffered much, it 
being a cold freezing day. We came to camp 
early and raifing great fires with Pine knots and 
other wood, we dried ourfelves and kept warm 
durirg the long night, and after two days more 
hard travelling we arrived at Augufta. 



Being under a necefiity of making two or 
three days ftay here, in order to refit myfclf, for 
by this time my fcock of cloaths was entirely 
worn out, I took this opportunity of vifiting my 
friend doftor Wells, at his plantations near rhe 
city. And now being again new clothed, and fur- 
nilhed with a tolerable Indian ponev, 1 took leave 
of my hoil and prepared to depait fur Savanna. 

Soon after I left Augufla, proceeding for Sa- 
vanna, the capital, a gentleman overtook me on 
the road v,ho was a native of Ireland, and had 
lately arrived in this part of America with a view 
of fettling a plantation in Georgia, particularly for 
the culture of thofe very ufeful fruits and vege- 
tables that are cultivated up the Mediterranean, 
and which lo largely contribute towards fupport- 
ing that lucrative branch of commerce, the Le- 
vant trade j viz. Viris vinifera, for wine, Vitis 
Corinthiaca, for Currants, Vitis Allobrogica, for 
Raifins, OHves, Figs, Morus, for feeding filk- 
worms, Amygdalus communis, Piftachia, Cappa- 
ris. Citrus aurantium. Citrus limon. Citrus ver- 
rucofa, the great fv/eet fcentcd Citron, &:c. He 
was very ingenious, dcfirous of informatic^n, and 
as liberal and free of communicating liis ov.'n ac- 
quifitions and difcoveries in ufeful fcience, and 
confcquently a very agreeable companion. On 
our journey down we flopped a while to reft and 
refrelh ourfclves at the Great Springs, near the 
road, on our left hand, about midv^ay between 
Augufta and Savanna. This amazing fountain 
of tranfparent cool water, breaks fuddenly out of 
the earth, at the bafis of a moderate' y elevated 
hill or bank, forming at once a bafon nti-ar t\.cnty 
yards over, afcending through a horizontal bed 
of fofc rocks, cf a heterogeneous compofuiv^n, 



chiefly a teftaceous concretion of broken, eiidrc 
and piilverifed fea-fhells, fand, &c. conftituting 
a coarfe kind of lime-llone. The ebullition is 
copious, adllve and continual over the ragged 
apertures in the rocks, which lie feven or eight 
fctt below, fwelling the furface confiderably im- 
mediately above it. The waters defcend iwiftly 
from the fountain, forming at once a large brook, 
fix or eight yards over, and five or fix feet deep. 
There are multitudes of fifli in the fountain, of 
various tribes, chiefly the feveral fpecies of 
bream, trout, cat-fifli, and garr : it was amufing 
to behold the fifli continually afcending and de- 
fcending through the rocky apertures. Obferved 
that we croflTed no fl:ream or brook of water within 
twelve or fifteen miles of this fountain, but had 
in view vaft favannas, fwamps and Cane mea- 
dows, at no great diftance from our road, on 
our right hand, which we may prefume were the 
refources or refervoirs which contributed to the 
fupplies of this delightful grotto. Here were 
growing on the afcents from the fountain, Mag- 
nolia grandiflora, Laurus Borbonia, Quercus 
fempervirens, Callicarpa ; at a litttle diftance, a 
grove of the Caifine ; and in an old field, juft 
by, are to be fecn feme fmall Indian mounts. We 
travelled feveral miles ever ridges of low fwell- 
ing hills, whofe furfaces were covered with par- 
ticoloured pebbles, ftreaked and clouded with 
red, white, brown and yellow : they were moflly 
brolcen or fliivercd to pieces, I beheve by the 
ancients in forming arrow-heads, darts, knives, 
&c. for I obferved frequently fome of thefe mis- 
fxinpcn implements amongfl: them, fome broken 
and others ipoiled in the making. Thefe flcnes 
feemed to be a fpecies of jafper or agate. 



On my way down I alio called at Silver Bluff, 
and waited on the honourable G. Golphin, F.fq. 
to acknowledge my obligations to him, and like- 
wile to fulfil my engagements on the part of Mr. 
X----y, trader of Mucclafie. Mr. Golphin af- 
fured me that he was in a diiagrteable predica- 
ment, and that he feared the worft, but faid he 
would do all in his power to fave him. 

After five days pleafant travelling we arrived 
at Savanna in good health. 

Lift of the towns and tribes in league, and 
which conftitute the powerful confederacy or em- 
pire of the Creeks or Mufcogulges. 

Towns on the Tallapoofe or Oakfufkc river, viz. 
Oakfurkc, upper. 
Oaicfufke, lower. 
XJfale, upper. 
Ufale, lower. 
Tallafc, great. 
M ucclalle. 

Thefe fpeak the MufcO- 
/■ gulge or Creek tongue, 
I called the Mother tongue. 



Hiccory ground, (traders' 


Speak the Stincard tongue. 

Speak the Uche tongue. 
f Speak the Stincard tongue. 

Towns on the Coofau river, viz. 

Speaks a dialett of Chicafaw. 


Speak the Mufcogulge 

ton cue. 

Speaks Mufcog. and Chicafaw. 


Towns on the branches of the Coofau river, visi, 

Fiih pond, traders* name. / r- 1 ,1 a/t r i 
'^ ' ' bpeak the Mulcogul^ 




Towns on the Apalachucla or Chata Uche river^ viz* 
1 ucpaufka. 
Chata Uche. 

Uche. ' 

Chehaw. . , ' 
Swaglav/, great. 
Swag] aw, little. J 

Towns on Flint River, comprehending the Simincles of 

Lower Creeks* 

Cufcowilla or Allachua, , 
Gr at iHand, 

Spe?k the Mufcogulgc 

Speaks the Savnnnuca tongue* 
Sneaks the Mulcoo-. tongue. 

Speak the Stincard. 

« Great hammock* 


St. Mark's 


Traders nam-C. 
Traders name* 
Traders name. 
Traders name. 
Traders name. 

With many others of lefs note. 

The Siminoles fpeak both the Mufcogulgc 

and Stijicarci tongues. 

In all fifty-live towns, befides many villages 
not enumtrated j and reckoning tv/o hundi ed 
inhabitants to each town on an average, which 




is a moderate computation, would give eleven 
thoufand inhabitants. ' 

It appears to me pretty clearly, Tiom divers 
circumilances, that this powerful empi . or con- 
federacy of the Creeks cr Mufcogulges, arofe 
from, and eftablifhed itfelf upon, the ruins of 
that of the Natches, agreeably to monfieur Du- 
prat. According to the Mufcogulges account of 
themfclves, they arrived from the South-Weft, 
beyond the Mifii/Tippi, fome time before the En- 
glifh fettled the colony of Carolina, and built 
Charlefton; and their ftory concerning their coun- 
try and people, fom whence they fprang, the 
caufe of leaving their native land, the progreis 
of their migration, &c. is very fimilar to that 
celebrated hillorian's account of the Natches. 
They might have been included as allies and 
confederates in that vaft and pov/erful empire of 
red men. The Mufcogulges gradually puihing 
and extending their fettlements on their North- 
Eaft border, until the difTolution of the Natches 
empire ; being then the moft numerous, warlike 
and powerful tribe, they began to fubjugate the 
various tribes or bands which formerly conftituted 
the Natches, and uniting them with themfelves, 
formed a new confederacy under the name of the 

The Mufcogulge tongue is now the national 
or fovereign language; thofe of the Chicafaws, 
Chaflaws, and even the remains of the Natches, 
if we are to credit the Creeks and traders, being 
dialefts of the Mufcogulge : and pi'obably, when 
the Natches were fovereigns, they called their own 
the national tongue, and the Creeks, Chicafaws, 
&c. only dialecfts of theirs. It is uncertain whick 
is really the mother tongue. 

a As 


As for thofe numerous remnant bands or 
tribes, included at this day v.'ithin the Mufco- 
gulge confederacy, who generally fpeak the Stin- 
card language, (which is radically different from 
the Mufcogulge) they are, beyond a doubt, the 
fliatttred ren.ains of the various nations who in- 
habited the lower or maritime parts of Carolina 
and Florid', from Cape Fear, Weft to the Mif- 
fiflippi. The IciHguage of the Uches and Savan- 
nucas is a tiiird radically different from the Muf- 
cogulge and Stincard, and feems to be a more 
Northern tongue ; I fuppofe a language that pre- 
vailed amcngii the numerous tribes who formerly 
pofieiTed and inhabited the maritime parts of 
Maryland and Virginia. I was told by an old 
trader that the Savannucns and Shawanefe fpeak 
die ianie language, or ve;v near alike. 

C H A P. 



After my return from the Creek nation, I em- 
ployed myfcif during tr.e fpring and fore pare of 
fummer, in revlfiting the feverrJ diftriLls in Geor- 
gia and the Eaft borders of Florida, where I liad 
noted the moll curious fubiecSbs ; colleding them 
together, and fliipping them off to England. In 
the courfe of thefe excurfions and rtfearches, I 
had the opportunity of obferving the new flower- 
ing Ilirub, refembling the Gordonia*, in perfefl 
bloom, as well as bearing ripe fruit. It is a flow- 
ering tree, of the firft: order for beauty and fragrance 
of biofi^bms : the tree grows fifteen or twenty feec 
high, branching alternately; .the leaves are ob- 
long, broadefl; towards their extremities, and termi- 
nate with an acute point, which is generally a little 
reflexed ; they are lightly ferrated,. attenuate down- 
wards, and fefllle, or have very fliort petioles ; they 
are placed in alternate order, and towards the extre- 
mities of the twio-s are crouded too;ether, but (land 
more Iparfedly below ; the fiov/ers are very large, 
expand themfelves perfeftly, are of a fnow white 
colour, and ornamented with a crown or taflel 
of gold coloured refulgent fl:aminaj in their cen- 
tre, the inferior petal or fegment of the corolla 
is hollow, formed like a cap or helmet, and entirely 
includes the other four, unnl the moment of ex- 
panfion ; its exterior furface is covered with A 
fhorc filky hair; the borders of the petals are 

* On firft obferving the frurtific:ition and liabit of this ttee, I was inc'ined 
to believe it a Ipecies of Gordonia ; but afterward?, upon ftn^'-r exaniin;;- 
tion, and comparing its flowers and frui* with thofc of the Gori'onia lafian- 
thus, I prefeiitly found ftnking chrirafteriftics abundantly fiifficient to fe- 
parats it from that genus, and to eftabhlh it the head of a new tribe, wh ch 
Me have lionoured with tl^e name of the illuitrious Et. Benjamin Franklin. 
JPranklinia Alatamaba. 

H Ii ' crlfped 


crifpcd or plicated : thefe L:rge white flowers (land 
fingle and iefTile in the bofom of the leaves, and be- 
ing near together towards the extremities of the 
twigs, and ullially many expanded at the fame timx, 
make a gay appearance : the fruit is a large, round, 
dry, v/oody apple or pericarp, opening at each end 
oppofitely by five alternate fiffures, containing ten 
cells, each replete with dry woody cuneiform feed. 
This very curious tree was firft taken notice of about 
ten or twelve years ago, at this place, when I attend- 
ed my father (John Bartram) on a botanical excur- 
fion 3 but, it being then late in the autumn, we could 
form no opinion to vv^hat clafs or tribe it belonged. 

We never faw it grow in any other place, nor 
have I ever fince feen it growing wild, in all my tra- 
vels, from Pennfylvania to Point Coupe, on the 
banks of the Miffiflippi, which mufl be allowed a 
very fmgular and unaccountable circumffance i at 
this place there are two or three acres of ground 
where it grows plentifully. 

The other new, fingular and beautiful fhrub*, 
now here in full bloom, I never faw grow but at 
two other places in all my travels, and there very 
fparingly, except in Eafl Florida, in the neighbour- 
hood of the fea-coaft. 

* I gave it the name of Bignonia bratleate, extem^oF** 

C li A F, 

J^oilTH AMERICA, 4^7 


Having now completed my collc6tions in Geor- 
gia, I took leave of thele Southern regions, pro- 
ceeding on my return to Charlefton. Left Savanna 
in the evening, in confequence of a prefiing invita- 
tion from the honourable Jonathan Bryan, Efq. who 
v/as returning from the cnpitalj to his villa, about 
eight miles up Savanna river j a very delightful 
lituation, where are fpacious gardens, furnifiied with 
a variety of fruit trees and flowering flirubs. Ob- 
ferved in a low vvTt place at the corner of the gar- 
den, the Ado (Arum efculentum) ; this plant is 
much cultivated in the maritime parts of Georgia 
and Florida, for the fake of its large Turnip-like 
root, v/hich M'hen boiled or roafted, is excellent food, 
and tafbes like the Yam ; the leaves of this magnifi- 
cent plant are very large, and of a beautiflil green 
colour, the fpatha large and circulated, the fpadix 
terminates with a very long fubulated tongue, naked 
and perfedly white : perhaps this may be the Arum 
Colocafia. They have likewile another fpecies of 
the efculent Arum, called Tannier, which is a large 
and beautiful plant, and much cultivated and cftecm- 
ed for food, particularly by the Negroes. 

At night, foon after our arrival, feveral of his 
fervants came home with horie loads of wild pi- 
geons (Columba migratoria), which it ftems they 
had colledled in a fhort fpace of time at a neigh- 
bouring Bay fvvamp : they take them by torch 
light: the birds have particular rootling places> 
where they affociate in incredible multitudes at 
evening, on lov/ trees and bulhes, in hommocks 
or higher knolls in the interior parts of vafl: 
H h 2 _ fwamps. 


fwamp?= Many people go out together on this 
kind of fport, when dark : fome take with them lit- 
tle fafcines of fat Pine fplinters for torches ; others 
facks or bags ; and others furnifli themfelves with 
poles or Haves : thus accoutred and prepared, they 
approach the roods; the fudden blaze of light con- 
founds, blinds and affrights the birds, whereby mul- 
titudes drop off the limbs to the ground, and others 
are beaten off with the ftaves, being by the fudden 
confternation, entirely helplefs, and eafily taken and 
put into the facks. It is chiefly the fweet fmall 
acorns of the Quercus phillos, Quercus aquatica, 
Qiiercus fempervirens, Quercus flammula, and 
others, which induce thefe birds to migrate in the 
autumn to thofe Southern regions; where they 
fpend their days agreeably, and feaft luxurioufly> 
during the rigour of the colds in the North, whither 
they return at the approach of fummer to breed. 

Sat off next day, and croffed the river at Zub- 
ley's ferry, about fifty miles above Savanna, and in 
three days after arrivec' at Charlefton. 

Obferved, by the way near Jackfonfburg, Pon- 
pon, After fruticofus, growing plentifully in good 
moift ground, ufually by the banks of canals. It is 
a mofb charming autumnal flowering fhrub; it will 
rife to the height of eight or ten thety when fup- 
ported by neighbouring trees. 

After a few days refidence in Charlefton, I fat 
off on my return to my native land; croffed Cow- 
per river, about nine miles above the city, where 
the water was a mile wide, and the ferry-houfe 
being on the oppofitc fhore, I hoifted my travel- 
ling blanket on a po!e for a fignal, which being 
white, the people ibon came to me and carried 



me fafe over. In three dciys more eafy travelling, 
I croiTed Winyaw bay, jufl below George town; and 
in two days more, got to the Weft end of Long 
bay, where I lodged an a large Indigo plafttation. 
Sat off early next morning, and after crolTing over 
the fand ridges, which afford little elfe but Quercus 
pumila, Myrica cerifera, Caffine, Sideroxylon and 
Andromeda entangled with various fpecies of S mi- 
lax, got on the bay, which is a hard fand beach, 
expofed for the diftance of fifteen miles to the con- 
tinual lafh of the Atlantic ocean. At about low 
water mark, are cliffs of rocks of the helmintholi- 
thus, being a very firm concrete or petrifaftion, con- 
filling of various kinds of fea-fhells, fine land and 
pulverized fhells : there is a reef of thefe rocks, 
thirty or forty yards farther out than low water 
mark, which lift their rugged backs above wa- 
ter, and brave the continual ftrokes of the waves,^ 
which, however, affifted by the conftant fridion of 
the fands, make continual inroads upon them, and 
bore them into holes and cavitieS; when tempeftuous 
feas rend them to pieces, fcattering the fragments 
over the fandy fhore. It is pleafant riding on this 
clean hard fand, paved with fhells of various co- 

Obferved a number of perfons coming up a 
head, whom I foon perceived to be a party of 
Neo-roes. I had every reafon to dread the confe- 
quence ; for this being a defolate place, I was by 
this time feveral miles from any houfc; or planta- 
tion, and had reafon to apprehend this to be a 
predatory band of Negroes; people being fre- 
quently 'attacked, robbed, and fometimes mur- 
dered by them at this place. I was unarmed, 
alone, and my horfe tired; thus fituated every 
way in their power, I had no alternative but to 
Hh3 - be 


be refigncd and prepare to meet them. As foon 
as I law them diftindiy a miie or two off, I im- 
mediately alighted to reft, and give breath to my 
horfe, intending to attempt my fafety by flight, if 
upon near approach they fhould betray hoftile de- 
figns. Thus prepared, when we drew near to each 
Other, I mounted and rode briikly up j and though 
armed with clubs, axes and hoes, they opened to 
right and left, and let me pals peaceably. Their 
chief informed me whom they belonged to, and 
iliid they were going to man a new quarter at the 
Weft end of the bay ; I however kept a fliarp eye 
about me, apprehending that this might poffibly 
have been an advanced divifion, and their intentions 
were to ambufcade and furround m.e ; but they kept 
on quietly, and I was no more alarmed by them. Af- 
ter noon, I croffed the fwafh at the eaft end of the bay, 
and in the evening got to good quarters. Next morn- 
ing early I fat off again, and foon croffed Little 
River at the boundary ; which is on the line that 
feparates North and South Carolina: in an old 
field, on the banks of this river, a little diftance 
from the public houfe, ftands a fingle tree of the 
Magnolia grandiflora, which is faid to be the moft 
northern fettlement of that tree. Paffed this day 
over expanfive favannas, cliarmingly decorated with 
late autumnal flowers, as Helianthus, Rtidbeckia, 
Silphium, Solidago, Helenium, Serratula, Cacalia, 
After, Lilium Martagon, Gendana csErulea, Chiro- 
nia, Gentiana faponaria, Afclepias coccinea, Hype- 
ricum, Rhexia pulclierrima, &c. &c. 

Obferved likewife >in thefe favannas abundance 
of the ludicrous Dioncea mufcipula (Dion^ea, El- 
lis cpis. ad Linnreum, miraculum naturae, folia 
8 biloba, 


biloba, radlcalia, ciliata, conduplicanda, fcnnbiiia, 
jnledla iiicarcerantia. Syil. vcgctab. p. 335)- 

This wonderful plant fcems to be diftinguiilicd 
in the creation, by the Author of nature, with facul- 
ties eminently fuperior to every vegetable pro- 
du6tion*; Ipecimens of it were Firfl comnainicated 
to the curious of the old v/orld by John Bartrain, 
the American Bctaniil and traveller, who contri- 
buted as much, if not more, than any other man 
towards enriching the North American botanical 
nomenclature, as well as its natural hiilory. 

After traverfing thefe ample favannas, I gradu- 
ally afcended find hills to open Pine fotelis j at 
evening got to Old town near Brunfwick, where I 
lodged. Brunfwick is a fea-port town on the Cla- 
rendon, or Cape Fear river, about thirty miles 
above the capes j it is about d:irty years fince this 
^yas the feat of government, when Arthur Dobbs, 
Efq. was governor and commander in chief of the 
province of North Carolina. Continued up the 
Weft fide of North Weft of Cape Fear river, and 
refted two or three days at the feat of F. I-ucas, 
Efq. a fev/ miles above Livingfton's creek, a con- 
fiderable branch- of the Nordi Weft. This creek 
heads in vaft fwamps, in the vicinity of t'le beau- 
tiful lake Wakamav/, which is the, lource of a fine 
river of that name, and runs a South courfe feventy 
or eighty miles, delivering its waters into WMnyav/ 
bay at George- tovvn. The Wakamav/ lake is twen- 
ty-fix miles in circuit , the lands on its Eaftern 
Ihores are fertile, and the fituation delightful, 
gradually afcending from pleafing eminences ; 
bounded on the North- Weft coaft- by vail rich 
fwamps, fit for the production of Rice : the lake 

* See I'ome account of it in the IntrodiKlion . 

n h 4 - is 


is twelve miles Weft from Moore*s, Efq* 

whofe viiia is on the banks of the North Weft. 

Proceeding again up the North Weft, crofted^ 
Carver's creek, and ftopped at Aftiwood, the an- 
cient leat Ox^ Colonel William Bartram. The houfe 
ftand.s on the high banks of the river, near feventy 
feet in height above the furface of the water ; this 
high bluff continues two or three miles on the river, 
and commands a magnificent profpeft of the low 
lands oppofite, when in their native ftate, prefenting 
to the view grand forefts and expanfive Cane mea- 
dows : • the trees which com.pofe thefe forefts are ge- 
perally of the following tribes, Qiiercus tindloria, 
Querc. alba, Querc. piiillos, Querc. aquatica, Querc. 
heaniJpherica, Fraxinus excelfior, Platanus occiden- 
talis, liriodendron tulipifera, Liquidambar ftyraci- 
flua, Ulmus, Tilia, Juglans hiccoi-y, Juglans cine- 
rea, Juglans nigra, Morus rubra, Gleditfia triacan- 
thus, Hopea tinftoria, NyfTa aquatica, Nyfla fylva- 
tica, Carpinus, and many morej the Cupreftlis 
difticha as ftateiy and beautiful as I have feen any 
where. When thefe lands are cleared of their tim- 
ber and cultivated, they produce abundantly, parti- 
cularly W^heat, Zea, Cotton, Hemp, Flax, with 
variety of excellent vegetables. This perpendicu- 
lar bank of the river, by which the waters fwiftly 
glide along, difcovers at once the various ftrata 
of the earth of this low maritime country. For 
the moft part, the upper ftratum confifts of a 
light, fandy, pale, yeliowilh miould or loam, for 
ten or twelve feet in depth (except the flat level 
land back from the riveis, where the clays or 
marie approach very near the furface, and the 
ridges of fand hills, where the clays lie much 
deeper) : this fandy mould or loam lies upon a 
■ • . ' ' deep 


deep bed of black or dark flate coloured faline 
and fulphiireous earth, which is compofed of ho- 
rizontal thin flakes or lamin?e, feparated by means 
of very thin, almoft imperceptible veins or ftrata of 
fine micaceons particl'-s, which drain or percolate a 
clear water, continually exuding, or trickling down, 
and forming little rills and diminutive cataracfts, be- 
ing conduced by perpendicular chinks or fifllires : 
in fome places, a portion of this clear water or 
tranfparent vapour, feems to coagulate on the edges 
of the veins and fiflures, leaving a reddifh curd or 
jelly-like fubftance flicking to them, which I fhould 
fuppofe indicates it to fpring from a ferrugineous 
fource, efpecially fince it difcovcrs a chalybeate 
fcent and tafte: in other places, thefe fiflures fhow 
evidently a cryftallization of exceeding fine white 
falts, which have an aluminous or vitriolic fcent: 
they are pyrites, marcafites, or fulphureous nodules, 
Jliining hke brafs, of various fize^ and forms, fome 
fingle and others conglomerated : other places pre- 
fent to view, ftrata of heterogeneous matter, lying 
between the upper loamy flratum and the bed 
of black faline earth, confifting of various kinds of 
fea fhells, fome whole, others broken to pieces, 
and even pulverized, which fill up the cavities of 
the entire fiiells, and the interftices betwixt them : 
at other places we obferve, two or three feet be- 
low the furface or virgin mould, a ftratum of four, 
five, or fix feet in depth, of brownilh marie, on a 
bed of teftaceous rocks; a petrifaction compofed 
apparently of various kinds of fea fhells, belem- 
nites, fand, &c. combined or united with a cal- 
careous cement : thefe malles of rocks are in fome 
places detached by veins and ftrata of a hetero- 
geneous earth, confifting of fea fhells and other 
marine produiflions, as well as terreftrial, which 


474 TRAVELS m 

feem to be foflile, or in fome degree of petrifac^ 
tion, or otherwile tranfmuted, particularly thofe 
curious produclions called birds bills, or fliarks 
teeth (dentes carchariae), belemnites, &c. loofely 
mixed with a deficcated earth compofed of fandj 
chy, particles of marie, vegetable rubbifh, &c. And 
again v/e obferve fhells, marcafites, belemnites, 
dentes carchari^, with pieces of wood tranfmuted, 
black and hard as fea coal, fmgly intsrfperfed in 
the black vitriolic flrata of earth : v/hen this black 
earth is expofed to the fun and dry air, the little 
thin lam.ins feparate, and fcon difcover a fine, 
white cryftaliization, or aluminous powder; but this 
very foon difappears, being again incorporated with 
the general mals, which gradually diffolves or falls 
like quick- lime, and appears then a grayifh, ex- 
tremely fine, dry micaceous powder, which fmells 
like gun-powder. 

The North Weft of Cape Fear, here at Afliv^ood, 
is near three hundred yards over (when the ftream 
is low and within its banks), and is eighty or ninety 
miles above th€ capes. Obferved growing here- 
abouts a great variety of very curious and beautiful 
flowering and fweet fcented (hrubs, particularly Cal- 
licarpa, /Efculus pavia, floribus coccineis, caule fuf- 
fruticofo, j^fculus fylvatica, floribus ex albo et 
carneo eleganter variegatis, caule arboreo, Ptelea 
trifoliata, Styrax, Stewartia, Fothergilla, Amorpha, 
Myrica, Stillingia fruticofa, foliis ianceolatis, utrin- 
que glabris, fruftu tricocco, Olea Americana, foliis 
lanceolaco-ellipticis, baccis atro-purpureis (Purple 
berried bay), Catefby. Ilex dahoon, Cafl'ine Yapon, 
Azalea, varieties, Kahiiea, Cyrilla, Liquidambar pe- 
regrinum, Sideroxylcn, Andromeda lucida, &c- 

Leaving Ailiwood, and continuing up the Weft 


- W/i^/rn/z/yy//'/ . y////'r /'////■ ///// 


fide of the river, about forty miles, in the banks of 
a creek, five or fix feet below the fandy furfacc, are 
to be feen projefting out many feet in length, trunks 
of trees petrified to very hard ftone; they lie be- 
tween the upper fandy ftratum and the common 
bed of blackiih vitriolic earth ; and thefe ftone trees 
are to be feen in the fame fituation, (licking out of 
the perpendicular banks or bluffs of the river in 
this region: there are feveral trunks of large trees 
with their bark, ftumps of their limbs and roots, 
lying petrified on the find hills and Pine forefts, 
near the road about this creek, not far from the 
. faw-mills. 

Croffed Rock-fifh, a large branch of the North 
Wefb, near its mouth or confluence, and at even- 
ing arrived at Crofs-Crecks, another very confider- 
able branch of the river, flov/ing in through its 
Weft banks. This creek gave name to a fine inland 
trading town, on fome heights or fwelling hills, 
from whence the creek defcends precipitately, then 
gently meanders near a mile, through lower level 
lands, to its confluence with the river, afibrding 
mod convenient mill-feats : thefe profpeds induced 
active enterprifing men to avail themfelves of fuch 
advantages pointed out to them by nature; they 
built mills, which drev/ people to ti:e place, and 
thefe obferving eligible fituations for other profitable 
improvements, bought lots and erected tenements, 
where they exercifed mechanic arts, as fmiths, wheel- 
wrights, carpenters, coopers, tanners, &c. And at 
length merchants were encouraged to adventure and 
fettle: in fhort, within eight or ten years from a 
grift-mill, faw-mill, fmith-iliop and a tavern, arofe 
a flourifliing commercial town, the feat of govern- 
ment of the county of Cumberland. The leading 



men of the county, feeing plainly the fuperior 
advantages of this fituation, on the banks of a 
fannous navigable river, petitioned the AiTembly 
for a charter to ennpower them to piirchafe a dif- 
trift, fuiHcient for founding a large townj which 
being granted, they immediately proceeded to mark 
out its precincts, and named the new city Cambelton, 

a conplimient to Cambel, Efq^ a gentleman 

of merit, and £. citizen of the county. V/hen I v/as 
here about twenty years ago, this town was marking 
out its bounds, and diere were then about tv/cnty 
habitations -, and now there are above a thoufand 
houfes, many wealthy merchants, and refpedlable 
public buildings, a vaft refort of inhabitants and 
travellers, and continual brilk com.merce by wag- 
gons, from the back fettiements, with large trading 
boats, to and from Wilmington, the feaport and 
flourilhing trading town on the Clarendon, about 
forty miles above the capes, which is about one 
hundred miles below this town. The Clarendon 
or Cape Fear river, has its fource in the Cherokee 
mountains, v/here its numjcrous confederate ftreams 
unite ; after leaving the firft ridges of the moun- 
tains, itaffumes the name of Haw river, and courf- . 
ang the hilly fertile country, above one hundred and 
fifty miles, receives through its Weil banks the 
Vveft bianch, called Deep River, and after this 
iinion, tukes the name of the North- Weft of Cape 
Fear, from whence, down to Cambelton, about 
eighty miles it is navigable for perriauguas of con- 
fiderable burthen. 

Obferved near Cambleton a very curious fcan- 
dent Fern (Pteris fcandens) rambling o\er low 
bufhes, in humid fituations ; the lower larger fronds 
were digitated, or rather radiated, but towards 



the tops or extremities of the branches they became 
trifid, haftatcd, and laftly lanceolate : it is a delicate 
plant, of a yellowifa lively green, and would be an 
ornament in a garden. 

Sat off again to Cambelton, continuing yet up 
the North Weft about fixty miles ; croifed over 
this branch, and focn af:er crofied the Roanoke, 
and then refted a few days at Mr. Lucas's, a worthy 
old gentleman, a planter on Meherren river. Ob- 
ferved ftrolling over his fences and flables, a very 
fingular and ufeful fpecies of the Gourd (Cuciirbita 
lagenaria) ; its neck or handle is above two feet in 
length, and not above an inch in diameter ; its belly 
round, which would contain about a pint; it makes 
excellent ladles, funnels, &c. At a little diflance 
from Mr. Lucas's, at the head of a Iwamp near the 
high road, I obfervtd a very curious fpecies of 
Prinos, which grows feven or eight feet high, the 
leaves broad, lanceolate, iliarply ferrated, nervous, 
and of a deep green colour; but its flriking beauty 
confifts in profufe clufters of fruir, colle6led about 
the cafes or origin cf the laft fpring's fhoots ; thefe 
berries are nearly round, about the fize of middling 
grapes, of a fine clear fcarlet colour, covered or in- 
vefted with an incarnate mift or nebulas. 

Being now arrived on the South border of Vir- 
ginia, and the hoary frigid feafon fir advanced, I 
fhall pafs as fpeedily as poiTible from hence to 
Pennfylvania, my native country; fince thofe cul- 
tivated regions cf Virginia and Maryland, through 
which I defign to travel, have been over and over 
explored, and defcribed by very able men in every 
branch of natural hiftory. 

After leaving Meherren, I foon arrived at 
Alexandria in Virginia, a fine city on die Weft 



banks of the Patowmac, about the 26th of Decem- 
ber, lisving had exceJlent roads, and pleafant, mo-^ 
derate weather, neither fnow nor ice to be feen, ex- 
cept a flight fall of Ihow from a flying cloud, the 
day before I reached this place; but this evening 
it clouded up from the Weft, the wind North-eaft 
and cold. Next morning the fnow was eight or 
ten inches deep on the ground, and the wind Ihifcing 
to North-vv-eft, cleared up intenfely cold : I however 
fat off and croffed the river juft below the falls^ 
and landed at George-town in Maryland. The 
fnow was now deep every where around, the air 
cold to an extreme, and the roads deep under fnow 
or flippery with ice, rendered the travelling uncom- 

Being now arrived at Wright's ferry, on the 
Sufquehanna, I began anxioufly to look towards 
home, but here I found almoft infuperable embar- 
raffinents : the river being but half frozen over, 
there was no polTibility of crofTmg here ; but hear- 
ing that people eroded at Anderfon's, about five 
miles above, early next morning I fat off again up 
the river, in company with feveral travellers, fome 
for Philadelphia : arriving at the ferry, we were joined 
by a number of traders, with their pack-horfes loaded 
with leather and furs, where we all agreed to venture 
over together; and keeping at a moderate diftance 
irom each other, examining well our icy bridge, and 
being careful of our fteps, we landed fafe on the 
oppofice ihore, got to Lancafter in the evening, and 
next morning fat forward again towards Philadel- 
phia, and in two days more arrived at my father's 
houfc on the banks of the river Schuylkill, within 
four miles of the city, January 1778. 















J. H E males of the Cherokees, Mufcogulges, 
Siminoles, Chicafaws, Chactaws, and confederate 
tribes of the Creeks, are tall, erecl, and moderately 
robuft j their limbs well ihaped, fo as generally to 
form a perfeft human figure ; their features regu- 
lar, and countenance open, dignified and placid ; yet 
the forehead and brow fo formed, as to ftrike you 
inftandy with heroifm and bravery ; the eye though 
rather fmall, yet aftive and full of fire j the iris al- 
ways black, and the nofe commonly inclining to the 

Their countenance and aftions exhibit an air of 
magnanimity> fuperiority and independence. 

Their complexion of a reddifli brown or copper 
colour ; their hair long, lank, coarfe, and black as 
a raven, and reflecting the like luftre at different ex- 
pofures to the light. 

The women of the Cherokees are tall, flender, 
ereft and of a delicate frame ; their features form- 
ed with perfedl fymmetry, their countenance checr- 

I i ful 


ful and friendly, and they move with a becoming 
grace and dignity. 

The Mufcogulge women, though remarkably 
fliort offiature, are well formed ^ their vifage round, 
features regular and beautiful j the brow high and 
arched ; the eye large, black, and languifliing, ex- 
preflive of modefty, diffidence, and bafhfulnefs; 
thefe charms are their defenfive and offenfive wea- 
pons, and they know very well how to play them 
off, and under Cover of thefe alluring graces, are 
concealed the anoft fubtile artifice j they are how- 
ever loving and affeftionate : they are, I believe, 
tlie fmalleft race of womea yet known, feldom 
above five feet high, and 1 believe the greater num- 
ber never arrive to that ftature ; their hands and 
feet not larger than thofe of Europeans of nine or 
ten years of age : yet the men are of gigantic fta- 
ture, a fjll fize larger than Europeans ; many of 
them above fix feet, and few under that, or five feet 
eight or ten inches. Their complexion much darker 
than any of the tribes to the North of them that I 
have feen. This defcription will, I believe, com- 
prehend the Mufcogulges, their confederates, the 
Chadaws, and I believe the Chicafaws (though I 
bave never ken. their women), excepting however 
fome bands of the Siminoles, Uches and Savannu- 
cas, who are rather taller and flenderer, and their 
complexion brighter. 

The Cherokees are yet taller and more robuft 
than the Mufcogulges, and by far the largeft race 
of men I have leen * i their complexions brighter 

* There are, however, fome exceptions to this general obftrvntion, as I 
have myfolfwitncffed. Their preientc;raiul chief or emperor (the Little Car- 
jjenter, Atta-kiil-kiTlla) is a man of remarkably fmall ftature, flciHler, and 
Wa delicate frame, the enly iiiltance 1 law ia the nation: but he is a man 
>«f fuperior abilities. 



and fomewhat of the olive caft, efpecially the adults; 
and feme of their young women are nearly as fair 
and blooming as European women. 

The Cherokees in their difpofitions and manners 
are grave arid Heady; dignified and cir(?limfpe6l in 
their deportment ; rather flow and referved in con- 
verfation ; yet frank, cheerful, and humane ; tena- 
cious of the liberties and natural rights of man; fe- 
cret, deliberate and determined in their councils; 
honeft, juft and liberal, and ready always to ficrifice 
every pleafure and gratification, even their blood, 
and life itfelf, to defend their territory and maintain 
their rights. They do homage to the Mufcogulges 
with reluflance, and are impatient under that gal- 
ling yoke. I was witnefs to a molt humiliating 
lalh, which they palTivcly received from their red 
mafters, at the great ciongrefb and treaty of Augufla, 
v/hen thefe people acceded with the Creeks, to the 
ceflion of the New Purchafe ; where were about 
three hundred of the Creeks, a great part of whom 
were warriors, and about one hundred Cherokees. 

The firft day of convention opened with fettling 
the preliminaries, one article of which was a de- 
mand on the part of the Georgians, to a territory 
lying on the Tugilo, and claimed by them boLh, 
which it feems the Cherokees had, previous to 
the opening of congrefs, privately conveyed to the 
Georgians, unknown to the Creeks. The Geor- 
gians mentioning this as a matter fettled, the 
Creeks demanded in council, on v;hat foundation 
they built that claim, faying they had never ceded 
thefe lands. The Georgians anfwered, that they 
bought them of their friends and brothers the 
Cherokees. The Creeks nettled and incenfcd at 

I i 2 this, 


this, a chief and warrior flarted up, and, with an 
agitated and terrific countenance, frowning menaces 
and difdain, fixed his eyes on the Cherokee chiefs, 
and afked them what right they had to give away 
their lands, calHng them old women, and faying 
they had long ago obliged them to wear the petti- 
coat; a mofl humihating and degrading ftroke, in 
the prefence of the chiefs of the whole Mufcogulge 
confederacy, of the Chicafaws, principal men and 
citizens of Georgia, Carolina, Virginia, Maryland 
and Pennfylvania, in the face of their own chiefs and 
citizens, and amidft the laugh and jeers of the afTem- 
bly, efpecially the young men of Virginia, their old 
enemies and dreaded neighbours : but humiliating as 
it really was, they were obliged to bear the ftigma 
paffively, and even without a reply. 

And, moreover, thefe arrogant braves and ufurp- 
ers carried their pride and importance to fuch 
lengths, as even to threaten tp dilTolve the congrefs 
and return home, unlefs the Georgians confented to 
annul the fecret treaty with the Cherokees, and re- 
ceive that territory immediately from them, as ac- 
knowledging their exclufive right of alienation ; 
which was complied with, though violently extorted 
from the Cherokees, contrary to right and fan6tion 
of treaties ; fince the Savanna river and its waters 
were acknowledged to be the natural and juft bounds 
of territory betwixt the Cherokees and Mufco- 

The national charafter of the Mufcogulges, 
when confidered in a political view, exhibits a 
portraiture of a great or illuftrious hero. A 
proud, haughty and arrogant race of men j they 
are brave and valiant in war, ambitious of con- 
quell, reftlefs and perpetually exercifing their 
5 arms. 


arms, yet magnanimous and merciful to a van- 
quifhed enemy, when he fubmits and feeks th-ir 
friendlhip and protection : always uniting the van- 
quiflied tribes in confederacy with them ; when 
they immediately enjoy, unexceptionably, eve y 
right of free citizens, and are from that moment 
united in one common band of brotherhood. 
They were never known to exterminate a tribe, 
except the Yamnfees, who would never fubmit 
on any terms, but fou.\ht it out to the lad, only 
ab ut forty or fifty of them efcaping at the lall 
decifive battle, who threw themlelves under the 
protection of the Spaniards at St. Auguftine. 

According to their own account, which I be- 
lieve to be true, after their arrival in this coun- 
try, they joined in alliance and perpetual amity 
with the Britifh colonic in South Carolina and 
Georgia, which they never openly violated ; but 
on the contrary, purfued every ftep to ftiengthea 
the alliance; and their aged chiefs to this day, 
fpeak of it Avith tears of joy, and exult in that 
memorable tranfaCtion, as one of the moft glo- 
rious events in the annals of their nation. 

As an inftance of their ideas of political im- 
j»artial juftice, and homage to the Supreme Being, 
as the high arbiter of human tranfaCtions, who 
alone claims the right of taking away the life of 
man, I beg leave to offer to the reader's confi- 
deration, the following event, as I had it from the 
mouth of a Spaniard, a refpedtable inhabitant of 
Eaft Florida. 

The fon of the Spanifli governor of St Au- 
guftine, together with two young gentlemen, his 
friends and afTociates, conceived a dcfign of a- 
mufing themfclves in a party of fport, at hunt- 

I i ^ - ing 


mg and fifhing. Having provided themrelves 
with a convenient bark, ammunition, filhing 
tackle, &c. they fet fail, directing dieir courfe 
South, along the coaft, towards the point of Flo- 
rida, putting into bays and rivers, as conveniency 
and the profped of game invited them. The 
pleafing rural and diverfified fcenes of the Florida 
coafl, imperceptibly allured them far to the fouth, 
beyond the Spanilli fortified poft. Unfortunate 
youths ! regardlefs of the advice 'and injunctions 
of their parents and friends, ftill purfuing the de- 
lufive obrr^?, they entered a harbour at evening, 
with a view of chafing the roe-buck and hunting 
up the fturdy bear, folacing themfelves with de- 
licious fruits, and repofmg under aromatic fliades ; 
when, alas ! cruel unexpected event ! in the bea- 
tific mOiiients of their {lumbers, they were fur- 
rounded, arretted and carried off by a predatory 
band of Creek Indians, proud of the capture, fo 
rich a prize ; they hurry away into cruel bondage 
the haplefs youths, conducting them by devious 
paths through dreary fwamps and boundlefs fa- 
vannas, to the Nation. 

At that time the Indians were at furious war 
with the Spaniards, fcarcely any bounds fet to 
their cruelties on either fide : in Ihort, the mi- 
ferable youths were condemned to be burnt. 

But there were Englifh traders in thefe towns, 
who learning the characters of the captives, and ex- 
pecting great rewards from the Spanilh governor, 
if they could deliver them, petitioned the Indians 
on their behalf, expreffing their wifrxCS to obtain 
their refcue, offering a great ranfom -, acquaint- 
ing them at the fame time, that they were young 
men of high rank, and pne of them the gover-'s fon. 



Upon this, the head men, oi* chiefs of the 
whole nation, were convened, and after folemn 
and mature deliberaion, thty returned the tra- 
ders their final anAver and determination, which 
was as follows : 

" Brothers and friends. We hive been con- 
fidering upon this bufinefs concerning the cap- 
tiVes — and that under the eye and fear of the 
Great Spirit. You know that thefe people are 
our cruel enemies j they fave no lives of us red 
men, who fall in their power. You fay that the 
youth is the fon of the Spanifh governor ; we be^ 
lieve it ; we are forry he has fallen into our hands, 
but he is our enemy : the two young men (his 
friends.) are equally our entmies ; we are forry to 
fee them here ; but we know no difference in 
their flcfh and blood ; they arc equally our ene- 
mies -y if we fave one we muft five all three : but 
we cannot do it; the red men require their blood 
to appeafe the fpirits of their flain relatives ; they 
have entruiled us with the guardianfliip of our 
laws and rights, we cannot betray them. 

" However we have a facred prefcription rela- 
tive to this affair, v.'hich allows us to extend 
miCrcy to a certain degree : a third is laved by 
lot ; the Great Spirit allows us to put it to that 
dccilion J he is no refpedler of perfons." The 
lots were cafl. The governor's fon was taken 
and burnt. 

If we coniider them with ref[)e6t to tlieir pri- 
vate chara6ler or in a moral view, they muff, I 
think, claim our approbation, if we divefb our- 
felves of prejudice and think freely. As moral 
men they certainly ftand in no need of European 

I i 4 _ They 


They are juft, honeft, liberal and hofpitable to 
ftrangers ; confidcrate, loving and affectionate to 
their wives and relations ; fond of their children ; 
indiiftriuuSj tiugal, tenaperate and perfevering j 
charitable and forbearing. I have been weeks 
and months amongft them and in their towns, 
and never obferved the leafl fign of contention or 
wrangling: never faw an inftance of an Indian 
beadng his wife, or even reproving her in anger. 
In this cafe they Hand as examples of reproof to 
the moft civilized nations, as not beino; defective 
in juftice, gratitude, and a good iinderllanding ; 
for indeed tlieir wives merit their elieem and the 
moft gentle treatment, tliey being induftrious, 
frugal, careful, loving and affeftionate. 

The Mufcogulges are more volatile, fprightly 
and talkative than their Northern neighbours^ the 
Cherokees j and, though far more diftant from 
the white fctdements than any nation Eaft of the 
Miffillipi or Ohio, appear evidently to have made 
greater advances tov^/urds the refinements of true 
civilization, which cannot, in the leaft degree, 
be attributed to the good examples of the white 

Their internal police and family economy at 
once engage the notice of European travellers, 
and incontroverdbly place thefe people in an il- 
luftrious point of view: their liberality, intimacy, 
and friendly intercourfe one with another, without 
any reftraint of ceremonious formality, as if they 
were even infenfible of the ufe or neceflity ot af- 
fociaiing the pafllons or affections of avarice, am- 
bition or covetoufnefs. 

A man goes forth on his bufinefs or avoca- 
tions j he calls in at another town^ if he wanes 



victuals, reft or fecial converiation, he confidently 
approaches the door of the firft houfe he choofes, 
faying " I am come j " the good man or ■woman 
rephes, " You are j it's well. " Immediately 
vi6iials and drink are ready ; he eats and drinks 
a little, then fmokes tobacco, and converfes either 
of piivate matters, pubiic talks, or the news of 
the town. He rifes and fays, " I go ! " the other 
anfwcrrs, " You do ! " He then proceeds again, 
and fteps in at the next habitation he likes, or 
repairs to the public fquare, where are people 
always converfing by dav, or dancing all night, 
or to fome more private affembly, as he likes; 
he needs no one to introduce him, any more than 
the black-bird or thrufli, when he repairs to the 
fruitful groves, to regale on their luxuries, and en- 
tertain the fond female with evening fongs. 

It is allonifliing, though a fa6l, as well as a 
fharp rep (of to the white people, if they will 
allow therr'ftlves liberty to reflefl and form a juft 
eftimate, and I muft own elevates thefe people to 
the firft rank amongft manK.ind, that they have 
been able to refift the continual efforts of the 
complicated hoft of vices, tha^ have for ages 
over-run the nations of the old world, and fo 
contaniinated their morals ; yet more fo, fince 
fuch vaft armies of thefc evil fpiritb have invaded 
this continent, and clofely invefted them on all 
fides. Aftonilhing indeed ! when we behold the 
ill, immoial conduft of too many white people, 
who refide am.ongft them; notwithftanding which, 
it feems natural, eligible, and even cafy, for thefe 
fimple, illiterate people, to put in practice thofe 
beautiful ledures delivered to us by the ancient 
fages and philofophers, and recorded for our in- 


I faw a young Indian in the Nation, who when 
prefent, and beholding the fcenes of mad in- 
temperance and folly a6led by the white men in 
the town, clapped his hand to his bread, and 
with a fmile, looked aloft as if flruck with afto- 
nifhment, and wrapt in love and adoration to the 
Deity ; as who Ihould fay, " O thou Great and 
Good Spirit ! we are indeed fenfible of thy benig- 
nity and favour to us red men, in denying us the 
underftanding of white men. We did not know 
before they came amongft us that mankind could 
become fo bafe, and fail fo below the dignity of 
their nature. Defend us from their manners, laws, 
and power." 

The Mufcogulges, with their confederates, the 
Chaftaws, Chicafaws, and perhaps the Cherokees, 
eminently deferve the encomium of all nations, 
for their wifdom and virtue in refiftino; and even 
repelling the greateft, and even the common ene- 
my of mankind, at leafl of moft of the European 
nations, I mean fpirituous liquors. 

The firfi: and moft cogent article in all their 
treaties with the white people, is, that there fhall 
not be any kind of fpirituous liquors fold or 
brought into their towns ; and the traders are 
allowed but two kegs (five gallons each) which 
is fuppofed to be fufficient for a company, to ferve 
them on the road j and if any of this remains on 
their approaching the towns, they muft fpill it on 
the ground or fecrete it on the road, for it muft 
not come into the town. 

On my journey from Mobile to the Nation, juft 
after v/e had pafled the jundlion of the Penfacola 
road with our path, two young traders overtook 
us on their way to the Nation. We inquired 



what news ? They informed us that they were run- 
ning about forty kegs of Jamaica fpirits (which by 
dafhing would have made at lead eighty kegs) to 
the Nation j and after having left the town three or 
four days, they were furprifed on the road in the 
evening, juft after they had come to camp, by a 
party of Creeks, who difcovering their fpecies of 
merchandize, they forthwith ftruck their tomahawks 
into every keg, giving the Uquor to the thirfty llmd, 
not tailing a drop of it themfelvesj and they had 
enough to do to keep the tomahawks from their own 

How are we to account for their excellent policy 
in civil government j it cannot derive its influence 
from coercive laws, for they have no fuch artificial 
fyitem. Divine wifdom dilates, and they obey. 

We fee and know full well the direful effects of 
this torrent of evil, which has its fource in hell ; and 
we know furely, as well as thefe favages, how to di- 
vert its courfe and fupprefs its inundations. Do we 
want wifdom and virtue ? let our youth then repair 
to the venerable councils of the Mufcogulges. 


45^ TRAVELS lie 


On their government and CIVIL SOCIETY. 

The conftitiition or fyftem of their police is fim- 
ply natural, and as little complicated as that which 
is fuppofecl to direft or rule the approved economy 
of the ant and the bee; and feems to be nothing 
more than the fimple dilates of natural reafon, 
plain to every one, yet recommended to them by 
their wile and virtuous elders as divine, becaufe ne- 
ceiTary for fecuring mutual happinefs : equally bind- 
ing and efFeftual, as being propofed and aflented to 
in the general combination : every one's confcience 
being a fufficient convi6lion (the golden rule, do as 
you would be done by) inftantly prefents to view, 
and produces a fociety of peace and love, which in 
efFeft better maintains human happinefs, than the 
moft complicated fyftem of modern politics, ©r 
fumptuary laws, enforced by coercive means : for 
here the people are all on an equality, as to the pof- 
leffion and enjoyments of the common neceffaries 
and conveniences of life^ for luxuries and fuperflui- 
ties they have none. 

This natural conftitution is fimply fubordinatej 
and the fupreme, fovereign or executive power re- 
fides in a council of elderly chiefs, warriors and 
others, relpedable for wifdom, valour and virtue. 

At the head of this venerable fenate, prefides their 
mico or king, which fignifies a magiilrate or chief 
ruler: the governors of Carolina, Georgia, &c. arc 
called micos; and the king of England is called 
Ant-apala-mico-clucco*, that is, the great king, 
over or beyond the great water. 

* CIucco fi^iiificf great or excellent, 



The king, although he is acknowledged to be the 
firft" and greatefl man in the town or tribe, and ho- 
noured with every due and rational mark of love 
and efteem, and when prcfiding in council, with a 
humility and homage as reverent as that paid to the 
moft defpotic monarch in Europe or the Eall, and 
when abfent, his feat is not filled by any other per- 
fon, yet he is not dreaded ; and when out of the 
council, he aflbciates with the people as a common 
man, converfes with them, and they with him, in 
perfedl eafe and familiarity. 

The mico or king, though eledlive, yet his ad- 
vancement to that fupreme dignity muft be under- 
ftood in a very different light from the elective 
monarchs of the old world, where the progrefs to 
magiitracy is generally effecfled by fchifm and the 
influence of friends gained by craft, bribery, and 
often by more violent efforts ; and after the throne 
is obtained, by meafures Httle better than ufurpa- 
tion, he muft be protected and fupported there, by 
the fame bafe means that carried him thither. 

But here behold the majefty of the Mufcogulgc 
mico ! he does not either publicly or privately beg 
of the people to place him in a fituation to com- 
mand and rule them: no, his appearance is altoge- 
ther myfterious ; as a beneficent deity he rifes king 
over them, as the fun rifes to blcfs the earth ! 

No one will tell you how or when he became 
their king; but he is univerfally acknowledged to 
be the greateft pcrfon among them, and he is 
loved, efteemed and reverenced, although he af- 
fociates, eats, drinks, and dances with them in 
common as another man ; his drefs is the fame, 


494 "yRAVELS IW 

and a flranger could not diftinguifli the king'^s liabi- 
tation from that of any other cidzen, by any fort of 
iplendour or magnificence ; yet he perceives they 
aft as though their mico beheld them, himfelf invi- 
fible. In a word, their mico fecms to them tlie re- 
prefentative of Providence or the Great Spirit, whom 
they acknowledge to prcfide over and influence their 
councils and public proceedings. Fie perfonally 
prefides daily in their councils, either at the rotunda 
or public fquare : and even here his voice in re- 
gard to bufinefs in hand, is regarded no more than 
any other chief's or fenator's, no farther than his 
advice, as being the beft and wifeft man of the tribe, 
and not by virtue of regal prerogative. But whether 
their ultimate decifions require unanimity, or only a 
majority of voices, I am uncertain j but probably 
■where there is a majority, the minority voluntarily 

The mofb aflive part the mico takes is in the 
civil government of the town or tribe : here he has 
the power and prerogative of caUing a council, to de- 
liberate on peace and war, or all public concerns, as 
inquiring into, and deciding upon complaints and 
differences j but he has not the leafl Ihadow of ex- 
clufive executive power. He is complimented with 
the firft vifits of ftrangers, giving audience to am- 
baffadors, with prefents, and he has alfo the difpofal 
of the public granary. 

The next man in order of dignity and power, 
is the great war chief: he reprefents and exer- 
cifes the dignity of the mico, in his abfence, in 
council; his voice is of the greatcft weight, in. 
military affairs ; his power and authority are en- 
tirely independent of the mico, though when a 



mlco goes on an expedition, he heads the army, and 
is there the war chief. There are many of thefe war 
chiefs in a town or tribe, who are captains or leaders 
of mihtary parties ; they arc elderly men, who in 
their youthful days have diftinguiflied themfelves in 
war by valour, fubtiky and intrepidity ; and thefe 
veteran chiefs, in a great degree, conftitute their 
truly dignified and venerable fenates. 

There is in every town or tribe a high prieft, ufu- 
ally called by the white people jugglers, or con- 
jurers, befides feveral juniors or graduates. But the 
ancient high prieft or feer, prefides in fpiritual af- 
fairs, and is a perfon of confcquence ; he maintains 
and exercifes great influence in the ftate, particularly 
in military affairs ; the fenate never determine on an 
expedition againft their enemy without his counfel 
and affiftance. Thefe people generally believe that 
their feer has communion with powerful invifiblc 
fpirits, who they fuppofc have a fhare in the rule 
and government of human affairs, as well as the ele- 
ments ; that he can predift the refult of an expedi- 
tion j and his influence is fo great, that they have 
been known frequently to ftop, and turn back an 
army, when within a day's journey of their enemy, 
after a march of feveral hundred miles ; and indeed 
their predidiions have furprized many people. They 
fbretel rain or drought, and pretend to bring rain at 
pleafure, cure difeafes, and exercife witchcraft, in- 
voke or expel evil fpirits, and even affume the power 
of direfting thunder and lightning. 

Thefe Indians are by no means idolaters, un- 

lefs their puffing the tobacco fmoke towards the 

I fun, and rejoicing at the appearance of the new 

2 moon^ 


moon*, may be termed fo. So far from idolatry 
are they, that they have no images amongft them, 
nor any religious rite or ceremony that I could per- 
-ceive ; but adore the Great Spirit, the giver and 
taker away of the breath of life, with the moft pro- 
found and refpedlful homage. They believe in a 
future ftate, where the fpirit exifts, which they call 
the world of Ipirits, where they enjoy different de- 
grees of tranquillity or comfort, agreeably to their 
life fpent here : a perfon who in his life has been an 
indudrious hunter, provided well for his family, an 
intrepid and a6live warrior, juft, upright, and done 
^11 the good he could, will, they fay, in the world of 
fpirits, live in a warm, pleafant country, where are 
expanfive, green, flowery favannas and hi^h forefts, 
watered with rivers of pure waters, replenifned with 
deer, and every Ipecies of game; a ferene, unclouded 
and peaceful fl<.y ; in fliort, where there is fulnefs of 
pleafure uninterrupted. 

They have many accounts of trances and vifions 
of their people, who have been fuppofed to be dead, 
but afterwards reviving, have related their vifions, 
which tend to enforce the pradtice of virtue and the 
moral duties. 

Before I went amongft the Indians, I had of- 
ten heard it reported, that thefe people, when dieir 
parents, through extreme old age, become de- 
crepid and helplefs, in compaffion for their mi- 
feries, fend them to the other world, by a ftroke 
of the tomahawk or bullet. Such a degree of 
depravity and fpecies of impiety, always appeared 

* I have obferveJ the young fellows very merry and jocofe, at the ap- 
pearanc* of the new moon, faying, how aihamed (he looks under the veil, 
/ince fleeping with the fun thefe two or three nights, Ihe is alhamed to 
Ihow her face, Sec. 



ta me fo incredibly inhuman and liorrid, that it was 
with the litmoft difficulty I adlimcd refoludon fuf- ' 
ficient to inquire into it. 

The traders afliired me that they knew no in- 
ftance of fuch barbarifm i but that there had been 
inftances of the communities performing fuch a 
deed at the earneft requell of the vicftim. 

When I was at MucclafTe town, early one morn- 
ing, at the invitation of the chief trader, we repaired 
to the public fquare, taking with us fome prefents 
for the Indian chiefs. On our arrival we took our 
feats in a circle c'i venerable men, round a fire m 
the centre of the area : other citizens were con- 
tinually coming in, and amongft them 1 was flruck 
with awe and veneration at the appearance of a very 
aged man : his hair, what little he had, was as white 
as fnow J he was conduced by three young men, 
one having hold of each arm, and the third behind 
to fteady him. On his approach the whole circle 
faluted him, " welcome," and made way for him : 
he looked as fmiling and cheerful as youth, yet 
ftone-blind by extreme old age : he was the moft 
ancient chief of the town, and they all fcemed to 
reverence him. Soon after the old man had feated. 
himfelf, I diftributed my prefents, giving him a 
very fine handkerchief and a twill of choice to- 
bacco, which pafled through the hands of an elder- 
ly chief who fat next him, telling him it was a 
prefent from one of their white brothers, lately 
arrived in the nation from Charlefton : he received 
the prefent with a fmile, and thanked me, return- 
ing the favour immediately with his own Hone 
pipe and cat fkin of tobacco: and then compli- 
mented me with a long oration, the purport of 
wliich was the value he fet on the friendfl^ip ot 
K k ' rhe 


the Carolinians. He faid, that when he was a young 
man they had no iron hatchets, pots, hoes, knives, 
razors nor guns, that they then made ufe of their 
own ftone axes, clay pots, flint knives, bows and 
arrows ; and that he was the firft man who brought 
the white people's goods into his town, which he 
did on his back from Charlefton, five hundred miles 
on foot, for they had no horfes then amongfb them. 

The trader then related to me an anecdote con- 
cerning this ancient patriarch, which occurred not 
long before. 

One morning after his attendants had led him to 
the council fire, before leating himfelf, he addrelTed 
himfelf to the people after this manner — 

" You yet love me; what can I do now to merit 
your regard ? nothing j I am good for nothing ; I 
cannot fee to fhoot the buck or hunt up the fturdy 
bear ; I know I am but a burthen to you j I have 
lived long enough; now let my fpirit go; I want to 
fee the warriors of my youth in the country of fpirits ; 
(bareing his breaft) here is the hatchet, take it and 
ilrike." They, anfwered with one united voice, 
" We will not; we cannot; we want you here/* 




O-- -■■-■' ■ 

Of their dress, FEASTS and DIVERTISEMENTS. 

The youth of both fexes are fond of decorat- 
ing themfelves with external ornaments. The men 
fhave their head, leaving only a narrow creft or 
comb, beglnniiig at the crown of the head, where it 
is about two inches broad and about the fame 
height, and ftands frized upright; but this creft 
tending backwards, gradually widens, covering the 
hinder part of the head and back of the neck : the 
lank hair behind is ornamented witii pendant filver 
quills, and then jointed or articulated filver plates ; 
and ufually the middle fafcicle of hair, being by far 
the longeft, is wrapped in a large quill of filver, or 
the joint of a fmall reed, curioufly fcufptured and 
painted, the hair continuing through it terminates 
in a tail or taflel. 

Their ears are lacerated, feparating the border or 
cartilaginous limb, which at firft is bound round 
very clofe and tight with leather ftrings or thongs, 
and anointed with frelh bear's oil, until healed : 
a piece of lead being faftcned to ir, uy its weight 
extends this cartilage to an incredible length, which 
afterwards being craped, or bound round in brafs 
or filver wire, extends femicircularly like a bow or 
Crefcent; and it is then very elaftic, even fo as to 
fpring and bound about with the leaft motion or 
flexure of the body : this is decorated with fofc 
white plumes of heron feathers. 

A very curious diadem or band, about foiu" 

inches broad, and ingeniouQy wrought or woven, 

and curiouflv decorated with ftones, beads, wam.- 

K k i pun>. 


pum, porcupine quills, &c., encircles their temples ; 
the front peak of it being embellifhed with a high 
waving plume, of crane Or heron feathers. 

The clothing of their body is very fimple and 
frugal. Sometimes a ruffled fhirt of fine linen, 
next the {kin^ and a flap which covers their lower 
parts J this garment fomewhat refembles the an* 
cient Roman b ♦-r'ches, or the kilt of the High- 
landers ; it ufuaily confifts of a piece of blue cloth, 
about eighteen inches wide ; this they pafs between 
their thighs, and both ends being taken up and 
drawn through a belt round their waift, the ends fail 
dov/n, one before, and the other behind, not quite 
to the knee ; this flap is ufuaily plaited and in- 
dented at the ends, and ornamented with beads, 
tinfel lace, &c. 

The leg is furnilhed with cloth boots ; they reach 
from the ancle to the caif, and are ornamented with 
lace, beads, filver bells, &c. 

The ftillepica or moccafin defends and adorns 
the feet ; it feems co be an imitation of the ancient 
buflcin or ianda!, very ingenioufly made of deer 
Jkins, dreflt;d veiy loft, and curioufly ornamented 
according tO'flmcy. 

Befide this attire, they liave a large mantle of the 
finefl cloth they are able to purchafe, always either 
of a fcarlet or blue colour ; tliis mantle is fancifully 
decorated with rich lace or fringe round the border, 
and often with little round filver, or brafs bells. 
Some have a fliort cloak, juft large enough to cover 
the flioulders and breailj this is mofl: ingenioufly 
conftrudled, of feathers woven or placed in a natural 
imbricated manner, ufuaily of the fcarlet feathers of 
the flamingo, or others of the gayeft colour. 



They have large filvcr crefcents, or gorgets, 
which being fufpended by a ribband round the neck, 
lie upon the breaft j and the ai'ms are ornamented 
with filver bands, or bracelets, and filver and gold 
chains, &c. a collar invefts the neck. 

The head, neck, and breaft, are painted with ver- 
milion, and Ibme of the warriors liave the fl^in of 
the breaft, and mufcular parts of the body, very cu- 
rioiifly infcribed, or adorned with hieroglyphick 
fcrolls, flowers, figures of animals, ftars, crefcents, 
and the fun in the centre of the breaft. This paint- 
ing of the flefli, I underftand is performed in their 
youth, by pricking the fl<.in with a needle, until the 
blood ftarts, and rubbing in a blueifli tin6l, which 
is as permanent as their life. The fliirt hangs loofc 
about the waift, like a frock, or fplit down before, 
refembling a gow^n, and is fometimes wrapped clofe, 
and the waift encircled by a curious belt or iafh. 

The drefs of the females is fomev/hat difi^erent 
from that of the men: their flap or petticoat is made 
after a difl'erent manner, is larger and longer, reach- 
ing almoft to the middle of the leg, and is put 
on differently; they have ho Ihirt or fliift, but a 
little ihort waiftcoat, ufually made of callico, print- 
ed linen, or fine cloth, decorated with lace, beads, 
&c. They never wear boots or ftockings, but their 
bu&ins reach to the middle of the leg. They never 
cut their hair, but plait it in v/reaths, Vv'hich are 
turned up, and faftened on the crown, with a filver 
broach, forming a wreathed top -knot, decorated 
with an incredible quantity of filk ribbands, of va- 
rious colours, which ftream down on every fide, 
almoft to the ground. They never paint, .except 
thofe of a particular clafs, when difpofed to grant 
certain favours to the other fex. 

K k 3 But 

502 TRAVELS li^. 

But thefe decorations are only to be conliderei^ 
as indulgencies on particular occasions, and the pri- 
vileo-e of youth J as at weddings, feftivals, dances, &c. 
or when the men affemble to aft the war farce, on 
the evening immediately preceding their march on 
a hoftile expedition : for ufually they are almoft 
naked, contenting themfelves with the flap and 
fometimes a fhirt, boots and moccafins. The 
mantle is fcldom worn by the men, except at night, 
in the winter feafon, when extremely cold 3 and by 
the women at dances, when it feryes the purpofe of 
a veil; and the females always wear the jacket^ 
flap, and bufkin, even children as foon or before 
they can walk ; whereas the male youth go per- 
feftly naked until they are twelve or fifteen years 
of age. 

The junior priefts or ftudents conftantly wear 
the mantle or robe, which is white j and they have 
a great owl fkin cafed and fluffed very ingenioufly, 
fo vv^ell executed, as almoft to reprefent the living 
bird, having large fparkling glafs beads, or buttons, 
fixed in the head for the eyes : this enfign of wif- 
dom and divination, they wear fometimes as a crefl 
on the top of the head, at other times the image 
fits on the arm, or is borne on the hand. Thefe 
bachelors are alfo diftinguifhable from the other 
people, by their taciturnity, grave and folemn coun- 
tenance, dignified flcp, and finging to themfelves 
fong or hymns, in a low fweet voice, as they flroU 
about the towns. 

Thefe people, like all other nations, are fond of 
mufic and dancing: their mufic is both vocal and 
initrumental ; but of the latter they have fcarcely 
any thing worth the name 1 the tambour, ratde- 
gourd, and a kind of flute made of a joint of reed 


or die tibia of the deer's leg : on this inftrument 
they perform badly, and at beft it is rather a hide- 
ous melancholy difcord, than harmony. It is only 
young fellows who amiife themfelves on this 
howling inftrument; but the tambour and rattle, 
accompanied with their fweet low voices, produce 
a pathetic harmony, keeping exaft time together, 
and the countenance of the mufician, at proper 
times, feems to exprefs the folcmn elevated ftate of 
the mind : at that tiine there feems not only a har- 
mony between him and his inftrument, but it in- 
ftantly touches the feelings of the attentive audience, 
as the influence of an adtive and powerful fpirit; 
•there is then an united univerfal fenfation of de- 
light and peaceful union of fouls throughout the 

Their mufic, vocal and inftrumental, united, keeps 
exa6t time with the performers or dancers. 

They have an endlefs variety of fteps, but the 
rnoft comn^on, and that which I term the moft 
f;ivil, and indeed the moft admired and pra(5lifed 
amongft themfelves, is a flow fliuflling alternate 
ftep; both feet move forward one after tlie other, 
firft the right foot foremoft, and next the left, mov- 
ing one after the other, in oppofite circles, i. e. firft 
a circle of young men, and within, a circle of young- 
women, moving together oppofite ways, the men 
with the couric of the fun, and the females contrary 
to it; the men ftrike their arm with the open hand, 
and the girls clap hands, and raife their flirill fweet 
voices, anfwering an elevated fliout of the men nr 
ftated times of termination of the ftanzas; and the 
girls perform an interlude or chorus feparately. 

To accompany their dances, they have fongs 
K k 4 of 


of different clafTeSj as martial, bacciianalian and 
amorous ; which laft, I muft confefs, are extrava- 
gantly libidinous J and they have moral fongs, which 
feem to be the mpft efteemed and praftifed, and 
anfwer the purpofe of religious lectures. 

Some of their mofi: favourite fongs and dances, 
they have from their enemies, the Chaftawsj for it 
feems thefe people are very eminent for poetry and 
mufic ; every town amongft them ft rives to excel 
each other in compofing new fongs for dances ; 
and by a cuftom amongft diem, they muft have 
at leaft one new fong, for exhibition, at every 
annual buflc. 

The young muftee, who came with me to the 
Mucclaffes from. Mobile, having Chaftaw blood in 
|iis veins from his mother, was a fenfible young fel- 
low, and by his father had been inftrutTced in reading, 
writing and arithmetic, and could fpeak Englifli 
very well. He took it into his head to travel into 
the ChaiTraw country : his vie'^s were magnanimous, 
and his defigns in the higheft degree commendable, 
nothing lefs than to inform himfelf of every fpecies 
of arts and fcicnces, that might be of ufe and advan- 
tage when introduced into his own country, but 
n^ore particularly m^ufic and poetry. With thefe 
views he privately left the Nation, went to Mobile, 
and there entered into the fervice of the trading 
company to the Chadiaws, as a white man ; his eafy, 
communicative, a6live and familiar difpofition and 
manners, being agreeable to that people, pro- 
cured him accefs every where, and favoured his 
fiibtihy and artifice : "at length, however, the 
Cli?ftaws hearing of his lineage and confangui- 
niiy with the Creeks, by the father's fide, pro- 
noimcfd hini a Creek, and confequently an ene- 


my and a fpy amongft them, and fecretly rcfolvcd 
to dilpatch him. The young philofophfr go^ 
notice of dieir fiifpicions and hoftile intentions, 
jfn time to make his eicape ; dioiigh clofely pur- 
fued, he kept a head of his fanguinary purfuers, 
arrived at Mobile, and threw himfelf under the 
protedlion of the Englifli, entered the fcrvice of 
the trader of MucclalTe, who was then fettin? off 
for the Nation, and notwithftanding the fpeed with 
which we travelled, narrowly clcaped the ardour 
and vigilance of his purfuing enemies, who fur- 
prifed a company of emigrants, in the defarts of 
Schambe, the very night after we met them, ex- 
pecting to intercept him thereabout. 

The young traveller having learned all their 
nioll celebrated new fongs and poetry, at a great 
dance and feftival in the Mucclafle, a day or two 
after our arrival, the youth prefied him to give out 
fome of his new fongs ; he complied with their 
entreaties, and the fongs and dance went round 
v>/ith harmony and eclat. There was a young Chac- 
taw flave girl in the circle, who foon after dif- 
covered very affefting fenfa^ions of affli6lion and 
diftrefs of mind, and before the conclufion of the 
dance, many of her companions complimented her 
with fympathetic fighs and tears, from their own 
Iparkling eyes. As foon as I had an opportu- 
nity, I inquired of the young Orpheus, the caufe 
of that fong being fo dillrclTing to the young 
flave. He replied, that when fhe was lately taken 
captive, her father and brothers were flain in the 
contcft, and Ihe underftanding die fcnfe of the 
fong, called to remembrance the tragical fate of 
her family, and could not forbear weeping at the 



The meaning of the chorus was^ 

All men muft furely die, 
Tho' no one knows how foon, 
Yet when the time fhall come. 
The tvcnt may be joyful. 

Thefe doleful moral fongs or elegies, have a 
quick and fenhble effect on their paflions, and dif- 
cover a lively affeftion and fenfibilicy : their coun- 
tenance now dejected, again, by an eaiy tranficionj 
becomes gently elevated, as if in fokmn addrefs or 
iupplication, accompanied with a tremulouSj fweet, 
lamentable voice: a ftrangeris for a moment loft to 
himfelf as it were, or his mind, aflbciated with the 
perfon immediately affeded, is in danger of reveal- 
ing his own diftrefs unawares. 

They have a variety of games for c^ercife and 
paltimej fome particular to the men, fome to the 
female fex, and others wherein both fexes are en- 

The ball play is efteemed the moft noble and 
manly exercife. This game is exhibited in an ex- 
tenfive level plain, ufually contiguous to the town : 
the inhabitants of one town play againft another, in 
conlequence of a challenge, when the youth of both 
fexes are often engaged, and fomiCtimes ftake their 
■whole fubftance. Here they perform amazing feats 
of ftrength and agility. The game principally con- 
fifts in taking and carrying off the ball from the op- 
pofire party, after being hurled into the air, midway 
between two high pillars, v/hich are the goals, and 
the party who bears off the bali to their pillar wins 
the game ; each perfon lias a racquet or hurl, which 
is an implement of a very curious conftrudtion, 
iorrcwhut reft'iinhling a ladk or little hoop-net, 



with a handle near three feet in length, the hoop 
and handle of wood, and the netting of thongs of 
raw hide, or tendons of an animal. 

The foot ball is likewife a favourite, manly di- 
verfion widi them. Feafting and dancing in the 
fquare at evening, ends all their gamts. 

They have befides, feafts or feftivals almoft for 
every month in the year, which are chiefly dedi- 
cated to hunting and agriculture. 

The bufk, or feaft of firft fruits, is their principal 
feftival; this feems to end the laft, and begin the 
new year. 

It commences in Auguft> when their new crops 
of corn are arrived to perfe(5l maturity : and every 
town celebrates the bufk feparately, when their own 
harvefl is ready. 

If they have any religious rite or ceremony, this 
feftival is its moft fokmn celebration. 

When a town celebrates the bufk, having pre- 
vioufly provided themfelves with new cloaths, new 
pots, pans, and other houfchold utenfils and furni- 
ture, they colle6t all their worn-out cloaths and 
other defpicable things, fweep and cleanfe their 
houfes, fquares, and the whole town, of their filth, 
which widi all the remaining grain and other old 
provifions, they caft together into one common 
heap, and confume it with fire. After having 
taken medicine, and fafted for three days, all the 
fire in the town is extingniflicd. During this fall 
they abftain from the gratification of every appetite 
and paffion whatever. A general amnefty is pro- 
claimed, all malefaftors may retiu^n to their town, 
and they are abfolved from their crimes, v/hich arc 
BOW forgotten, and they reilored to favour. 

6 On 


On the fourth morning, the high priefl, by rub- 
bing dry wood together, produces new fire in the 
public fquare, from whence every habitation in the 
town is fupplied with the new and pure flame. 

Then the women go forth to the harvefl field, 
and bring from thence new corn and fruits, which 
being prepared in the befl manner, in various difhes, 
and drink withal, is brought with folemnity to the 
fquare, where the people are aiTem-bied, apparelled 
in their new cloaths and decorations. The men 
having regaled themfelves, the remainder is carried 
off and diftributed amongft the families of the 
town. The women and children folace themfelves 
in their feparate families, and in the evening repair 
to the pubHc fquare, where they dance, fing and re- 
joice during the whole night, obferving a proper 
and exemplary decorum : this continues three days, 
and the four following days they receive vifits, and 
rejoice with their friends from neighbouring towns^ 
who have purified and prepared themfelves. 

Q H A l^ 


Chap. iv. 



It has been faid by hiftorians, who have written 
concerning the cuftonns and iifages of the aborigines 
of America, that they have every tiling in common, 
and no private property; which are terms in my 
opinion too vague and general, when apphed to 
thefe people. From my own frequent opportuni- 
ties of obfervation, and the information of refpe(^- 
able characl^^rs, who have Ipent many years amongft: 
them, I venture to fet diis matter in a juft view 
before my readers. 

I fhall begin with the produce of their agricul- 
tural labours. 

An Indian town is generally fo fituated, as to be 
convenient for procuring game, fecure from fudden 
invafion, having a large diftridl of excellent arable 
land adjoining, or in its vicinity, if pofTible on an 
ilthmus betwixt two waters, or where the doubling 
of a river forms a peninfula. Such a fituation ge- 
nerally comprifes a fufficient body of excellent land 
for planting Corn, Potatoes, Beans, Squafh, Pump- 
kins, Citruls, Melons, &c. and is taken in with a 
fmall expence and trouble of fencing, to (ccure the 
crops from the invafion of predatory animals. At 
other times however they choofe fuch a convenient 
fertile fpot at fome diftance from their town, when 
crircumftances will not admit of having both to- 



This is their common plantation, and the wlioli^ 
town plant in one vaft field together; but yet the 
part or fliare of every individual family or habita- 
tion, is feparated from the next adjoining, by a 
narrow ftrip, or verge of grafs, or any other natural 
or artificial boundary. 

In the fpring, the ground being already pre- 
pared on one and the fame day, early in the morn- 
ing, the whole town is fummoned, by the Ibbnd of 
a conch fhell, from the mouth of the overfeer, to 
meet at the public fquare, whither the people re- 
pair with their hoes and axes -, and from thence pro- 
ceed to their plantation, where they begin to piantj 
not every one in his own little diftridl, afTigned and 
laid out, but the whole community united begini 
on one certain part of the field, where they plant on 
until finifhed ; and when their rifing crops are ready 
for dreffing and cleanfing they proceed after the 
fame order, and fo on day after day, until the crop 
is laid by for ripening. After the feaft of the bufli 
is over, and all the grain is ripe, the whole towri 
again afiemble, and every man carries off the fruits 
of his labour, from the part firft allotted to him, 
which he depofits in his own granary; which is 
individually his own. But previous to their carry- 
ing off their crops from the field, there is a large 
crib or granary, ere6ted in the plantation, which 
is called the king's crib; and to this each family 
carries and depofits a certain quantity, according 
to his ability or inclination, or none at all if he lb 
choofes: this in appearance feems a tribute ot 
revenue to the mico; but in fad is defigned for 
another purpofe, i. e. that of a public treafury, 
fupplied by a few and voluntary contributions, 
and to which every citizen has the right of free 



and equal accefs, when his own prlv.itc ftores aic 
confumedj to ferve as a furplus to fly to for fuc- 
cour; to afTifl neighbouring towns, whofe crops may 
have failed; acconnmodate ftrangers, or travellers ; 
afford provifions or lupplies, when they go forth on 
hoftile expeditions ; and for all other exigencies of 
the flate : and this treafure is at the difpofal of the 
king or micoi which is furely a royal attribute, to 
have an cxclufive right and ability in a corr.munity 
to diftribute comfort and ble flings to the necclutous. 

As to mechanic arts or manufa61ures, at prefenr. 
they have fcarcely any thing worth obf^rvation, 
fince they are fupplied with nccefTaries, conve- 
niences, and even fuperfluities by the white traders. 
The men perform nothing except erecting their 
mean habitations, forming their canoes, ftone 
pipes, tambour, eagles tail or ftandard, and fome 
other trifling matters ; for war and liunting are their 
principal employments. The women are more 
vigilant, and turn their attention to various manual 
employments i they make all their pottery or 
earthen-ware, moccafins, fpin and weave the cu- 
rious belts and diadems for men, fabricate lace, 
fringe, embroider and decorate their apparel, &c. 


512 TRAVELS iff 

C H A P. V/ 

Of their, marriage and FUNERAL CEREMONIES, 

As to their marriage ceremonies, they are very 
fimplcj yet differ greatly in the various nations and 
tribes. i'Lmongft fome of the bands in the Mufco- 
gulge confederacy, I was informed the myftery is 
performed after the following manner. When a' 
young man has fixed his a{]"e6fcions, and is deter- 
mined to marry, he takes a Cane or Reed, fuch as 
they flick down at the hills of their Bean vines for 
their fupport: with this (after having obtained her 
parents' or nearetl relations' confent) he repairs to 
die habitation of his beloved, attended by his friends 
and afTociates, and in the prefence of the wedding 
guefls, he fticks his Reed down, upright in the 
ground ; when foon after his fweet-heart comes 
forth with another Reed, which fhe fticks down 
by the fide of his, when they are married : 
then they exchange Reeds, which are laid by 
as evidences or certificates of tte marriage, which 
is celebrated with feafdng, mufic and dancing: 
each one of their relations and friends, at the wed- 
ding, contribute fomething towards eftablifhing the 
new family. As foon as the wedding is over, the 
town is convened, and the council orders or recom- 
mends a new habitation to be conftrufted for the 
accommodation of the new family : every man in 
the town joins in the work, which is begun and 
finilhed in a day's time. ■ 

The greateft accomplifhments to recommend a 
young man to his favourite maid, are to prove him- 
felf a brave warrior, and- a cunning, induftrious 

^ They 


They marry only for a year's time, and, accord- 
ing to ancient cuftom, at the expiration of the year 
they rene^v the marriage: but there is feldom an 
inftance of their feparating after they have children. 
If it fhould fo happen, the mother takes the chil- 
dren under her own proteflion, though the father is 
oblio;ed to contribute towards their maintenance du- 
ring their minority and the mother's widowhood. 

The Mufcogulges allow of polygamy in the ut- 
moft latitude ; every man takes as many wives as he 
choofes, but the firfl is queen, and the others her 
handmaids and alTociatcs. 

It is common for a great man amongft them, 
who has already half a dozen wives, if he fees 
a child of eight or nine years of age, who pleiifes 
him, and he can agree with her parents or guar- 
dians, to marry her and take her into his houfe at 
that age. 

Adultery is always puniflied with cropping, which 
is the only corporal punifhment amonglt them ; and 
death or outlawry for murder ; and infamy for lefa 
crimes, as fornication, theft, &c. which produces 
fuch repeated marks and refle6lions of ridicule and 
contempt, that it generally ends in voluntary banifli- 
ment ; and thefe renegadoes and vagabonds are ge- 
nerally the ruffians who commit depredations and 
murders on the frontiers. 

The Mufcogulges bury their deceafed in the 
earth. They dig a four-fquare deep pit under the 
cabin or couch which the deceafed lay on, in his 
houfe, lining the grave with cyprefs bark, where 
they place the corpfe in a fitting pofture, as if it 
were alive j depofiting with him his ^gun^ toma- 

L 1 hawk, 

^14 * l-RAVELS IW 

hawk, pipe, and fuch other matters as he had the 
greatefi value for in his life-time. His eldeft wife, 
or the queen dowager, has the fecond choice of his 
poffeffions, and the remaining effefts are divided 
am.ongft his other wives and children. 

The Chaftaws pay their laft duties and refpe6l to 
the deceafed in a very different manner. As foon as 
the perfon is dead, they eredl a fcaffoid eighteen or 
twenty feet high, in a grove adjacent to the town, 
where they lay the corpfe, lightly covered with a 
mantle : here it is fuffered to remain, vifited and 
protected by the friends and relations, until the flefh 
becomes putrid, fo as eafily to part from the bones ; 
then undertakers, who make it their bufmefs, care- 
fully [trip the fiefh from the bones, wafh and cleanfc 
them, and when dry and purified by the air, having 
provided a curioufly wrought cheft or cofEn, fabri- 
cated of bones and fplints, they place all the bones 
therein ; it is then depcfited in the bone-houfe, a 
building ere(51:ed for that purpofe in every town. 
And when this houfe is full, a general folemn fune- 
ral takes place ; the neareft kindred or friends of 
the deceafed, on a day appointed, repair to the 
bone-houfe, take up the refpeftive cofiins, and fol- 
lowing one another in order of feniority, the nearefl 
relations and connexions attending their refped:ive 
coipfe, and the mukitude following after them, all 
as one family, with united voice of alternate Alle- 
lujah and lamentation, (lowly proceed to the place 
of general interment, where they place the coffins 
in order, forming a pyramid *i and lafUy, cover 

* Some ingenious men, whom I have converfed with, have given it as- 
Ihei. opinion, that all thofe pyramidal artificial hills, ufiially called India*, 
mounts, w^re raifed on thefe occafions, and ai* generally fepulchres. How- 
ever, i am of a uirterent opinion. 

< all 


all over with earth, which raifes a conical hill or 
mount. Then they return to town in order of Ib- 
lemn proceflion, concluding the day with a feftival, 
which is called the feaft of the dead. 

The Chadbaws are called by the traders flats, or 
flat-heads, all the males having the fore and hind 
part of their fkulls artificially flattened, or com- 
prelTed ; which is efFefted after the following man- 
ner. As foon as the child is born, the nurfe pro- 
vides a cradle or wooden cafe, hollowed and fa- 
jfhioned, to receive the infant, lying proftrate on its 
back, that part of the cafe where the iiead repofes, 
being fafliioned like a brick mould. In this porta- 
ble machine the httle boy is fixed, a bag of fand be- 
ing laid on his forehead, which by continual gen- 
tle compreflion, gives the head fomewhat the form 
of a brick from the temples upwards ; and by thefe 
means they have high and lofty foreheads, floplng 
off^ backwards, Thefe men are not fo neat in the 
trim of their heads, as the Mufcogulges are, and 
they are remarkably flovenly and negligent in every 
part of their drefs ; but otherwife they are Hiid to be 
ingenious, fenfible, and virtuous men ; bold and in- 
trepid, yet quiet and peaceable, and are acknow- 
ledged by the Creeks to be brave. 

They are fuppofed to be mod ingenious and in- 
duftrious hufbandmen, having large plantations, or 
country farnns, where they employ much ot their 
time in agricultural improvements, after the manner 
of the white people; by which means their territo- 
ries are more generally cultivated, and better inha* 
bited, than any other Indian republic that we know 
of. The number of their inhabitants is faid greatly 
to exceed the whole Mufcogulge confederacy, al- 
though their territories are not a fourth pare as ex- 

L I d Voifive. 


tenfive. It appeared to me from obfervation, and 
what information I could get, that the Indians en- 
tertain rational notions of the foul's immortality, and 
of a future (late of fecial exiftence -, and accordingly, 
in order to inculcate morality, and promote human 
happinefs, they applaud praife -worthy aftions, as ^ 
commendable and neceffary for the fupport of civil 
fociety, and maintaining the dignity and ftrength of 
their nation or tribe, as well as fecuring an excellent 
and tranquil ftate and degree in the world of fpirits, 
after their deceafe. And they fay the Great Spirit 
favours all good and brave men. 

C H A P» 




The Mufcogulge language is ipoken through- 
out the confederacy (although confifting of many 
nations, who have a fpeech peculiar to them- 
felves), as alfo by their friends and allies, die 
Natches. The Chicafaw and ChaiStaw, the Muf- 
cogulges fay are dialects of theirs. 

This language is very agreeable to the car, 
courteous, gentle and mufical: the letter R is 
not founded in one word of their language: the 
women in particular fpeak fo fine and mufical, as 
to reprefent the finging of birds ; and vvhi.n heard 
and not feen, one might imagine it to be the 
prattling of young children. The men's fpeecii 
is indeed more itrong and fonorous, but not 
harfh, and in no inftance guttural, and I beheve 
the letter R is not ufed to exprcfs any word, in 
any language of the confederacy. 

The Cherokee tongue, on the contrary, is very 
loud, fomewhat rough and very fonorous, found- 
ing the letter R frequently, yet very agreeable 
and pleafant to the ear. All the Indian languages 
are truly rhetorical, or figurative, affifting their 
fpeech by tropes ; their hands, fiexure of the head, 
the brow, in fnort, every member, naturally aflb- 
ciate, and give their afliltance to render their ha- 
rangues eloquent, perfuafive and effectual. 

The pyramidal hills or artificial mounts, and 
highways, or avenues, leading from them to ar- 
tificial lakes or ponds, valt tetragon terraces, 
L 1 3 chunk 


chunk yards,* and obeliilis or pillars of wood, are 
tlie only monuments of labour, ingenuity and 
magnificence that I have feen worthy of notice, 
or remark. The region lying between Savanna 
river and Oakmulge, Eall and Weft, and from 
the fea coaft to the Cherokee or Apalachean 
mountain, North and South is the moft remark- 
able for thefe high conical hills, tetragon terraces 
and chunk yards. This region was poffeiTed by 
the Cherokees, finee the arrival of the Europeans, 
but they were afterwards difpolTefTed by the Muf- 
cogulges, and all that country was probably, many 
ages preceding the Cherokee invafion, inhabited 
by one nation or confederacy, who were ruled by 
the fame fyfiem of laws, cuftoms and language, but 
fo ancient that the Cherokees, Creeks, or the na- 
tion they conquered, could render no account for 
what purpofe thefe monuments were raifed. The 
mounts and cubical yards adjoining them, feem to 
have been raifed in part for ornament and recre- 
ation, and likewife to ferve fome other pubHc 
purpoie, fince they are always fo fituated as to 
command the moft extenfive profped over the 
town and country adjacent. The tetragon terra- 
ces feem to be the foundation of a forcrefs i and 
perhaps the great pyramidal mounts, ferved the 
purpofe of look-out towers, and high places for 
facrifice. The funken area, called by white tra- 
ders the chunk yard, very likely ferved the fame 
conveniency that it has been appropriated to, 
by the more modern and even prefent nations of 
Indians, that is, the place where they burnt and 
otherwife tortured the unhappy captives that were 

* Chunk yard, a term given by the white traders, to the oblong four 
f'juare yards, adjoining tlie high mounts and rotund; s of the modura Indi- 
a IS — In the cciurc of thefs ftands the obelifk, and at eacli corner uf the 
f. trther end lUnds a (lave pofl or itrono- tlake, where the captivcj that arc 
burnt alive are bound. 



condemned to die ; as the area is furrounded by 
a bank, and fometimes two of them, one behind 
and above the other, as feats, to accommodate the 
Ipedlators at fuch tragical fcenes, as well as the 
exhibition of games, Ihows, and dances. From 
the river St. Juans, Southerly, to the point of the 
peninfula of Florida, are to be feen high pyrami- 
dal mounts with ipacious and extenfive avenues, 
leading from them out of the town, to an artifi- 
cial lake or pond of water j thefe were evidently 
defigned in part for ornament or monuments of 
magnificence, to perpetuate the power and gran- 
deur of the nation, and not inconfiderable neither, 
for they exhibit fcenes of power and grandeur, and 
muft have been public edifices. 

The great mounts, highways, and artificial lakes 
up St, Juans, on the Eaft fliore, jufl at the entrance 
of the great Lake George, one on die oppofite 
Ihore, on the bank of the Little Lake, another 
on Dunn's Ifland, a little below Charlottcviile, 
one on the large beautiful Ifland juft without the 
Capes of Lake George, in fight of Mount Royal, 
and a fpacious one on the Weft banks of the 
Mufquitoe river near New Smyrna, are the moft 
remarkable of this fort that occurred to me -, but 
undoubtedly many more are yet to be difcovered 
farther South in the peninfula ; however I obfcrved 
none Weftward, after I left St Juans, on my jour- 
ney to little St. Juan, near the bay of Apalache. 

But in all the reg;ion of the Mufco2:ulo;e coun- 
try, South-Weft from tlie Oakmulge river quite 
to tl'ke Tallapoofe, down to the city of Mobile, 
and thence along the fca coaft, to the Mifiifiipi, 
I faw no figns of mountains or highways, except 
at Taenfa, where were feveral inconfiderable co- 
L 1 4 nical 


nical mountains ; and but one inftance of the te- 
tragon terraces, which was at the Apalachucla old 
town, on the Weft banks of that river : here were 
yet remaining confpicuous monuments, as vaft four 
fquare terraces, chunk yards, &c. almoft equalling 
ihofe eminent ones at the Oakmulge fields ; but 
no hisrh conical mounts. Thofe Indians have a 
tradition J that thefe remains are the ruins of 
an ancient Indian town and fortrefs. I was not 
in die interior parts of the Cha(5taw territories, 
and therefore am ignorant whether there are any 
mounts or monuments there. 

To conclude this fubjecl concerning the mo- 
numents of the Americans, I deem it neceflary to 
obferve, as my opinion, that none of them that I 
have feen difcover the leaft figns of the arts, fci- 
ences, or architedure of the Europeans or other 
inhabitants of the old world i yet evidently betray 
every fign or mark of the mofi diftant unciquicy. 

I N D E X. 





AGAVE vivipara - 
Alabama - - - 
Alachua I'avanna - - 
Alatamaha, voyage up the 
' account of the 

Alligator Hole . - - 

. battle with an 

Alligators, battle between two 1 16 
author attacked bv 117, 123 

■ brood of, numerous - 124. 
— — neih of - - - -125 
• old, feed on the young 126 
— — d-icribed - - - . ib. 
Amelia ifland - . _ - 6j 
Amite river ----- 4.23 
Ampelis garrulus - _ . 256 
Angelic I lucida - - . _ 325 
Animals and vegetables com- 
pared - . - _ xiv 

Animals, general obferva- 

tion on - - - - xri 
— — atFe6\ions of - - - xvii 

■ mental faculties of - xviii 
1^ remarkable fragility of 

parts of - - 194, 276 
- influence of country on 21 + 
Annona, new fpecies of 18, 169 
Apalachucla - - - - _ 387 
Arum elculentum cultivated 

for food in Georgia 

and Florida - - 
Arundo gigaiitea 
Aiilus, various fpecies of 


Augufta, journey to - - 28 

delcribed - - - 32, 314. 

Author attacked by a fever 409 

violent diforder in the 

416, 418 

eyes - 


- - 163 



Banks of the river St. Juan 
higher than the adja- 
cent plains 
Battle between cray-fi(h and 
gold-firti - - - 

two alligators 

Bears .___-_ 

Bees, none in Weft Florida, 

though plenty in Eaft 

Birds, obfervations on - - 

on the mij;ratio:i of 280, 295 

of pafTage, American 285 

change their colour - 296 

' - ■ wild, fing only at the 

timeof incubation xxii, 299 
Boat, portable - - - - 457 
Bream, golden - - - - 151 

great black or blue - 174 

■ great yellow, or parti- 
coloured - . - - ib. 
Bridge, Indian - - - - 443 
Brunlwick, town of - - 471 
Buffalo, not now to be found 

where once numerous 44 

Bull fnakc 271 

Buttej-flies x'X 



Caealia heterophylla - - 162 

Caftvis opuntia - - - - 161 

Cambelton ----- 4.76 

Cancer macroiirus, war of the 

gold-fifh on the - 43 

Cane meadows, v;i it - - 231 

Canna Indica - . - - 424, 

Carica papaya - - - - 139 

Cat bird ------ 297 

Cattle, dreadful difeafe of - 205 

Cedar bird ----- 296 

Chadaws ----- 515 

Chameleon ----- 276 

Charleiton, voyage from Phi- 
ladelphia to - - - I 
Charlotta ----- 91 

Chat, yellow hreafted - - 300 

Chicken Ihake - - - . 271 

Clarendon river - - - - 476 

Clay, fort of, eaten greedily 

by cattle - - - - 39 

Cleome liipinifoiia - - - 423 

Cliffs, dei'cription of tlie - 433 

Coachwhip iiiake - - - 217 

Cochineal inleft . _ - j6i 
Collinfonia, fpecies of, febri- 

fiigc 409 

Colymbns Cauda elongata - 130 

Convolvulus difleilus - - 10 z 

Cooiome town - - - - 394 

Conius florida - - - - 399 

Cowe - . - - 350, 364 
Coweta ----- -387 

Cow-pen, account of a - - 308 

Cra'ie, flight of the - - - 144 

— — nefts and eggs of the - 199 

• • lavanna - - - . 218 

Creeks, Upper, alliance of, 

with the Engli 111 - 53 
—— account of the 208,^163 

• Lower, or Siininoles - 209 

Crofs- Creeks - - - - 475 

Crown bird ----- 296 
Crying bird - - - - -145 

CucTirbita Ingenarla - - 477 

CuprefTus dilticha - - - 88 

new fpecies of - - 409 

Curlews, Spanifh - - - 14.6 

Culcowilla, journey to - - 168 

defcription of - - - 189 

Cyprinus coronarius - - 151 

Deer, herd of - - ^ - 198 
Dionxa mufcipula - - xiii, 470 
Dog brought up to tend horfes 220 
Dove, ground - - - - S 
Dyeing, bark of the gordonia 

lafianthus ufeful in 169 

Eagles, various - - - - 2 
Earth, on the produce of the 

different zones of the ix 
— — remarks on certain ftra- 

ta of 433 

Elks only to be found in the 

Apalachean moun- 

tains ----- 45 
Emberiza oryzivora - - 294 
Ephemerae - - - . 78 — 81 
Erythryna corallodendrum 169 

Falco pifcatorius - - - i 
Falling Creek - - - - 339 
Fafcinating power of the rat- 

tleinake - - - - 263 
Febrifuge, virtues of a fpecies 

of Collinfonia - - 409 
Felis cauda truncata - - 278 
Fern, curious fpecies of - 476 
Filli, red-belly - - - - 12 

vaft quantity of, in the 

river St. Juana - - 121 
of prey and others liv- 
ing peaceably toge- 
ther in pellucid wa- 
ter - - 164, 166, 227 
Fifliing, mode of - - - 106 
Flat-rock ----- 374 

" " 383 




Flies, various fpecies of 

Florida, journey to - - - 
— — Eart, very good Indigo 

made in - - - - 

< — — Well, journey to - - 

Fort Moore . - - - - 
■ - - James 


Fort Prince George, Kcovve 318 
Fox 278 

— fquirrels ----- 279 
Fragility, extraordinary in 

animals - ' 194, 276 
Franklinia Alatamaha - - 465 
Frederics, town and fort of 60 

• • oyaiC to - - - - 303 

French iettlement - - - 431 
— — broken up by the In- 
dians ... - 43X 
Frogs, various fpecies of - 37s 

Garr, great brown fpotted 173 
Georgia, voyage to - - 4 
*- — ifl ndson the coaft of 5, 65 
— — — why thinly 

inhabited - - - 64 
Gerardea flainmea - - - 410 
Glafs-fnake - - - - - 193 
GoljJ iilh, war of, on the 

Cray iifh . - - - 43 
■ dtfcribed - . - - 44 
G.,pher ----- 18, 180 
Gr-nlonia lalia'thus - - 159 
Giiuid, ufcful fpecies of - 477 
Grape vmes - . - - 84, 398 
Grajjfs, Indian mode of pre- 

feiving - - - - 398 
Gr^.fs, p«culiar fpecies of - itS 
Graves, Indian - - - - 137 
Green fnake - - - - 271 
Grus pratenfis, flight of the 144 
— — nefts ;<nd eggs of the 199 
— — defcribed - - - -218 


Halefia diptera, variety of - 40?? 
Half-way pond - - - - 172 
Hawk, fifliiiig - . - . 8 
— — engaged with a fnake 216 
Hibifcus, jpecies of 19, 102, 103 
— — coccineus - - - - ici 
Hippobofca - - - - -383 
Honelty, advantages of - 351 
Horn liiake ----- 271 
Horfes, Siininole, of the Spa- 

nifh breed - - - 213 
»— kept by a dog - - ziz 

Hurfes, largp ftud of , - S5? 

tondiicls c)t, tor (alt - 354 

— — lingular mode of taming 375 

flics eKircmely troiiblc- 

lome to - - - - 384 
Huriicane . - - 139,384 
Hydrangia quercifolia - - 380 

Indian pot, curious - - 6 

interview with an - 21 

— — remarks on the moral 

principle of an - - 22 

people, a peculiar race of 25 

— — towns, remains oi 37, 196, 

343. 38!{ 
— — fae;3citv - - - - 
— — mode of killing trout 

village - - - - 

wife of a white man 

mifcondui^ of an 
— — dsleiti the author 


chiefs - 




- - - 137 
183, 235, 350 

I'cni)) ----- 189 

towns 189,327,348,384, 

-^ — punidiinent for adul- 
tery - - 211, 446, 513 
— — public buildings 302, 365, 
antiquities 322, 365, 370, 

455. 519 

fcilivals 233, 367, 449, 507 

towns and villages, lilts 

of . - - 37i,4<'» 

languages 386,461,463,517 

— — wctlding - - 444, 5 iz 
— — chief's revenge on a 
trader cauglit in adul- 
tery wiih his wife - 446 
— — ftandnrd - - - - 453 

painting and fculpturc 454 

canoes - - . - 225 

jelly ----- 239 

mulic - - - 243, 503 

— — drinking bout - - 253 

women, artifice of - 254 

games ----- 506 

Indians, remarks on the x>:ni, 
184, 108 


Indians, treaties with the 33, 235 

fcod of . - - . 28 

plunder the ftores - 61 

— — matters accominodated 

with the - - - . 75 

virtuesof 22,110,208,488 

— — veneration of, for the 

rattlefnake - - - 258 
— — form of falutation a» 

mongft - - . - 182 
— — vifit to the - - - Jb. 
_ — manners and culloms of 

the 182, 184., 189; 207, 

— — habitations of the 1 89, 365, 
386, 395, 4.^14 

— — vices cf the - - . 210 
wars of the - 211,390 

• migration of the - - 378 

■ maffacre of the wiiites 

by -. - - 388 }iote 

roving- difpofition of the 389 

• carry off a party of emi- 


— — murder fome white tra- 
vellers - - - 

— — hunting party of - 

party of, in pinfuit of 

an adulteier - - 

fondnefs of, for fpirits 

Conference with - 

perfons and qualifica- 
tions of the - 

— — government and civil 
fociety of th.e 

drel's, feafts, and diver- 

fions of - - - - 

property, agriculture, 

aits', and manufac- 
tares of the 

- marriage ceremonies of 
the "- - 

funeral ceremonies of the 513 

Indigo, very good, made in 

Ealt Florida - - 75 

Iponiea; fpccies of - - - 37.). 

J/cvi ore - - - 221, 376, 4c I 

Ilhiiids on tlie coaft of Geor- 
gia - - - . 5, 65 

■ why thinly 

ir.habitcd - - - 64 

floatir.g - - _ _ 85 

in Lake George - jco 

iile of PaiiHS - - - - 155 

- - 444 




- 4SI 



Jelly, Indian - - - . 
Jore jiioujitains - - - - 
Journey to Cufcowilla - - 

■ to Talahalochte - - 

— — from Charlellon to the 
Cherokee country _ 

over the Jore mountain 

fjom Fort Charlotte to 

Weit Florida - - 

from Apalachucla to 

Mobile . . - . 
from Savanna to Phila- 
delphia - - _ . 
Juglans, inanner in vrhich the 
Indians ufe the fruit 
of a Ipccies of - - 








Kalniia, new fpecies of - jg 
Keowe ---_._ jjg 

Lacerta, fpecies of - 170, 
Lake Ouaquaphenogaw 

• George - _ _ _ 

La.itana camerara - - - 
Laurel magnolia - . _ 
Lettuce, Indian - . _ 
Liliei ty, obiervations on 
Lime, v/ild - - - - _ 
Liznrd, fpecies of - 170, 
Lupi;i, fpecies of - - . 
Lynx ---_.. 











Magnolia, laurel - . - 85 

peculiar fpecies of 159,338 

grand 1 flora 


Malva, various fpecies of 
Mar,ate fpring - - - 
Aleieagris occidentalis - 
Alice, white - _ _ 
Milk, hiccory 


- 228 

14, 81 

- 277 

- 38 


Mimofa fenfitiva, new fpc- 

cies of - - - - 24. 
virgata - - - - 419 

pudica - - - - 4.18 

MilTiffippi river - - - - 425 
Mobile, journey from Apa- 

lachiicla to - - - 3(^4 
■ town of - - - - 402 
Moccafni fnake - - 268, 269 
Mora] principle of an Indian, 

remarks on the - - 22 
Motacilla trochilus - - 300 
Mount Royal . - - - 96 

MudHfh 1-4 

Mufcicapa vertlce nigro - 297 
Mufcle, horned - - - - 431 
Myrica inodora - - - 403 

Picoiati, fort - - . - ■ 7! 
Pigeons, niode of catching 467 
Pine I'nake - - - . . 27* 
Piltia ftratiotcs - - - - 86 
Pitch, how made from tar 41 7 
Plains, barren - - . . 340 
Plants various, obfervations 

on - - - - - X 

new 16,31,393,415,434, 

465, 466 
Plum, new fpccies of - - 421 
Pot, Indian, curious - - 6 
Prinos, curious fpecies of 477 
Piittacus Carolinicnlis - 299 
Pteris fcandens - - - - 47^ 



Natural produciions, obfer- 
vations on - - - X 
New-Sinyrna - . - _ j^j 
Nympha;a nelumbo - - 407 
Nyfla coccinea - - - - 17 


Oak, black - - - - . 37 

live 82 

Ocean appears to have gained 

on the land of America 66 
Oenothera grandiflora - - 404 
Oil, fweet, obtained from the 

fruit of the live oak 83 
Glive, Indian . - - - 41 

Ranae, various fj^ecies of - 272 
Rat, large ground - - - 7 

wood ----- I2» 

Rattlefnake, veneration of the 

Indians for the - 25! 

account of the - - 26a 

fafcinates its prey - 263 

— — docs no injury uniefs 

attacked - - 262, 264 

balbrd, or ground - 270 

Rhododi-ndron, fpecies of - 334 
Ribband fnake - - - - tjt 
Rice, culture of - - - - ij 
Rice bird . - - . _ 29^. 
River, remarkably cleav - 221 
Robinia, fpecies of - - - 335 
Rocky point - - - - 166 
Ruins, Indian . - - ■57,5; 
— — of a French or Spanifh 

foit 51 

Palm tree ----.113 
Palmetto loyal - - - - 69 
Panicimi hirtellum - - - 428 
Parakeet ----- 299 
Pearl Ifland - - - - 419 
Pelican defcribed . - . - 68 

m wood ----- 149 

Penfacola, account of - - 413 
Petrifaftions - - 473>475 
Phyfic-nut ----- 41 
Pica glandaria cerulea non 

c..\ .' ■ ■ - - - 170 

Sage, tall blue - - - - 
Saint John's, voyage to 

Jiian, Little, ri\er 

Simon, account of the 

idand of - - - 
Salt, fondnefs of horfiisfor 
Sarrjcenia fiava - - - - 

. lacunofa - . - - 

Savanna, journey from, to 

Augufta . - - 
Sea cuw - - . 





+ >5 





Senfitive plant, new fpecies of 24. Trout, American mode of 
Shells, follile, hill of - - 316 catching - - - 106 

Silphium, fpecies of - - 396 defcribed - - - - 107 

Siminoles, account of the 209, 436 Turkey, American - i+j 8t 

Sinica, town of- - - - 327 

Sink, great - - - - 201 

Slaveiy, obfervations on - 184. " 

Slaves, on the treatment of 309 ' 

Similax pfeudo-china ufed as ^^le town 386 

food ----- 239 
Snake, conilift of a, wilh a 

hawk - - - - 216 " 

Snake bird -----130 . 

Snakes, various kinds of 193, Verbena, fpecies of - - 434.^ 
217,262—72 Vulturfacra - ... 448 
Soils, obfervations on 23,29, — — aurea ----- 150 

168, 397, 420, 429 
Spaniftifettlement, remains of 231 

Squirrel, various fpecies of 279 ^^ 

Standard, Creek - - - 149 „. , , , 

Stores plundered by the In- Wampum fnake - - - 269 

dlans - - - - 61 W-jrs of the Indians 2ii,39<^ 
Storm, thunder 13139341,384 Water, hot njineral - - 145 
advantages of a - - 75 pellucid, curious bafon 

Sunfifh ^5^ ru ' " \ ^^J'^^ 

. fubterranean channels 

for 204,223,244,343 

T —— great eruption of - - 236 

Wax tree - ... - 4.03 

Taenfa ------ 403 Whatoga, town of - - - 348 

Taenfapao river - - . 422 White plains - - - - 429 

Talahafochte - - _ - 224 Wolf, narrow efcape from a 156 

Tallow nut ----- 112 American - 197,27* 

Tanal'e, river . . - - 337 Wrightfborough - - - 35 
Tantalus piftus - - - 145 

. albut - - - . - 146 „ 

verlicolor - - . - ib. 

Mud?pljp°nemus ' - k,\Vo Xanthoxylum clava Hcrculis » 
— — nafocylin-'raceoelongato 175 

. various fpe-ivrs of - 277 Y 

Thunder ftorm - - - 13,341 

Tillandfialipgulata - - 59 Yucca gloriofa - - - - JS9 
— — ufr.eaides - - - 85 

Tortoife, great land 18, 180 

. foft Ihelled _ _ . 175 Z 

■—— vajious fpecies of - 277 

Travellirg, mode of " - 438 Zamia pumlla • - - - i6« 


Dire5fions to the Binder. 

Place the Map at the beginning of the work. 

— — Plate I to face - - - - - p. j 3 

. — 2 to follow Plate i . 

— — .— 3 to face .... - 











Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process 
r^leulralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Dec. 2003 



1 1 1 Thomson Park Drive 
Cranberry Township. PA 16066